Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Identity as a weapon for peacebuilding : Strategies and practices of the indigenous guard from Northern Cauca, Columbia
Chaves Pérez, Paola - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N. Aarts, co-promotor(en): S. van Bommel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951777 - 213
The power of narratives: Explaining inaction on gender mainstreaming in Uganda's climate change policy
Acosta, M.F. ; Wessel, M.G.J. van; Bommel, S. van; Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Jassogne, Laurence ; Feindt, P.H. - \ 2019
Development Policy Review (2019). - ISSN 0950-6764 - p. 1 - 27.
Expectations that gender‐mainstreaming efforts would effectively advance gender equality have been disappointed in contemporary sub‐Saharan Africa. Examining this apparent disconnect, we focus on the narratives through which policy‐makers relate to, and dis/engage with, gender issues. Using in‐depth interviews and stakeholder meetings, our multi‐step analysis identifies story episodes from which we reconstruct stories and narratives. The analysis reveals a complex ecology of 22 stories, clustered in five main narratives. While most stories unfold a gender equality narrative, four competing narratives emerge. Shifts during conversations from the gender equality to other narratives reveal that the discursive engagement with gender mainstreaming is accompanied by simultaneous resistance, deconstruction and revocation. These narrative shifts exercise four distinct power effects: They (1) shift blame for ineffective gender implementation; (2) legitimize policy inaction; (3) foreground and naturalize patriarchy; and (4) promote the diversion of resources. The implicit communicative strategies exercise power through ideas (persuade listeners that the equality narrative is inappropriate), power over ideas (gender equality ideas are rejected or frustrated) and power in ideas (entrenched patriarchy ideas are reproduced). Attention to ideational power through policy narrative contributes to explain implementation issues with gender mainstreaming in Uganda, and is likely to be relevant beyond this case.
What does it Mean to Make a ‘Joint’ Decision? Unpacking Intra-household Decision Making in Agriculture: Implications for Policy and Practice
Acosta, Mariola ; Wessel, M. van; Bommel, Severine Van; Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Twyman, Jennifer ; Jassogne, Laurence ; Feindt, Peter H. - \ 2019
Journal of Development Studies (2019). - ISSN 0022-0388

Strategies to empower women in development contexts frequently address their authority to take decisions within their household, including decisions that are taken jointly by couples. Assessing empowerment in joint decision-making has traditionally followed a dichotomous approach: decisions are either joint or not, with the former associated with women’s empowerment. This paper contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the empowerment effects of joint decision-making, based on case study data from Uganda. We present survey data revealing significant gender differences in perception of decision-making over the adoption of agricultural practices and consumption expenses. Women reported joint decision-making more often than men, who presented themselves more as sole decision makers. We supplement the survey data with an in-depth study in Lodi village, where we reconstruct meanings attached to joint decision-making using focus group discussions, a decision-making game and participant observation. Reported joint decision-making included a range of practices from no conversation among partners to conversations where female spouse’s ideas are considered but the man has the final say. The findings suggest that local interpretations of joint decision-making, in at least this case of a dominantly patriarchal context, can limit its potential for assessing women’s empowerment.

From first to last bite: Temporal dynamics of sensory and hedonic perceptions using a multiple-intake approach
Bommel, Roelien van; Stieger, Markus ; Boelee, Nicole ; Schlich, Pascal ; Jager, G. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293
Composite food - Multiple-intake assessment - Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) - Temporal drivers of liking (TDL)

Sensory perceptions evolve over time. Evaluation of sensory and hedonic perceptions after one bite are common. However, single bite assessments do not represent normal eating behaviour as consumers eat food portions with multiple bites. We hypothesise that dynamics of sensations and hedonics not only evolve within a bite but also evolve over bites. This study aims to investigate the temporal dynamics of sensations and hedonic perceptions using multiple-intake assessment employing Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and Alternated Temporal Drivers of Liking (A-TDL). Seventy-six participants evaluated six yogurts with granola pieces varying in size, hardness and concentration. An attentional shift was observed from yogurt attributes (creamy and sour) in the beginning of each mouthful to granola attributes (sweet, wheat and sticky) at the end of each mouthful. Sticky sensations gradually increased in dominance duration from the first to the fifth mouthful for five of six yogurts demonstrating the built up of dominance of this attribute. Creamy, crunchy and sweet were observed to be positive drivers of liking, consequently increasing liking. Sour and sticky were negative drivers of liking, decreasing liking upon dominance of these attributes. We conclude that consumer's sensory perception of food products changes from bite to bite. Our findings indicate that multiple-intake evaluations of dynamic sensations provide additional information about food perception, such as the built up of sensations from bite to bite. These changes in sensations cannot be captured by single bite assessments.

Discursive translations of gender mainstreaming norms : The case of agricultural and climate change policies in Uganda
Acosta, Mariola ; Bommel, Severine van; Wessel, Margit van; Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Jassogne, Laurence ; Feindt, Peter H. - \ 2019
Women's Studies International Forum 74 (2019). - ISSN 0277-5395 - p. 9 - 19.
Gender mainstreaming - Norm domestication - Norm translation - Transformational potential - Uganda

While the international norm on gender mainstreaming, UN-backed since 1995, has been widely adopted in national policies, gender inequalities are rarely systematically addressed on the ground. To explain this limited effectiveness, this paper takes a discourse analytical perspective on gender policy and budgeting, with a focus on the translation of the international norm into domestic norms and policies. An in-depth, inductive analysis of 107 policy documents in Uganda examines how the gender mainstreaming norm has been translated at three administrative levels: national, district, sub-county. The analysis finds five processes that reduce the norm's transformational potential: neglecting gender discourse, gender inertia, shrinking gender norms, embracing discursive hybridity and minimizing budgets. Overall, gender mainstreaming largely stopped at the discursive level, and often paradoxically depoliticized gender. The findings explain why gender mainstreaming might be helpful but not sufficient for advancing gender equality and suggest additional focus on promising practices, women's rights movements and stronger monitoring.

Dutch consumers do not hesitate : Capturing implicit ‘no dominance’ durations using Hold-down Temporal Dominance methodologies for Sensations (TDS) and Emotions (TDE)
Bommel, Roelien van; Stieger, Markus ; Schlich, Pascal ; Jager, Gerry - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 332 - 342.
Chocolates - Dynamic sensory measurements - No dominance duration time - Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE) - Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS)

In the ‘classic’ Temporal Dominance (TD) method, panellists are instructed to select a dominant attribute, which remains dominant until another attribute is selected. This procedure does not allow recording ‘no dominance (ND)’. ND periods can occur because of indecisive selection behaviour due to hesitation or uncertainty about attribute selection and time needed to switch from one attribute to another. ND periods may create noise in TD data. ND can be recorded implicitly using a ‘Hold-down’ procedure, where panellists actively hold down the attribute button that is perceived dominant, but release it when no longer dominant. The ‘Hold-down’ procedure allows subjects to report indecisive behaviour simply by not holding down a button. This study compared the ‘classic’ and ‘Hold-down’ TD methodologies. One hundred and thirty-seven participants evaluated four dark chocolates in two sessions, one for sensory (TDS) and one for emotion (TDE) evaluations. Participants employed either classic (n = 68) or Hold-down (n = 69) TD following a between subjects design. Similar dominance rates and dynamic evolutions of attributes during consumption were observed for both methods. ND durations between attribute selections were shorter than 1 s during sensory and emotion evaluations. Such short ND durations unlikely reflect periods of true hesitation, but rather reflect the time needed to switch between dominant attributes. No evidence is found for Hold-down TD outperforming classic TD in terms of sensitivity and discrimination ability. In conclusion, irrespective of the conceptual likelihood regarding the occurrence of ‘no dominance’ periods, the present study failed to demonstrate moments of hesitation using the ‘Hold-down’ procedure.

