Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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An alternative bioassay for Synchytrium endobioticum demonstrates the expression of potato wart resistance in aboveground plant parts
Vossenberg, Bart van de; Gent-Pelzer, Marga van; Boerma, M. ; Gouw, Lucas P. van der; Lee, Theo van der; Vossen, Jack - \ 2019
Wageningen University and Research
PRJEB30662 - ERP113139 - Synchytrium endobioticum
The obligate biotrophic chytrid species Synchytrium endobioticum is the causal agent of potato wart disease. Currently 39 pathotypes have been described based on their interaction with a differential set of potato varieties. Wart resistance and pathotyping is performed using bioassays in which etiolated tuber sprouts are inoculated. Here we describe an alternative method in which aboveground plant parts are inoculated. Susceptible plants produced typical wart symptoms in developing, but not in fully expanded, aboveground organs. Colonization of the host by S endobioticum was verified by screening for resting spores by microscopy and by molecular techniques using TaqMan PCR and RNAseq analysis. When applied to resistant plants, none of these symptoms were detectable. Recognition of S. endobioticum pathotypes by differentially resistant potato varieties was identical in aboveground plant parts and the tuber-based bioassays. This suggests that S. endobioticum resistance genes are expressed both in etiolated “belowground” sprouts and green aboveground organs. RNAseq analysis demonstrated that the symptomatic aboveground materials contain less contaminants compared to resting spores extracted from tuber-based assays. This reduced microbial contamination in the aboveground bioassay could be an important advantage to study this obligate biotrophic plant-pathogen interaction. As wart resistance is active in both below and above ground organs, the aboveground bioassay can potentially speed up screening for S. endobioticum resistance in potato breeding programs as it omits the requirement for tuber formation. In addition, possibilities arise to express S. endobioticum effectors in potato leaves through agroinfiltration, thereby providing additional phenotyping tools for research and breeding.
An Alternative Bioassay for Synchytrium endobioticum Demonstrates the Expression of Potato Wart Resistance in Aboveground Plant Parts
Vossenberg, B.T.L.H. van de; Gent-Pelzer, M.P.E. van; Boerma, M. ; Gouw, L.P. van der; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Vossen, J.H. - \ 2019
Phytopathology 109 (2019)6. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 1043 - 1052.
Genetics and resistance - Molecular verification - Mycology - Pathogen proliferation - Plant–pathogen interaction - RNAseq - Species richness - Techniques

The obligate biotrophic chytrid species Synchytrium endobioticum is the causal agent of potato wart disease. Currently, 39 pathotypes have been described based on their interaction with a differential set of potato varieties. Wart resistance and pathotyping is performed using bioassays in which etiolated tuber sprouts are inoculated. Here, we describe an alternative method in which aboveground plant parts are inoculated. Susceptible plants produced typical wart symptoms in developing but not in fully expanded aboveground organs. Colonization of the host by S. endobioticum was verified by screening for resting spores by microscopy and by molecular techniques using TaqMan polymerase chain reaction and RNAseq analysis. When applied to resistant plants, none of these symptoms were detectable. Recognition of S. endobioticum pathotypes by differentially resistant potato varieties was identical in axillary buds and the tuber-based bioassays. This suggests that S. endobioticum resistance genes are expressed in both etiolated “belowground” sprouts and green aboveground organs. RNAseq analysis demonstrated that the symptomatic aboveground materials contain less contaminants compared with resting spores extracted from tuber-based assays. This reduced microbial contamination in the aboveground bioassay could be an important advantage to study this obligate biotrophic plant–pathogen interaction. Because wart resistance is active in both below- and aboveground organs, the aboveground bioassay can potentially speed up screening for S. endobioticum resistance in potato breeding programs because it omits the requirement for tuber formation. In addition, possibilities arise to express S. endobioticum effectors in potato leaves through agroinfiltration, thereby providing additional phenotyping tools for research and breeding.

