Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities
Marko, V. ; Bogya, S. ; Kondorosy, E. ; Blommers, L.H.M. - \ 2010
International Journal of Pest Management 56 (2010)3. - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 189 - 199.
pest-management systems - arthropod - aphid - coccinellidae - insecticide - assemblages - populations - pesticides - coleoptera - hungary
The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abundance and species richness of the communities and also altered their composition and diversity. The treatments disrupted many non-target groups notably mycophagous, predacious and tourist beetles, zoophagous bugs and spiders. Among spiders, wanderer spiders (Thomisidae, Philodromidae) were most affected, whereas web building spiders (Dictynidae) were least affected. After ceasing the applications in July, the between-treatment differences in composition of all communities and diversity of heteropterans and spiders diminished while the differences in abundance and species richness remained for a long time, until the end of September. Many predator species with good colonisation ability recovered slowly after the treatments, mainly due to the scarcity of prey.
Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid
Markó, V. ; Blommers, L.H.M. ; Bogya, S. ; Helsen, H.H.M. - \ 2008
Journal of Applied Entomology 132 (2008)1. - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 26 - 35.
dysaphis-plantaginea - autumn kaolin - management - orchards - arthropod - homoptera - behavior - insecticides - lepidoptera - tortricidae
Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis pomi) colonies. The kaolin treatments reduced the apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea) fruit infestation on cultivar J. Grieve, and the fruit damage caused by oyster scale (Quadraspidiotus ostreaeformis), mussel scale (Lepidosaphes ulmi), early caterpillars, leaf rolling moths (Tortricidae), fruitlet-mining tortrix moth (Pammene rhediella) and codling moth (Cydia pomonella). There was no effect on the number of colonies of rosy leaf curling aphid (Dysaphis devecta), nor on the fruit damage caused by common earwig (Forficula auricularia) and apple sawfly on cv. G. Delicious. The level of infestation of rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea), leaf miner moths (Phyllonorycter blancardella, Lyonetia clerkella), and agromyzid flies (Phytomyza heringiana) increased in the kaolin-treated plots. Kaolin treatments promoted woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) infestation, which became severe, while it reduced the abundance of polyphagous predators like F. auricularia, predaceous Heteroptera and Coleoptera, the red velvet mite (Allothrombium fuliginosum), spiders (Araneae) and the abundance of common black ant (Lasius niger). The treatments also reduced parasitism of the apple sawfly by the ichneumonid Lathrolestes ensator. Many weeks after ending the kaolin treatments, the number of predaceous Coleoptera and especially the number of spiders remained low in the kaolin-treated plots.
Effect of pest management systems on foliage- and grass-dwelling spider communities in an apple orchard in Hungary
Bogya, S. ; Marko, V. ; Szinetár, C. - \ 2000
International Journal of Pest Management 46 (2000). - ISSN 0967-0874 - p. 241 - 250.
Spider communities (Araneae) inhabiting the canopy, the herbaceous layer and the borders, as well as the populations overwintering on the tree trunks of different aged IPM and conventional apple orchards were investigated in Hungary. Abundance and species richness of entire spider communities in IPM plots were significantly higher than in conventional plots, probably owing to the lower toxicity of pesticides used and higher prey densities. In the case of abundance, similar tendencies were observed in web-building and hunting spider guilds. Age of plantations can significantly influence spider density in the canopy, acting through the prey density. In young plantations, where size of the canopy was smaller and density of the pear lace bug (Stephanitis pyri L.) higher, significantly higher numbers of hunting spider communities were present than in old plantations which had been similarly treated. This relationship was not observed for web-building spiders. Diversity of canopy-inhabiting spider communities was higher in old plots, regardless of the treatments. The effect of the border of the orchard on spider communities was investigated and it was found that when selective insecticides were used, migration of spiders into orchards was increased significantly. When broad-spectrum insecticides were applied, spider densities in the canopy did not differ between outer and inner rows of the orchards. The effect of the treatments and orchard age, both on abundance and species richness of overwintering spider communities on the trunk, showed the same result as for canopy spiders, namely significantly larger spider communities were found in IPM plots and in the young plantation than in conventionally-treated plots and in the old plantation. Broad-spectrum insecticides reduced abundance and species richness of spider communities in the herbaceous layer of the conventionally-treated plot. At the same time, the spider communities of the herbaceous layer of the IPM plot did not differ significantly from adjacent herbaceous plants. A significant overlap exists between spider communities of the canopy and herbaceous layer. Despite chemical treatments, migration from the herbaceous layer into the canopy occurs. The effects of chemical treatments on the dominant species are discussed. There were no significant differences between the differently treated plots in abundance of one of the dominant species Oxyopes heterophthalmus Latreille. However, the other dominant species, Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was more abundant in the IPM plots.
|Species composition of spider (Araneae) assemblages in apple and pear orchards in the Carpathian Basin
Bogya, S. ; Szinetár, C.S. ; Markó, V. - \ 1999
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 34 (1999). - ISSN 0238-1249 - p. 99 - 121.