Eindrapport invloed van maïs-rassen op het foerageergedrag van dassen : Variatie in gewasschade
Thissen, J. ; Bommel, Frans van; Groten, J.A.M. ; Haye, M.J.J. la - \ 2018
Nijmegen : Zoogdiervereniging VZZ - 35 p.
Trust at a distance
Vries, J.R. de; Bommel, S. van; Peters, K. - \ 2018
Citizen science for development : Potential role of mobile phones in information sharing on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Laikipia, Kenya
Chepkwony, Richard ; Bommel, Severine van; Langevelde, Frank van - \ 2018
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 86-87 (2018). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 123 - 135.
Diseases - Empowerment - EVOCA - Human–wildlife conflicts - Insecurity - Mobile phones

Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) constitute a lethal and widespread problem in many tropical areas, with major ramifications for livestock production, wildlife management, and human health and livelihoods. Despite various control strategies applied, TTBDs remain a complex problem, and integrated approaches must be developed to control them effectively. To address this problem, Wageningen University and Research established an interdisciplinary project in 2015 – Environmental Virtual Observatories for Connective Actions (EVOCA) – that focuses, among other things, on mobile phone-based information sharing platforms for TTBDs in Kenya. This study in Laikipia, a semi-arid savanna area of Kenya, is designed to (i) identify issues that complicate effective TTBD control, (ii) explore whether and how local people use mobile phones to address problems, including TTBDs, and (iii) reflect on what citizen science can contribute to the development of mobile phone-based platforms for TTBDs. The study, conducted between November 2016 and August 2017, adopted a mixed-methods approach comprising 21 interviews, field observations, document reviews, and a workshop. Results suggest that the TTBD problem is compounded by a combination of local issues. Insecurity, human–wildlife conflicts, and occurrences of notifiable zoonotic diseases are among the most pressing issues that affect people and influence the kind of information that they share using mobile phones. The motivation to share information on insecurity and human–wildlife conflicts stems from the urgent need for people to collaborate and facilitate prompt action by the security agencies and expectations of compensation from the government for wildlife damages, respectively. Mobile phone adoption rate in Laikipia is ∼70%, suggesting that mobile phones (simple and smart) are widely used for various socioeconomic activities: to communicate with family members and friends and to access information on pressing issues, forming issue-based networks of communication. The widespread use of mobile phones for economic activities such as businesses and banking services have empowered people economically, improving their livelihoods, whereas those without access are probably excluded (disconnected). This study suggests that, despite the widespread adoption of mobile phones, sharing information on TTBDs does not seem to be a major priority for Laikipia residents, as other issues such as insecurity or human–wildlife conflicts take precedence. The design of mobile phone platforms and citizen science for TTBDs should consider such confounding factors to connect with the issues affecting local people.

Trust at a distance-trust in online communication in environmental and global health research projects
Vries, Jasper R. de; Bommel, Séverine van; Peters, Karin - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
Ability - Collaboration - Integrity - Online - Trust - Virtual teams

Online collaboration to deal with (global) environmental and public health problems continues to grow as the quality of technology for communication improves. In these collaborations, trust is seen as important for sustainable collaborations and organizations. However, face-to-face communication, which is often lacking in these contexts, is seen as a pre-requisite for trust development. Therefore, this paper aims to explore empirically which factors influence the emergence of trust in the early stages of online collaboration. Using the relevant literature, we conducted a series of interviews around projects in the field of public health and the environment on the interface between science and practice. The results show that trust does develop between participants. This trust is strongly influenced by perceived ability and integrity, fostered by reputation, third-party perceptions, and project structure. In these contexts, these types of trust facilitate collaboration but are also influenced by a wider set of aspects such as power, expectations, and uncertainty. However, from the results we also conclude that online collaboration does not create benevolence and a shared identity, thereby limiting further trust development and leading to less strong relations. Strong relations, however, are deemed important to reach creative and innovative solutions and long-term sustainable collaboration and organizations.