The linear mitochondrial genome of the quarantine chytrid Synchytrium endobioticum; insights into the evolution and recent history of an obligate biotrophic plant pathogen
Vossenberg, Bart van de; Brankovics, Balázs ; Nguyen, H.D.T. ; Gent-Pelzer, Marga van; Smith, D. ; Przetakiewicz, J. ; Kreuze, J.F. ; Boerma, M. ; Leeuwen, G.C.M. van; André Lévesque, C. ; Lee, Theo van der - \ 2018
Wageningen University and Research
PRJEB24465 - ERP106293 - Synchytrium endobioticum
Species of the Chytridiomycota, also known as chytrids, belong to a basal lineage in the fungal kingdom inhabiting terrestrial and aquatic environments. Most of the described chytrids are free-living saprophytes, but several species cause important diseases. Examples are Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis responsible for the world wide amphibian decline and Synchytrium endobioticum the causal agent of potato wart disease. Synchytrium endobioticum has an obligate biotrophic lifestyle and isolates can be differentiated based on their virulence on a differential set of potato cultivars, referred to as pathotypes. Quarantine measures have been implemented worldwide to control the disease and to prevent its spread. To determine taxonomical relationships, and to gain insights into the evolution and recent history of introductions of this plant pathogen we assembled and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of S. endobioticum and generated mitochondrial genomes for five additional chytrid species. The mitochondrial genome of S. endobioticum pathotype 1(D1) strain MB42 is a linear 72,865 bp molecule with terminal inverted repeats that encodes 14 core genes typically found on fungal mitochondrial genomes. Based on single nucleotide polymorphisms the 30 S. endobioticum isolates sequenced could be clustered in four distinct mitochondrial lineages, indicating multiple introductions of the pest to the European main land. These lineages comprise different pathotypes suggesting that pathotypes 2(G1) and 6(O1) have emerged at least twice independently. Variations for polymorphic sites within a strain were observed demonstrating that S. endobioticum strains represent in fact a community of different genotypes. Such a community was shown to be complex and stable over time, but we also demonstrate that the population may shift rapidly based on selection for virulence on a specific R gene from the host.
The linear mitochondrial genome of the quarantine chytrid Synchytrium endobioticum; insights into the evolution and recent history of an obligate biotrophic plant pathogen
Vossenberg, Bart T.L.H. van de; Brankovics, Balázs ; Nguyen, H.D.T. ; Gent-Pelzer, M.P.E. van; Smith, D. ; Dadej, K. ; Przetakiewicz, J. ; Kreuze, J.F. ; Boerma, M. ; Leeuwen, G.C.M. van; André Lévesque, C. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der - \ 2018
BMC Evolutionary Biology 18 (2018). - ISSN 1471-2148
Background: Chytridiomycota species (chytrids) belong to a basal lineage in the fungal kingdom. Inhabiting terrestrial and aquatic environments, most are free-living saprophytes but several species cause important diseases: e.g. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, responsible for worldwide amphibian decline; and Synchytrium endobioticum, causing potato wart disease. S. endobioticum has an obligate biotrophic lifestyle and isolates can be further characterized as pathotypes based on their virulence on a differential set of potato cultivars. Quarantine measures have been implemented globally to control the disease and prevent its spread. We used a comparative approach using chytrid mitogenomes to determine taxonomical relationships and to gain insights into the evolution and recent history of introductions of this plant pathogen. Results: We assembled and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of 30 S. endobioticum isolates and generated mitochondrial genomes for five additional chytrid species. The mitochondrial genome of S. endobioticum is linear with terminal inverted repeats which was validated by tailing and PCR amplifying the telomeric ends. Surprisingly, no conservation in organisation and orientation of mitochondrial genes was observed among the Chytridiomycota except for S. endobioticum and its sister species Synchytrium microbalum. However, the mitochondrial genome of S. microbalum is circular and comprises only a third of the 72.9 Kbp found for S. endobioticum suggesting recent linearization and expansion. Four mitochondrial lineages were identified in the S. endobioticum mitochondrial genomes. Several pathotypes occur in different lineages, suggesting that these have emerged independently. In addition, variations for polymorphic sites in the mitochondrial genome of individual isolates were observed demonstrating that S. endobioticum isolates represent a community of different genotypes. Such communities were shown to be complex and stable over time, but we also demonstrate that the use of semi-resistant potato cultivars triggers a rapid shift in the mitochondrial haplotype associated with increased virulence. Conclusions: Mitochondrial genomic variation shows that S. endobioticum has been introduced into Europe multiple times, that several pathotypes emerged multiple times, and that isolates represent communities of different genotypes. Our study represents the most comprehensive dataset of chytrid mitogenomes, which provides new insights into the extraordinary dynamics and evolution of mitochondrial genomes involving linearization, expansion and reshuffling.