Spiders (Araneae) as polyphagous natural enemies in orchards
Bogya, S. - \ 1999
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J.C. van Lenteren; P.J.M. Mols. - S.l. : Bogya - ISBN 9789058080370 - 189
boomgaarden - araneae - natuurlijke vijanden - insectenplagen - acari - landbouwkundige entomologie - orchards - araneae - natural enemies - insect pests - acari - agricultural entomology
Spiders (Araneae) occur in high abundance in all terrestrial ecosystems including agro-ecosystems. They are a very heterogeneous group of animals with different hunting tactics and therefore they play very different ecological roles. At family level these tactics are rather similar thus properties and behaviour found in different species of one family can be seen as characteristic for the whole family. Especially in orchards little is known about their role and probably it is undervalued. Therefore a comprehensive review (based on about 500 articles) of spiders as natural enemies of pest species of different crops was made resulting in information about the expected prey spectrum at family level. A qualitative evaluation of pest-spider relationship was carried out for a whole range of agro-ecosystems and the results are transposed to spider groups inhabiting the orchard ecosystems.
In a fundamental research project on integrated plant protection in orchards in Hungary (Apple Ecosystem Research) more than 2000 animal species were described for apple orchards. Until now the spiders were not studied in this project. The aim of this study is to describe the species richness and dominance order of spider communities inhabiting the canopy and the herbaceous-layer of apple and pear orchards in Hungary. Altogether 20283 individuals were collected belonging to 165 identifiable species. Considerable overlap has been observed between the spider fauna of apple and pear orchards.
Special attention is paid to the differences in spider fauna of orchards situated in different growing regions, because this knowledge can contribute to improve regional IPM programs. The great differences indicated that the composition of spider communities is basically determined by geographical locations. Although both the pesticide treatments and the different prey densities can significantly influence the densities of spiders, their effects on the composition of spider communities is limited.
The effect of conventional (based on broad-spectrum insecticides, e.g. OP's and pyrethroids) and integrated (based on selective chemicals, mainly IGR's) pest management systems on the canopy, herbaceous-layer and ground level inhabiting spider communities was investigated. The results lead to the conclusion that in case of applying integrated pest management there are possibilities to develop more complex spider communities. The negative effect of broad-spectrum compounds on spiders can be observed only on the canopy and to a lesser extent on the herbaceous-layer but not at the ground level. Regardless the pesticide treatments the composition of spider communities was similar.
The age of the orchards can significantly influence the spider density in the canopy through the prey density. In young (more vigorous) orchards, where the size of the canopy was smaller and the density of the pear lace bug ( Stephanitis pyri ) higher, significantly more complex hunting spider communities were present than in the same treated old orchards. This relationship was not observed in case of the guild web-building spiders. At the same time the diversity of the canopy inhabiting spider communities was higher in the old orchards, regardless of the chemical treatments.
The effect of the border of orchards on spider communities was investigated and it was found, that if selective insecticides were used the immigration into the orchards was significantly higher. While in case of applying broad-spectrum insecticides the canopy spider densities did not differ significantly between the outer rows and the interior rows of the orchards.
A considerable overlap exists between the spider communities of the canopy, the herbaceous-layer and the adjacent vegetation. Despite chemical treatments, exchange of individuals occurs and provides possibilities for re-colonization of spiders in the orchards from the herbaceous-layer and from the surroundings after pesticide treatments.
The most promising group of spiders in orchards is the clubionid spiders (Clubionidae) with as dominant species: Clubiona pallidula , Clubiona phragmitis , Cheiracanthium mildei . These spiders actively hunt on vegetation and never make a web for catching prey. Some species are winter-active, move and even hunt in winter. The low feeding rate in winter months at low temperature indicates that the winter-feeding will be of minor importance for natural pest control. In early spring when most of the other predators and parasitoids are not yet active, these spiders prey on pests that overwintered in the orchard like larvae of leafrollers (Tortricidae) and have a significant effect on suppression of pest populations.
Considerable predation by spiders was observed of the key pear pest, the pear suckers ( Cacopsylla spp .) and of the pear lace bug ( Stephanitis pyri ) common in IPM orchards in the vegetative period. In the latter case it was observed that the clubionid spider Ch. mildei showed a positive numerical response to prey density in the field, indicating density dependent mortality resulting in a better natural control.
The predatory capacity of clubionid spiders was estimated to be 3.3 mg at 10 °C to 5.7 mg at 20 °C per day with a model based on digestion and egestion characteristics. This indicates a daily potential killing rate of 3-6 small (L 1 -L 3 ) caterpillars of leafrollers depending on temperature. The size of the population in an untreated apple orchard was estimated to be 60.000 clubionids / ha (22 per tree) by mark-recapture method using double-release protocol in spring. These two findings indicate that spiders can be important in reduction of orchard pests, indeed.
The data provided in this thesis indicate that the role of spiders as natural control agents in orchards can be augmented. In orchards where Integrated Pest Management is applied, and where the use of broad-spectrum pesticides is minimized, an excellent possibility is available to develop more complex and abundant spider communities, which can contribute to a better suppression of pests.
|The role of spiders as predators of insect pests with particular reference to orchards: A review.
Bogya, S. ; Mols, P.J.M. - \ 1996
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 31 (1996). - ISSN 0238-1249 - p. 83 - 159.
|Ingestion, gut emptying and respiration rates of Clubionid spiders (Araneae: Clubionidae) occurring in orchards.
Bogya, S. ; Mols, P.J.M. - \ 1995
Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 30 (1995). - ISSN 0238-1249 - p. 291 - 299.