Discourse-Framing-Storytelling. How do they differ and relate?
Vries, J.R. de; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Metze, T.A.P. ; Bommel, S. van; Hulst, Merlijn van; Ostaijen, Mark van - \ 2017
Hoe de implementatiekloof te dichten? Een analyse voor perspectieven in het overstromingsbeleid
Coninx, I. - \ 2017
KU Leuven. Promotor(en): Marleen, prof. dr. Brans. - Leuven : KU Leuven - 316 p.
Als overheidsbeleid de gestelde doelen niet haalt, dan is er sprake van een implementatiekloof (Laurian & Crawford, 2016). Ook het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid lijkt een implementatiekloof te kennen, want ondanks een palet aan preventieve, effectgerichte en curatieve overstromingsmaatregelen wordt de schade door overstromingen jaarlijks nog op zo een 50 miljoen euro geschat (Brouwers et al., 2015). Implementatie is in feite gedrag (O'Toole Jr, 2000; Robichau & Lynn Jr, 2009) en gedrag wordt ingegeven door houdingen (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Daarom wil dit onderzoek nagaan of houdingen van betrokken beleidsactoren een rol spelen bij de implementatie van overstromingsmaatregelen (hoofdstuk 2). Beleidsactoren van 26 organisaties of groepen geven het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid een echt multiactor-, multisector- en multilevelkarakter (hoofdstuk 1). Het onderzoek beantwoordt enkele vragen over houdingen, zoals of ze een rol spelen bij de uitvoering, welke verschillende houdingen er zijn, hoe die houdingen bepaald worden en wat de dominante evaluatiecriteria zijn. Op basis van die inzichten worden mechanismen ontwikkeld om de implementatiekloof te dichten. Vervolgens worden perspectieven voor het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid beschreven. De analyse vond plaats voor 15 overstromingsmaatregelen bij 347 actoren en in 3 casegebieden in Vlaanderen. Dit gebeurde via verschillende dataverzameling- en data-analysemethoden om triangulatie op vele fronten te waarborgen (hoofdstuk 3).De analyse toont dat houdingen een rol spelen, want veel beleidsactoren staan nog negatief tegenover bepaalde overstromingsmaatregelen met een ruimtelijke impact (hoofdstuk 4). Diverse ‘evaluatiecriteria’ – criteria, gebruikt om houding te bepalen tijdens de evaluatieve afweging – bepalen die houdingen. Ten eerste worden houdingen gevormd door belangen en hebben mensen een positieve houding ten aanzien van maatregelen die hun baten opleveren (Gintis, 2000; Henrich et al., 2001; Jager, Janssen, De Vries, De Greef, & Vlek, 2000; Persky, 1995). Ten tweede worden houdingen bepaald door waarden, wat richtinggevende principes zijn van wat volgens de mens wenselijk en juist is (Kempton, Boster, & Hartley, 1995). Men heeft positieve houding ten aanzien van maatregelen die in lijn liggen met zijn waarden. Ten derde worden houdingen gevormd door denkkaders en percepties (Bartlett, 1932; Benford & Snow, 2000; Berger & Luckmann, 1966). Dat zijn cognitieve voorstellingen die gebruikt worden om betekenis te geven aan informatie (Buijs, 2009b; Minsky, 1975). Percepties spelen altijd een rol bij houdingbepaling, zo blijkt ook uit de analyse (hoofdstuk 5).De combinatie van evaluatiecriteria vormt een verhaallijn, die toe te kennen is aan elk van de actoren. Elke overstromingsmaatregel kent verschillende verhaallijnen. Hoe meer verhaallijnen, hoe meer divers de evaluatiecriteria die elke actor gebruikt. In dit onderzoek is vooral nagegaan waar spanning optreedt tussen de verhaallijnen en welke evaluatiecriteria aan de basis liggen van de negatieve houdingen (hoofdstuk 5). In het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid verklaren vooral percepties en waarden de implementatiekloof. Zelfs over het huidige beleidsparadigma ‘ruimte voor water’ bestaan er twee verschillende percepties: ‘ruimte maken’ en ‘ruimte vinden’ voor water. Die twee percepties weerspiegelen de bereidheid van mensen om het huidige ruimtegebruik aan te passen. Die percepties en andere fundamentele verschillen houden de uitvoering van het overstromingsbeleid in de tang. Het valt op dat binnen één actorgroep veel verschillende verhaallijnen te vinden zijn. Dat leidt tot vragen of het systeem van sectorale vertegenwoordiging in de CIW en de bekkenraden wel goed genoeg kan werken.Er is ook gekeken welk type evaluatiecriteria de actoren vooral gebruiken om houding te bepalen. De meeste actoren laten zich leiden door hun waarden. Alleen de sector ‘landbouw’ en actoren van het Vlaamse/nationale niveau gebruiken vooral belangengerichte evaluatiecriteria (hoofdstuk 6).Wetende dat houdingen een rol spelen bij de implementatiekloof, rest de vraag welke mechanismen kunnen helpen om de implementatiekloof te dichten? Allereerst is het raadzaam om de actoren die een rol spelen bij de uitvoering, al te betrekken bij het interactieve beleidsontwikkelingsproces. Door interactie en cocreatie worden nieuwe inzichten ontwikkeld, kennis uitgewisseld en belangen, waarden en percepties gedeeld (Ter Haar, Aarts, & Verhoeven, 2016). Als bestaande verhaallijnen beter op elkaar afgestemd geraken of mensen verschuiven naar één dominante verhaallijn, dan helpt dat om de implementatiekloof te voorkomen (Hajer, 2005). Bij de uitvoering van de maatregelen helpen interactieve beleidsinstrumenten om gezamenlijke actie tot stand te brengen. Dat is iets dat niet snel gebeurd wanneer beleidsinstrumenten zoals gezag of geld worden ingezet. (Tabel 1: mechanismen om implementatiekloof te dichten) Er wordt vastgesteld dat nog maar weinig van die mechanismen ingebouwd werden in het overstromingsbeleid, aangezien een betekenisvolle proportie actoren zich nog bevindt in de verhaallijn die overeenkomt met het ‘oude paradigma’ van ‘strijden tegen water’. Om de verschillen tussen de evaluatiecriteria te kennen, is het aan te raden om de verhaallijnen te verkennen via interviews en analyse van documenten (= mapping van verhaallijnen) (Kolkman, Veen, & Geurts, 2007).Wetenschap kan een rol spelen bij het dichten van de implementatiekloof, vooral als die verklaard wordt door percepties (Leeuwis & Aarts, 2016; Van Bommel, Röling, Aarts, & Turnhout, 2009), op voorwaarde dat de betrokken actoren de wetenschappelijke kennis beschouwen als gelegitimeerd, geloofwaardig en begrijpelijk (Cash et al., 2003). Anders zal de kennis in twijfel getrokken of zelfs misbruikt worden om specifieke verhaallijnen te ontkrachten. Bovendien zijn er ook andere typen van kennis dan louter wetenschappelijke. ‘Boundary organisations’ kunnen wetenschappelijke kennis inbrengen en zo de implementatiekloof dichten (Guston, 2001). Men moet er wel bewust van zijn dat machtsrelaties het succes van de genoemde mechanismen kunnen beïnvloeden (Van Bommel et al., 2009).Op basis van deze mechanismen zijn vervolgens perspectieven voor de verdere ontwikkeling van het overstromingsbeleid geformuleerd. Het eerste perspectief richt zich op het versterken van bestaande overstromingsmaatregelen via beperkte interventies zoals participatieve monitoring en bespreken en communiceren van (wetenschappelijk) bevindingen. Het tweede perspectief omvat meer ingrijpende interventies, zoals de formele introductie van meerlaagse veiligheid in het beleid, de versterking van de dialoog tussen verhaallijnen in de bekkenorganen en maatregelen om te komen tot een passende verantwoordelijkheidsverdeling tussen overheid en burger, zoals een meerjarig pilotprogramma. De resultaten van dat pilotprogramma kunnen dan geformaliseerd worden in beleidsdocumenten.De algemene conclusie is dat houdingen van betrokken actoren één van de verklaringen kunnen zijn voor een implementatiekloof. Het onderzoek laat zien dat die houdingen kunnen verschillen, maar ook dat houdingen veranderlijk zijn. Daarom is actieve sturing op die houdingverandering een absolute must voor het beleid om zo de implementatiekloof te dichten en zelfs te voorkomen.
Where there is no history : How to create trust and connection in learning for transformation in water governance
Vries, Jasper R. de; Bommel, Séverine van; Blackmore, Chris ; Asano, Yoshiko - \ 2017
Water 9 (2017)2. - ISSN 2073-4441
Climate change adaptation and water governance (CADWAGO) - Knowledge sharing and use - Social learning - Swift trust - Trust dynamics

Trust is often seen as an important element in settings of knowledge sharing and the co-creation of knowledge for dealing with transformations in water governance. However, seemingly similar conversations during a co-creation workshop in Uppsala resulted in both trust and distrust, and thereby influenced consequent possibilities for the co-creation of knowledge. Therefore, this article focuses on how trust influences knowledge sharing and how knowledge sharing influences trust. We use a case study approach to analyze the Uppsala co-creation workshop-part of the Climate Change Adaptation and Water Governance (CADWAGO) project-by comparing 25 conversations, making use of theories on swift trust and trust dynamics. We found four different conversation patterns (1) sending; (2) defending; (3) misunderstanding; and (4) connecting. The first three patterns influenced trust negatively and did not lead to knowledge sharing, whereas pattern four showed trust development and co-creation of knowledge. From our comparative analyses, we conclude that trust starts to emerge when there is mutual openness and empathy visible in turn-taking patterns. More specifically, trust emerges when communication styles allow for recognition and exploring underlying needs and wishes, resulting in a more dynamic dialogue, further trust development, and connection between actors. Our list of conversation patterns is provisional but we argue that understanding how different kinds of interactions can lead to trust or distrust is crucial to understanding why and how learning takes place-insights that are essential for fostering learning and transformations in water governance.

Where there is no history
Vries, J.R. de; Bommel, S. van; Blackmore, C. - \ 2016
Performing and orchestrating governance learning for systemic transformation in practice for climate change adaptation
Bommel, Séverine van; Blackmore, Chris ; Foster, Natalie ; Vries, Jasper de - \ 2016
Outlook on Agriculture 45 (2016)4. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 231 - 237.
Climate change adaptation - Social learning

Barriers to climate change adaptation might not lie so much in ‘gaps’ in scientific or technical understandings but rather in the complexities of social, institutional and cultural transitions in climate change governance. Effective responses to complex environmental issues seem to require ‘co-learning for systemic governance transformations’. However, this process remains poorly understood. This article analyses the performance and orchestration of governance learning for systemic transformation in practice, drawing on examples from the international climate change adaptation and water governance (CADWAGO) project. We show that in these examples the interplay of ‘separating’ and ‘connecting’ is central to transforming governance in the European water management landscape. The article concludes that an orientation to boundary work and co-production of knowledge contributes to scientific narratives that can inspire meaningful connective action and move complex socioecological systems into a more sustainable trajectory.