De duizendpoot van Staatsbosbeheer : De beleving van het tegelijkertijd werken in de binnen- en buitenwereld : de tussenfunctie van beheerders en boswachter
Meijer, J. ; Stobbelaar, D.J. ; Boerma, S. - \ 2015
Velp : Hogeschool VHL - 80
governance - samenleving - sociale netwerken - boswachters - bosbeheer - natuurbeheer - identiteit - functieuitoefening - beroepen - society - social networks - park rangers - forest administration - nature management - identity - job performance - occupations
De tussenfunctie bestaat! De beheerder en boswachter werken als intermediair tussen de organisatie en de buitenwereld. De netwerksamenleving heeft duidelijk invloed op het werk van beheerders en boswachters. Zowel organisatie als buitenwereld hebben doelen en wensen die ze kenbaar maken bij de beheerder en boswachter. Deze beheerder of boswachter moet een modus vinden om met deze soms tegenstrijdige belangen om te gaan. In die positie ervaart hij problemen die persoonlijk, functiegerelateerd en organisatorisch kunnen zijn. Deels zijn deze problemen zogenoemde beroepsdilemma’s, die inherent zijn aan de baan. Maar de meeste problemen zijn in elk geval deels op te lossen door een passender aannamebeleid , beter op te leiden in zowel werk als vooropleiding, en een betere ondersteuning in het dagelijks werk.
Immune responses in Eimeria acervulina infected one-day-old broilers compared to amount of Eimeria in the duodenum, measured by real-time PCR
Swinkels, W.J.C. ; Post, J. ; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J. ; Engel, B. ; Boerma, S. ; Rebel, J.M.J. - \ 2006
Veterinary Parasitology 138 (2006)3-4. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 223 - 233.
vaccination strategies - avian coccidiosis - t-lymphocytes - chickens - quantification - parasites - cell - subpopulations - identification - tenella
T-cell responses are supposed to be the major immune reactions in broilers infected with Eimeria. The nature of such T-cell responses is influenced by the species of Eimeria involved, age of the host, amount of parasites and the preceding infection history. In young chicks the intestine is still developing in length while the lymphocyte populations in the gut develop and differentiate. In chicks infected at young age the immune response may be different in quality as compared to responses in adults. We investigated the (T-cell) immune responses of young broilers to a primary Eimeria acervulina infection in relation to the number of parasites used for infection. In our experiment we infected one-day-old broilers with a low (5 x 10(2) oocysts) and a high (5 x 10(4) oocysts) dose of E. acervulina. We used a newly developed species specific real-time PCR to quantify total amount of parasites in the duodenum as the number of oocysts in faeces may not be representative for the exposure of the gut immune system. We characterized T-cell subsets in the duodenum by means of FACS-analyses, lymphocyte proliferation assays with spleen lymphocytes and the mRNA profiles of different cytokines (TGF-beta2, -4, IFN-gamma, IL-2, -6, -8 and -18) in the duodenum by means of real-time PCR. From day 5 p.i. broilers with a high dose of E. acervulina had a significantly lower body weight than the control group. No increase in CD4(+) cells, but a strong increase in CD8(+) cells was observed at days 7 and 9 p.i. in the duodenum of broilers infected with a high dose E. acervulina. IL-8 mRNA responses were observed after infection with low and with high infection doses, but no IFN-gamma and TGF-beta mRNA responses were found in the duodenum. The specific proliferative T-cell responses to a low infectious dose were not significantly different as compared to the control group. In conclusion, based on the kinetics of observed responses a primary infection with a high dose of E. acervulina in one-day-old broilers seems to generate an immune response that shows a peak at the time of oocyst excretion, whereas the immune response to a low dose is less explicit.
Vijf jaar GIOS
Asselman, G. ; Baarslag, R. ; Beest, N. van; Bliek, P. ; Boerma, S. ; Bonnema, H. ; Braam, P. ; Bruls, E. ; Buijs, E. ; Clement, H. ; Dongen, R. van; Eert, G. van; Ekamper, T. ; Goossens, A. ; Graaf, M. v.d.; Gremmen, T. ; Greven, A. ; Heijer, M. den; Hikma, H. ; Jonkhof, J.F. ; Kaptein, E. ; Korporaal, N. ; Kruijf, H. de; Kuypers, V.H.M. ; Looijenga, J. ; Matijsen, J. ; Menzo, G. ; Mulder, I. ; Nijhof, H. ; Otter, L. den; Paris, C. ; Peeters, N. ; Peletier, P. ; Philippa, M. ; Schenkels, J. ; Stam, S. ; Swart, B. ; Timmermans, W. ; Veldstra, W. ; Verhoef, J. ; Visschedijk, P.A.M. ; Vreke, J. ; Vries, B. de; Wakeren, G. van; Wermenbol, P. ; Wijngaarden, J.W. van; Wit, J. de - \ 2006
Wageningen : Alterra - 99 p.
Kan de vermeerdering van wratziekte worden tegengegaan?
Wander, J.G.N. ; Boerma, M. ; Lamers, J.G. - \ 2003
Kennisakker.nl 2003 (2003)1 juli.
synchytrium endobioticum - plantenziektebestrijding - chitine - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - aardappelen - akkerbouw - synchytrium endobioticum - plant disease control - chitin - plant pathogenic fungi - potatoes - arable farming
Door toepassing van chitine bij het poten van aardappelen neemt de kans op besmetting met wratziekte af. Vooral bij rassen met een vrij laag resistentiecijfer kunnen zodoende grote problemen (besmetverklaring) voorkomen worden.