Onderzoekers WUR testen emotie proefpersonen tijdens eten chocolade
Bommel, M.R.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University & Research
Onderzoekers WUR testen emotie proefpersonen tijdens eten chocolade
Engineers at the Patient’s Bedside: : The Case of Silence in Inter-institutional Educational Innovation
Verouden, Nick ; Sanden, M.C.A. van der; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2016
In: The Silences of Science / Mellor, Felicity, Webster, Stephen, London : Routledge - ISBN 9781472459978 - p. 89 - 112.
Innovation in science and technology is increasingly linked with interdisciplinarity. Encouraging this trend depends in part on cutting-edge educational programmes that revise, reinvent and redesign curricula as interdisciplinary vehicles, establishing and re-establishing relations between traditional fields and areas of expertise (Stone et al., 1999; Casey, 1994). Such programmes are valuable because they can overcome ‘silo’ mentalities and equip prospective students with the skills and knowledge necessary for understanding and solving complex societal problems (Stone et al.,1999; McFadden et al., 2010). Although these programmes are very promising, their development and

implementation also brings challenges. The literature on curriculum development shows that many programmes have struggled to achieve true integration (McFadden et al., 2010; Stone et al., 1999). Dam-Mieras et al. (2008), in their study of an international master’s programme in sustainable development and management developed collaboratively by nine universities, observed that universities have their own experts and own programmes and that the ‘not invented here’ argument influences how details about new programme are discussed. Focussing on innovative online instruction courses, Xu and Morris (2007) found that the absence of group cohesiveness between faculty and project coordinators can hinder the collaborative course development process and affect the quality of the end product. Stone et al. (1999) emphasize that faculty members and administrators work at cross-purposes and view each other’s initiatives with suspicion. Given the importance that scientists, academic institutions and policy makers ascribe to innovation, along with their assumption that such innovation is a sure result of interdisciplinarity, it is essential to gain a better understanding of how curriculum development in academic education actually works. For this chapter, we consider how processes of connecting and inter-

relating could add to our understanding of the problems and dilemmas that arise in developing and implementing such programmes. Scholars of innovation, in science and technology and beyond, have explained that innovation is not some abstract algorithm: it relies on interaction and collaboration between

multiple actors with different expertises, visions, priorities and investment (Van Bommel et al., 2011; Leeuwis and Aarts, 2011; Akrich et al., 2002; Fonseca, 2002). This process of interacting is very difficult, however, and creates many tensions. This is revealed by studies that show the lurking problems of connecting previously unconnected people around new ideas and technologies. These studies show how innovation processes become defined by competition for scarce resources, protracted negotiations over priorities and interests, and dynamics of inclusion and exclusion (Leeuwis andAarts, 2011; Pretty, 1995; Van Bommel et al., 2011). Fonseca (2002) hence explains that innovation always creates a paradoxical situation, in which organizations, in their search to accelerate change and adapt to and find solutions for external challenges and demands, unavoidably create new and unpredictable interactional patterns. Given that interacting is a complicated matter in innovation processes, a

key question within the management of innovation literature is how we can account for the way relevant actors connect, or fail to connect (Akrich et al., 2002). In this respect, verbal communication is often cited as an essential mechanism for effectively connecting important actors and social groups around innovative ideas, products, or technologies (Van Bommel et al., 2011). In turn, the markers of effective verbal communication as a frame for innovation are seen to be openness, dialogue, and the ability to cooperate and be reflective on one’s thoughts and actions (Stilgoe et al., 2013). Thorp and Goldstein (2010), writing about university innovation, describe conversations as the fertile ground from which innovation grows and urge us to make time and space for those conversations. Dialogue and openness are seen as indicators of the quality of interaction, and process transparency as a decisive component of academic innovation. By being open or transparent in discussing issues and problems, actors build confidence that negotiation is ‘real’ and not a cover-up for private backroom deals (de Bruijn and ten Heuvelhof, 2008). Although there is a wealth of research on communication for innovation,

most scholarly work focuses on what is exchanged verbally, on how actors collate all the relevant evidence, put it on the table and discuss it openly. As of yet, silence is absent from these studies of communication for innovation. Building on recent organizational and strategy scholarship, in which silence is approached as an intricate concept with powerful functions and meanings in social interaction (Van Assche and Costaglioli, 2012; Carter et al., 2008; Henriksen and Dayton, 2006; Panteli and Fineman, 2005; Tucker and Edmondson, 2003; Jaworski, 2005; Morrison and Milliken, 2000), we suggest that silence merits much more attention in analyses of academic innovation. This chapter therefore explores the role of moments of silence during interactions within networks developing and implementing educational innovation. The structure of this chapter is as follows. We start by looking at the litera-

ture on dynamic innovation networks and communication and complement these insights with scholarship on silence within organization studies. After briefly introducing our approach, we present the findings of a study of an inter-institutional and interdisciplinary joint bachelor’s programme that was

implemented at the interface of health and technology. The purpose of the study was to better understand the significance of moments of silence in developing and implementing this programme. We end with the implications of our findings for steering in the context of interdisciplinary innovation.
Self-Organization and the Bypass: Re-Imagining Institutions for More Sustainable Development in Agriculture and Food
Sherwood, Stephen ; Bommel, Severine Van; Paredes, Myriam - \ 2016
Agriculture 6 (2016)4. - ISSN 2077-0472
In exploring the social dynamics of agrofood movements in Ecuador as examples of self-organization (i.e., locally distributed and resolved development), this article departs from a preoccupation with innovation by means of design and the use of scaling as a metaphor for describing research contributions in agriculture and food. The case material highlights that much development is contingent, unpredictable, and unmanageable as well as unbound to fixed spaces or places. In their study of people’s daily practice, the authors do not find clear boundaries between dichotomies of internal–external, lay–expert, traditional–modern, or local–global organization, but heterogeneous blends of each. For the purposes of sustainable development, this highlights the need for attention to be paid to relationships (social, material, and biological), adaptation (the capacity to innovate), and responsibility (adherence to norms of sustainability). Far from romanticizing self-organization, the authors acknowledge that people and their institutions share varying degrees of complicity for the goods as well as the bads of their economic activity, such as mass soil degradation, agrobiodiversity loss, and poisoning by pesticides. Nevertheless, even under highly difficult conditions, certain actors effectively bypass the limitations of formal institutions in forging a socio-technical course of action (i.e., policy) for relatively healthy living and being. As such, the authors have come to appreciate self-organization as a neglected, if paradoxical, resource for policy transition towards more sustainable agriculture and food.
Learning for transformation of water governance : reflections on design from the climate change adaptation and water governance (CADWAGO) project
Blackmore, Chris ; Bommel, Severine van; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Vries, Jasper de; Westberg, Lotten ; Powell, Neil ; Foster, Natalie ; Collins, Kevin ; Roggero, Pier Paolo ; Seddaiu, Giovanna - \ 2016
Water 8 (2016)11. - ISSN 2073-4441
CADWAGO - Design - Learning - Transformation - water governance
This paper considers how learning for transformation of water governance in the context of climate change adaptation can be designed for and supported, drawing examples from the international climate change adaptation and water governance project (CADWAGO). The project explicitly set out to design for governance learning in the sense of developing elements of social infrastructure such as workshops, performances and online media to bring stakeholders together and to facilitate co-learning of relevance to governance. CADWAGO drew on a variety of international cases from past and ongoing work of the project partners. It created a forum for dialogue among actors from different contexts working at different levels and scales. The range of opportunities and constraints encountered are discussed, including the principles and practicalities of working with distributed processes of design and leadership of events. A range of concepts, tools and techniques were used to consider and facilitate individual and collective learning processes and outcomes associated with water governance in the context of climate adaptation. Questions were addressed about how elements of past, present and future water governance thinking and practice are connected and how multi-level systemic change in governance can take place. Some reflections on the effectiveness of the design for learning process are included. The nature of the contribution that projects such as CADWAGO can make in learning for transformation of water governance practices is also critically considered.
Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption
Silva, Ana Patricia ; Jager, Gerry ; Bommel, Roelien van; Zyl, Hannelize van; Voss, Hans Peter ; Hogg, Tim ; Pintado, Manuela ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 49 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 54 - 65.
Beer - Beverage choice - Conceptualisations - Cross-cultural - Drinking behaviour - Emotions - Non-alcoholic beer - Qualitative research - Wine

Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and compared to beer and wine conceptualisations in the Netherlands and Portugal. A qualitative study was performed using a focus group approach with moderate consumers of both countries (n= 56). Content analysis followed by correspondence analysis were used to explore conceptualisations. This study showed similar conceptualisations of the beverages in both countries. NAB has a limited conceptual content, which is mostly functional as a substitute. Beer and wine are rich in both functional and emotional content. Wine is associated with positive low arousal emotional responses, such as calm and loving. Beer is associated with positive high arousal emotional responses, such as adventurous and energetic. NAB evokes neutral and negative emotional responses, such as rational, conscious, and disappointed. The difference in conceptualisations of NAB versus beer/wine might be why NAB is not adopted more widely as a substitute as it does not deliver a comparable emotional response to consumers. NAB should be treated as a beverage in its own right and it might be wise to avoid direct conceptual comparisons with beer. Should the image of NAB be communicated and understood with positive and high arousal associations, such as energetic and convivial, in communication and advertisements, a higher level of congruency between expectation and experience could be achieved.

Inside environmental auditing: effectiveness, objectivity, and transparency
Cook, W.C. ; Bommel, S. van; Turnhout, E. - \ 2016
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 18 (2016). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 33 - 39.
With the rise of non-traditional governance methods, the third party audit has become a critical part of governing through and with information. Third party audits are considered an integral part of the process of the generation and dissemination of credible information, and are subject to critique and praise. In this article, we take stock of the literature about auditing. In particular we will examine what modes of auditing are distinguished and how norms of transparency, objectivity, and effectiveness are attributed to auditing. Our review shows that the majority of the auditing literature evokes these norms in an uncritical fashion as characteristics of good audits or as things that audits fail to achieve. We conclude our article by advocating for a more grounded examination of transparency, objectivity and effectiveness, not as norms that can be used to separate good from bad audits, but as they are enacted during the audit process.
Interpretive policy analysis in the Netherlands
Bommel, S. van; Hulst, M. van; Yanow, D. - \ 2015
In: Policy Analysis in the Netherlands / van Nispen, F., Scholten, P., Bristol : Policy Press (International Library of Policy Analysis 3) - ISBN 9781447313335 - p. 69 - 86.
Conference Organizer (samen met Noelle Aarts, Severine van Bommel, Esther Turnhout)
Dewulf, Art - \ 2014
Spill-over effect in media framing: Representations of wildlife conservation in Zimbabwean and international media, 1989-2010
Gandiwa, E. ; Sprangers, S. ; Bommel, S. van; Heitkonig, I.M.A. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2014
Journal for Nature Conservation 22 (2014)5. - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 413 - 423.
gonarezhou national-park - bushmeat trade - disaster - campfire - coverage - africa - management - government - abundance - katrina
Myths and metaphors that occur in media frames play an important role in influencing public perceptions of an issue in times of war, political conflict, crisis and disaster. This, in turn, influences policy makers and (inter)national assistance and aid programmes. We investigated whether a metaphoric spill-over of frames used in connection with political events could explain the misrepresentation in the framing of wildlife conservation. Zimbabwe experienced a severe political conflict and economic downturn in 2000 when land reforms took place. We analyzed newspaper articles on Zimbabwe's wildlife conservation published between 1989 and 2010 from newspapers in Zimbabwe, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. We selected three issues about wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe in the local and international media, namely, the ivory ban, rhino protection, and Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources to investigate the spill-over effect. Our results show that in the 1990s, the majority of newspaper articles highlighted that wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe was largely successful. However, two major changes occurred after 2000 following the land reforms in Zimbabwe. First, the international media showed little interest in wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe as evidenced by a sharp decline in published articles and second, the frames changed in the international media with the “political unrest and land reform” blame frame becoming more dominant. This transition in reporting, frames, and low frame parity shows that there was a spill-over effect of political frames into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe's land reforms in 2000. Metaphoric spill-over effects may thus create myths in the readership, in turn influencing policy-derived actions in a sector that is not or poorly related to the actual disaster. Keywords Framing; Land reform; Metaphors; Nature conservation
Meeting the ‘Anthropocene’ in the context of intractability and complexity: infusing resilience narratives with intersubjectivity
Powell, N.S. ; Larsen, R.K. ; Bommel, S. van - \ 2014
Resilience : International Policies, Practices and Discourses 2 (2014)3. - ISSN 2169-3293 - p. 135 - 150.
Insufficient attention has been paid to how concepts of resilience can be operationalised in wicked, contested situations. Within the environmental sciences, the contemporary social-ecological resilience narrative is not geared to examining social dilemmas in ill-defined problem contexts. These conditions require a different resilience narrative, one centred on epistemological and ontological considerations. This paper examines four resilience narratives (engineering, social-ecological, epistemic and intersubjective) in order to stimulate an improved awareness of the possibility of more deliberative choices for research and governance in the resilience domain. We argue that the resilience research community needs to be more cognizant of the diversity of resilience narratives in order to empower and learn from the perspectives and local practices of stakeholders, who will often express narratives better aligned to the wicked situation at hand. Ultimately, the resilience narratives of the research community can be little more than toolkits to support greater understanding of the diversity of people, perspectives and ‘performances’ jointly narrating the ‘real’ stories of our wicked and contested realities.
Quis custodiet ipsos custodes : third party auditing and information at the nexus of global forestry standards and local forestry management
Cook, W.C. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Bommel, S. van; Turnhout, E. - \ 2014
Wageningen UR
A practice based approach to forest governance
Arts, B.J.M. ; Behagel, J.H. ; Turnhout, E. ; Koning, J. de; Bommel, S. van - \ 2014
Forest Policy and Economics 49 (2014). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 4 - 11.
biodiversity - management - economics - services - science
Forest governance’ refers to new modes of regulation in the forest sector, such as decentralized, communitybased and market-oriented policy instruments and management approaches. Its main theoretical basis consists of two mainstream models: rational choice and neo-institutionalism. Since these models rest upon problematic conceptualisations of ‘the social’, this paper proposes a so-called ‘practice based approach’, which offers a comprehensive understanding of social dynamics related to trees, forests and biodiversity. It tries to go beyond someof the old dualisms in social theory, such as subject and object, human and nature and agency and structure. Three sensitising concepts – situated agency, logic of practice and performativity – are introduced and their application is illustrated by a number of examples from forest governance practices: joint forest management in India, decentralized forest management in Bolivia and the construction of biodiversity datasets in Europe. The paper also addresses some of the criticisms the approach has received.
Spill-over effect in media framing: Representations of wildlife conservation in Zimbabwean and international media, 1989-2010
Gandiwa, E. ; Sprangers, S. ; Bommel, S. van; Heitkonig, I.M.A. ; Leeuwis, C. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2014
In: 12th Savanna Science Network Meeting, Kruger National Park. - SANPark's Scientific Services - p. 71 - 71.
Myths and metaphors that occur in media frames play an important role in influencing public perceptions in times of war, political conflict, crisis and disaster. We investigated whether a metaphoric spill-over of frames used in connection with political events could explain the misrepresentation in the framing of non-political issues such as wildlife conservation. Zimbabwe experienced a severe political conflict and economic downturn following the land reforms in 2000. We analysed newspaper articles on Zimbabwe’s wildlife conservation published between 1989 and 2010 from newspapers in Zimbabwe, the United Kingdom and United States of America. We selected three issues about wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe in the local and international media, namely, the ivory ban, rhino protection, and CAMPFIRE to investigate the spill-over effect. Our results show that in the 1990s, the majority of newspaper articles highlighted that wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe was largely successful. However, two major changes occurred after 2000 following the land reforms. First, the international media lost interest in wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe as evidenced by a sharp decline in published articles and second, the frames changed in the international media with the “political unrest and land reform” blame frame becoming more dominant. This transition in reporting, frames, and low frame parity shows that there was a spill-over effect of political frames into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe’s land reforms in 2000. Metaphoric spill-over effects may thus create myths in the readership, in turn influencing policy-derived actions in a sector that is not or poorly related to the actual disaster.