Fysioverschillen bij poederschurft in aardappelen niet aangetoond
Bus, C.B. ; Boerma, M. - \ 2001
PPO-bulletin akkerbouw 5 (2001)14. - ISSN 1385-5301 - p. 2 - 5.
spongospora subterranea - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - fysiologische rassen - aardappelen - solanum tuberosum - knollen - symptomen - plantenziekten - afwijkingen, planten - cultivars - rassen (planten) - rassenproeven - schimmelziekten - schurft (bij dieren) - veldproeven - fabrieksaardappelen - plant pathogenic fungi - physiological races - potatoes - tubers - symptoms - plant diseases - plant disorders - varieties - variety trials - fungal diseases - field tests - ? - starch potatoes
Vijf aardappelrassen werden twee jaar lang (1998 en 1999) onderzocht op poederschurftaantasting (Spongospora subterranea) op vier verschillende locaties in het zetmeelaardappeltelend gebied in Noordoost-Nederland (Veenkoloniën). Dit om aan te tonen of er fysioverschillen zijn in poederschurftpopulaties tussen proefplaatsen. De gemiddelde aantasting op de knollen per locatie en per ras, en de voorkomende poederschurftsymptomen (verschillend per ras maar niet per locatie), geeft geen aanleiding te veronderstellen dat er fysioverschillen zijn in S. subterranea
Er is een relatie tussen calciumgehalte en tolerantie
Haverkort, A.J. ; Ruijter, F. de; Boerma, M. ; Waart, M. van de - \ 1996
Aardappelwereld 50 (1996)12. - ISSN 0169-653X - p. 51 - 53.
calcium - cultivars - vroegheid - heteroderidae - nematoda - plantenveredeling - aardappelen - pratylenchus - rassen (taxonomisch) - bodem - solanum tuberosum - tylenchidae - rassen (planten) - earliness - plant breeding - potatoes - races - soil - varieties
Foliar calcium concentration of potato and its relation to genotype lateness and tolerance of cyst nematodes
Haverkort, A.J. ; Ruijter, F. de; Boerma, M. ; Waart, M. van de - \ 1996
European Journal of Plant Pathology 102 (1996). - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 317 - 324.
4e Beschrijvende Rassenlijst voor Siergewassen: Bloemisterijgewassen 1994-95
Boerma, T.M. ; Rijbroek, P.C.L. van - \ 1995
Hilversum : De Boer Mailing Service - 236 p.
Total and HDL-cholesterol in the Netherlands: 1987-1992. Levels and changes over time in relation to age, gender and education level.
Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Boerma, G.J. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 1994
International Journal of Epidemiology 23 (1994). - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 948 - 956.
Bedrijfssystemenonderzoek Borgerswold : Invulling gewijzigde voortzetting vanaf 1991 = Farming systems research Borgerswold
Boerma, J. ; Hofmeester, Y. - \ 1992
Lelystad : PAGV (Verslag / Proefstation voor de Akkerbouw en de Groenteteelt in de Vollegrond nr. 146) - 53
CAESAR: evaluation of the dual-look concept.
Looyen, W.J. ; Verhoef, W. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. ; Lamers, J.G. ; Boerma, J. - \ 1991
Unknown Publisher - 144 p.
Transmission of potato leafroll virus from plants and artificial diets by Myzus persicae.
Heuvel, J.F.J.M. van den; Boerma, T.M. ; Peters, D. - \ 1991
Phytopathology 81 (1991). - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 150 - 154.
The methodology of literature research and the education of users in database utilization.
Arnold, C.A. ; Boerma, E.J. - \ 1990
In: Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Food science and technology information, Budapest, 1989. Agroinform/IFIS, FSTA ref. ser. 10 - p. 91 - 104.
Measurements on directional reflectance and acquisition of stereo information by CAESAR.
Looyen, W.J. ; Verhoef, W. ; Clevers, J.G.P.W. ; Lamers, J. ; Boerma, J. - \ 1990
In: IGARSS '90, Washington, DC - p. 1955 - 1958.
Literature/information use and information management: education, methodology and practical implications.
Arnold, C.A. ; Boerma, E.J. - \ 1990
In: Proc. Int. Seminar Information management, practice and education. OMIKK, Budapest. part 1 - p. 207 - 220.
The library, information services and user education and the aims of the University: the contribution of the methodology of (literature) research.
Arnold, C.A. ; Boerma, E.J. - \ 1990
IATUL Quarterly 4 (1990)2. - p. 55 - 64.
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