Beoordeling van de toepassing van de methode Van Haaften op het ree in de provincie Drenthe
Bommel, P. van; Dekker, J.J.A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. - \ 2013
Alterra - 24 p.
Framing Climate Change: New directions in Dutch and Danish planning strategies.
Jensen, A. ; Bommel, S. van; Brandt Pedersen, A. ; Orsted Nielsen, H. ; Kuindersma, W. - \ 2013
Planning Theory & Practice 14 (2013)2. - ISSN 1464-9357 - p. 233 - 247.
Planning in contemporary societies takes place under conditions of complexity and uncertainty, which stresses the politicised character of planning. Through studies of change in particular framings of planning, induced by the integration of climate change policy issues in the strategic planning of Copenhagen (Denmark) and the Zuidplaspolder (the Netherlands), this paper analyses how climate policies push reframing the basic perceptions and spatial imaginaries of strategic planning, and how this affects planning as a politicised activity. The study shows that reframing socio-spatial imaginaries influences the spatiality of the city/the polder, including a spatial identity, advocates certain solutions, and further enables institutional actors to reframe climate issues strategically to benefit other planning objectives as well as weaving together environmental agendas with economic agendas. However, new framings are challenged by some citizens/actors. At an institutional level, framing of planning may hence serve to relocate tensions and engage citizens and stakeholders in hard transitions, thus revealing implications beyond the discursive.
Invited spaces and informal practices in participatory community forest management in India
Nandigama, S. - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 171 - 191.
This chapter shows how the formal participation of men and women in a community-based forest management project shapes and is shaped by informal practices. The gender analysis is based on an ethnographic case study of a village in Andhra Pradesh, India. It aims to contribute to a better understanding of the gendered practices of participation in a highly stratified community structure. The chapter explores how women’s participation is influenced by the prevalent notions and self-images of femininities and masculinities and by their everyday roles in informal practices. It observes that actors adapt the functioning of formal spaces of participation to suit their local situations. The chapter demonstrates that focusing on formal spaces is insuficient to understand gendered participation. Instead, the findings show that despite being marginalised in their formal roles, the women used the project intervention to increase their bargaining power, and to gain visibility and status in the community.
Globalising biodiversity: Scientific practices of scaling and databasing
Boonman-Berson, S.H. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 171 - 191.
Since the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1992, biodiversity has become an important topic for scientific research. Much of this research focuses on measuring and mapping the current state of biodiversity in terms of which species are present where, and how abundantly, and making extrapolations and future projections—that is, determining the trends needed for forest and nature governance. Biodiversity databases are crucial components of these activities because they store information about biodiversity and make it digitally available. For biodiversity databases to be useful, the data they contain must be reliable, standardised, and fit for upscaling. This chapter uses material from the EBONE project (European Biodiversity Observation Network) to illustrate how biodiversity databases are constructed, how data are negotiated and scaled, and how biodiversity is globalised. The findings show there is continuous interplay between scientific ideals related to objectivity and pragmatic considerations related to feasibility and data availability. A crucial feature of the discussions was statistics. It also proved to be the main device in upscaling the data. The material presented shows that biodiversity is approached in an abstract, quantitative, and technical way by a group of scientists, mostly ecologists, in a highly contextual setting, disconnected from the species and habitats that make up biodiversity and the people involved in collecting the data. Globalising biodiversity involves decontextualisation and standardisation. This chapter argues that while this is important if the results of projects like EBONE are to be usable in different contexts, there is a risk involved, as these processes may lead to the alienation of the organisations and volunteers who collect the data upon which these projects rely. If these abstract representations of biodiversity become normalised, this may result in a detached understanding of biodiversity itself and our relationships with it.
What institutions do: Grasping participatory practices in the water framework directive
Behagel, J.H. ; Arend, S. van der - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 69 - 88.
The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires member states to organise public participation in the implementation of the Directive. In the Netherlands, neither the great effort put into organising such public participation in the WFD nor the numerous participatory processes that have taken place have been evaluated very positively by societal groups. This dissatisfaction leads us to question to what extent it is possible to design and organise participation that the organisers experience as successful and the participants accept as legitimate. In this chapter, we apply the practice based approach to analyse both the organisation of public participation in the Netherlands and the ways in which participants have used and experienced it. The chapter draws on literature on institutional design, practice theory, and public participation in order to describe the practice of participation and the logic it exhibits. The case study of the design and organisation of public participation in the context of the WFD in the Netherlands shows how new participatory institutions were introduced in an effort to reorder the three fields of practice in which participants were situated: the public sphere, the governance network, and the economic sphere. Our findings show that the participants’ logic of practice changed very little. These findings are not to be interpreted as a disincentive for the institutional design of public participation, but rather as a call to policy makers and academics to pay due attention to the fields of practice in which actual or potential participants are entwined and to the principles that implicitly guide these actors’ doings and sayings.
Creating scientific narratives: Experiences in contructing and interweaving empirical and theoretical plots
Bommel, S. van; Zouwen, M.W. van der - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 217 - 239.
Taking an interpretive perspective, this chapter argues that practice research has a narrative character in the sense that it is a speech act that retrospectively verbalises something (namely practices) that did not exist previously, and that is written from the (unique) perspective of its author. Although the narrative turn in research methodology is gaining significant scholarly attention, little is known about how scientific narratives are created by researchers and how researchers can be held accountable for them. We present two autoethnographies, to obtain insight into our own practice as scientific narrators. Our analysis reveals that our scientific narratives were created by interweaving an empirical plot and a theoretical plot. It also shows that researchers can be held accountable for their narratives by means of a ‘narrative contract’ with the narrative’s audience according to which the researchers must deliver (1) meaning, by means of a plot that offers a certain criticality (both empirically and conceptually) and (2) ‘truthfulness’, by resonating with the standards that their audience adheres to. We conclude by discussing the implications of such a narrative turn in research methodology for the conceptualisation of practices, practice based research and practice theory.
Where management practices and experiential practices meet: public support and conflict in ecosystem management
Buijs, A.E. ; Elands, B.H.M. ; Marwijk, R.B.M. van - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 193 - 216.
In recent years, ecosystem management and recreation have become closely intertwined. Ecosystem management (ESM) influences recreational opportunities and the attractiveness of natural areas, so nowadays local communities are often invited to participate in decision-making about it. And in some cases, local communities object to ecosystem management measures. We will argue that analysing these phenomena as practices can reveal how they mutually influence each other. We will show that recreational practices (which we propose to call experiential practices) are based on the attribution of positive meanings to nature. We also show that if such practices are threatened by new or changing ecosystem management measures, social protest may emerge. We also argue that both recreational behaviour and the appreciation of nature are highly routinised. However, the implementation of contested ESM measures may disrupt such routines and trigger local communities to protest against these measures and, under certain conditions, the protest can even influence management policy. We end the chapter with a short reflection on the role of qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a practice based approach.
Forest and nature governance: A practice based approach
Arts, B.J.M. ; Behagel, J.H. ; Bommel, S. van; Koning, J. de; Turnhout, E. - \ 2013
Dordrecht : Springer (World Forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - 265
politicologie - levenswetenschappen - bosbouw - biodiversiteit - natuurbescherming - natuurbeleid - sociale wetenschappen - governance - political science - life sciences - forestry - biodiversity - nature conservation - nature conservation policy - social sciences
In studies of forest and nature governance the dominant approaches are rational choice and neo-institutionalism. This book takes another perspective. Departing from ‘practice theory’, and building upon scholars like Giddens, Bourdieu, Reckwitz, Schatzki and Callon, it seeks to move beyond established understandings of institutions, actors, and knowledge. In so doing, the book not only presents an innovative conceptual and methodological framework for a practice based approach, but also rich case studies and ethnographies. Examples are participatory forest management in the tropics, REDD policy at global level, European water policy, forest certification and the construction of global biodiversity databases. Taking social practices as the key unit of analysis, this book describes how different practitioners, ranging from local forest managers on the ground to policy makers at the global level, work with trees, forests, biodiversity, wildlife, and so on, and act upon forest policies, environmental discourses, codes of conduct, or scientific insights. It is also about how communities, NGOs, stakeholders, and citizens get involved in forest and nature governance.
The promise of practice: the value of the practice based approach for forest and nature governance studies
Behagel, J.H. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Bommel, S. van; Koning, J. de; Turnhout, E. - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 243 - 256.
A practice based approach is new to studies of forest and nature governance and fairly new to governance studies in general. In this chapter, we outline the promise of such an approach for such studies. The chapter is in two parts. Firstly, a number of conclusions are drawn from the preceding individual chapters. They relate to: (1) the types of forest and nature governance practices that can be empirically distinguished; (2) the way the sensitising concepts of logic of practice, situated agency, and performativity have been used to move beyond mainstream governance approaches; and (3) the specific characteristics of a practice based approach to forest and nature governance. The second part of the chapter discusses the academic and societal value of the practice based approach as offered in this book, firstly by comparing this approach to an interpretative approach in governance studies and addressing similarities and differences, and then by discussing whether the practice based approach can contribute to policy making and steering social change. We conclude that a practice based approach can convincingly address some points that mainstream accounts of governance cannot, but only if certain long-held convictions about what governance really is are abandoned.
Bricolage practices in local forestry
Koning, J. de; Benneker, C.E.B. - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 49 - 68.
Academics and policy makers often analyse the role of institutions in terms of an institutional logic that assumes that designed institutions can effectively shape the (rational) behaviour of actors. In turn, this institutional approach assumes that local actors will automatically embrace new institutions and adapt their behaviour accordingly. However, research at the grassroots level reveals a different story. In this chapter, we show how the introduction of regulations and norms on local forestry triggers a chain of different, often unexpected, responses from local actors. The chapter addresses the processes by which local actors respond to externally imposed institutional arrangements in terms of a logic of practice. It uses the concept of bricolage to analyse forest use practices on the ground that result from the reshaping and combining of different institutional elements. The chapter draws on examples from the global South to show that local actors creatively construct a patchwork of institutions in which old institutions are recombined with the new and in which it becomes clear that institutions in fact do not directly influence behaviour but rather emerge in practices of bricolage directly or indirectly, consciously or unconsciously. It concludes by stating that introduced institutions do not easily steer human behaviour. A much more important determinant of behaviour is the local logic of practice of local actors. The impact of introduced institutions on local forestry therefore greatly depends on how much they relate to an existing logic of practice.
From practical science to a practice based approach: A short history of forest policy studies
Wiersum, F. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Laar, J.N. van - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 23 - 46.
This chapter presents a short history of forest policy studies, with the aim of situating the practice based approach of this book. Forest policy studies emerged as a sub-discipline within forestry science in the mid-20th century. Its early focus was strongly influenced by traditional forestry science, but since then it has evolved. The chapter first explores the basic characteristics of forestry science that prevailed when forest policy analysis emerged, and identifies the disciplinary matrix underlying conventional forestry science. The next sections describe how forest policy studies’ normative view on professional practice changed into an analytical perspective on governance processes, and how a critical perspective on policy practices has recently been added to the discipline’s repertoire. During this process, the conceptualisation of the ‘forestry practitioner’ gradually widened from professional foresters to include both forest policy makers and laymen practitioners. Concomitantly, the role of the forest policy scientists has gradually changed, from (1) advising foresters, to (2) explaining policy dynamics, to (3) reflecting upon the social practices of scientists, policy makers and professional foresters alike.
Global forest governance: Multiple practices of policy performance
Arts, B.J.M. ; Babili, I.H. - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 111 - 132.
According to various observers, global forest governance has largely failed. Deforestation is continuing and there is no legally binding international treaty on forests. Although these observations seem truisms, another reading of the performance of global forest governance is possible, as this chapter shows, via two lines of reasoning. Firstly, the deforestation narrative is replaced by one on country-specific forest dynamics, since forest transitions—shifts from forest loss to forest expansion—are taking place in several countries around the world. Secondly, the role of global ideas, norms and rules in national policies and local practices is analysed. Two case studies, one on participatory forest management and one on forest certification, both from Tanzania, are presented. It is shown that voluntary ideas, norms and rules on participation and certification travel from the global to the local—through policy makers, donors, NGOs, companies, etc.—and together shape the management of forests in specific sites. It is also shown that this global–local nexus can yield positive results for both forests and people. This chapter builds upon discursive institutionalism and practice theory.
Prelude to practice: Introducing a practice based approach to forest and nature governance
Arts, B.J.M. ; Behagel, J.H. ; Bommel, S. van; Koning, J. de; Turnhout, E. - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature governance: a practice based approach / Arts, B.J.M., Behagel, J.M., van Bommel, S., de Koning, J., Turnhout, E., Dordrecht : Springer (World forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 3 - 22.
‘Forest and nature governance’ is a field that has recently emerged from forestry sciences. It analyses the governance of a diverse set of issues, including deforestation, biodiversity loss and illegal logging, producing insights useful for science and policy. Its main theoretical base consists of two mainstream social theories: rational choice and neo-institutionalism. However, since these models rest upon problematic conceptualisations of ‘the social’, this chapter proposes a practice based approach, which offers a comprehensive understanding of the social dynamics related to trees, forests and biodiversity. It goes beyond some of the old dualisms in social theory, such as subject and object, and agency and structure. Three sensitising concepts—situated agency, logic of practice and performativity—will be introduced. In addition, the chapter identifies a number of methodological guidelines for the practice based approach, based on a short review of the practice literature. These concepts and guidelines not only define the practice based approach, but also bind together the individual chapters. Finally, this chapter introduces the book’s contents.
How do forest markets work? Exploring a practice perspective
Hoogstra, M.A. - \ 2013
In: Forest and nature Governance: A practice based approach / B.J.M. Arts, Prof.dr., J.H. Behagel, Dr., S. Bommel,, J. Koning, MSc., E. Turnhout, Dr., Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands (World Forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 151 - 167.
Over recent decades, it has become highly popular to use markets in governance processes. Enthusiasm for market-oriented approaches has become so overwhelming that in some areas of policy, including forest conservation, governments are even promoting new markets. However, doubts exist about how sustainable this mechanism for conservation is. To analyse and evaluate forest markets, it should first of all be clear what a market is. Despite claims to the contrary, the market concept has hardly ever been analysed in depth and only from a monodisciplinary view. Against this background, this paper addresses the question of what a market is and how it comes about. It begins by reviewing the different conceptualisations of markets in different disciplines and how they are used in forest market research. Then, a revised conceptualisation of markets is presented, by introducing a practice based approach. During the past 20 years, practice based approaches have attracted growing interest within the social sciences. Recently they have also been introduced in the study of markets, as they seem to offer a richer conceptual tool, and therefore a better understanding of the market, than other approaches. Using the example of the certified timber market, it is explored how a practice perspective can be used to analyse forestry markets.
The practice of interaction management: Enhancing synergies among multilateral REDD+ Institutions
Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Verkooijen, P.V.J.D. - \ 2013
In: Forest and Nature Governance; A practice based approach / B.J.M. Arts, Prof.dr, J.H. Behagel, Drs, S. Bommel,, J. Koning, MSc, E. Turnhout, Dr, Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Springer (World Forests 14) - ISBN 9789400751125 - p. 133 - 149.
Abstract The international community has developed hundreds of intergovernmental agreements to address global sustainability issues, and market and civil society actors have supported this effort by taking numerous initiatives themselves. As a consequence, different public and private institutions interact and influence each other, creating a complex governance system working towards sustainable development, and the call for synergies among the various initiatives is increasingly being heard. An example is the issue of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, REDD+, in which different international institutions are active, including the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) and Forest Investment Program (FIP), and the United Nations UN-REDD Programme. This chapter introduces a ‘practice turn’ to the scientific debates on institutional interactions and their management, with the aim of elucidating how the institutional interactions on REDD+ are being managed in practice, and why they are being managed the way they are. The analysis shows that interaction management practices are especially influenced by the partner countries and NGOs involved in REDD+ institutions, and that different ‘logics of practice’ have developed over time, including strategic interaction management, which we have labelled ‘meta interaction management’. Interaction management on more contentious issues, such as stakeholder engagement, is shown to be rather difficult, and thus less far-reaching.
Certification of community forestry enterprises: experiences with incorporating community forestry in a global system for forest governance
Wiersum, K.F. ; Humphries, S. ; Bommel, S. van - \ 2013
Small-scale Forestry 12 (2013)1. - ISSN 1873-7617 - p. 15 - 31.
environmental governance - stewardship-council - markets - work
This paper discusses the history and present status of community forest certification as an illustration of the growing interactions between global and local processes in forest governance. The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification system is analyzed as an illustrative case of the trend towards increased incorporation of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) into international initiatives for sustainable forest management and global markets. First the paper reviews the development of community-based forest management and the evolution in certification of community-based forest enterprises. Next it discusses the main challenges and opportunities for making CFE certification accessible and beneficial for communities. Finally it illustrates the importance of multi-level and multi-actor partnerships for creating effective interfaces between global standards and community forestry practices. The experiences with FSC certification of community-based forest enterprises demonstrate that community forestry is enlarging its scope from autonomous decision-making on local practice to incorporation in international forest governance systems. This experience also demonstrates that the application of global standards for sustainable forest management requires adaptation to local realities. These lessons are of relevance for further incorporation of community forestry in the newly evolving global programs for forest management and conservation.
The blind man in search of the elephant: making sense of divergent perspectives on self-organization
Bommel, Severine van - \ 2012
Sustainable Intensification of Food: Self-organization as a Promising Resource for Institutional Change
Sherwood, S. ; Bommel, S. van - \ 2012
Gender mainstreaming in practice: Spatialities of women’s participation and the performance of success
Nandigama, S. ; Bommel, S. van; Turnhout, E. ; Verschoor, G. - \ 2012
Land-use dynamics in enset-based agroforestry homegardens in Ethiopia
Abebe, T. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2012
In: Forest people interfaces. Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity / Arts, B., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M., Verschoor, G., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086867493 - p. 69 - 85.
In many tropical countries homegardens sustain large numbers of people. Households depend for their livelihoods on the variety and continued production of food and other products that are provided by their own gardens. Such homegardens combine production with the maintenance of biodiversity. Long-term sustainability of the system is crucial for the long-term wellbeing of the population, including food security. The enset-coffee system of Southern Ethiopia is an example of such agroforestry homegardens. Enset is the main food crop and coffee is the main cash crop. We analysed the homegardens of 144 households covering a range of geographical conditions. Household wealth status was the main determinant of homegarden size. In total, 198 species of cultivated crops (78) and trees (120) were found. Enset and crops were represented by 42 and 24 cultivars respectively. The homegardens were covered by around one-third of enset and one-third of coffee. Enset provides the backbone of the system as it provides food security. Our results show that the stability of the system depends both on its diversity and on the specific characteristics of the two main crops, enset and coffee. The enset-coffee homegardens are changing as farmers increasingly make individual choices and respond to emerging challenges and opportunities. The dynamics of the agroforestry homegarden of Southern Ethiopia can be considered as a productive bricolage process on the micro scale.
Creating designs as effective boundary objects in innovation journeys?
Bos, A.P. ; Bommel, S. van; Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2012
In innovation processes, prospects are often seen as a strategic tool to connect multiple actors. They are perceived to be flexible enough to have meaning in all social worlds, and stable enough to travel back and forth between them. In other words, effective prospects are seen as boundary objects and it is thought that these boundary objects can be designed . This paper analyses the innovation journey of the Rondeel poultry husbandry system , in which a prospect- a design in the form of a “masterplan” or “prototype” - was purposefully created as a boundary object to support the innovation process. The analysis indeed reveals the role of the design as a boundary object in creating mutual understanding among diverse actors during the innovation journey of the Rondeel and mobilizing support. But while some aspects of the design remained relatively stable, other aspects constantly changed as: 1) the design had to be adapted to the inhouse technology and capabilities of the development consortium; 2) many new challenges emerged during the innovation journey itself which had to be incorporated. Each new development direction meant a renegotiation of the design and the network of actors that came along with that. To what extent can prospects be created as boundary objects to facilitate innovation journeys? The analyses shows that the Rondeel design was not a fixed end-product: it was constantly reinterpreted and strategically renegotiated in interaction, acting both as an inclusion and exclusion device for actors and options during the innovation journey. Although sometimes exclusion was beneficial to the process, it also sometimes caused lock-ins. The need for interpretative flexibility, the difficulty of establishing an optimum interpretative flexibility and the (unintended) consequences of exclusion nuance the view that designs can be purposefully created as effective boundary objects . We end by discussing the term boundary “object¿, which suggests a stable and passive entity. We argue that it might be better to talk about “boundary subject¿ since designs constantly change and exert agency themselves while the innovation travels through time and across different spaces.
Conservancies in Namibia: A discourse in action. Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity
Vette, M. de; Kashululu, R. ; Hebinck, P.G.M. - \ 2012
In: Forest-People Interfaces / Arts, B., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M, Verschoor, G., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086867493 - p. 121 - 138.
Design process outputs as boundary objects in agricultural innovation projects: Functions and limitations
Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Bommel, S. van; Bos, A.P. ; Holster, H.C. ; Zwartkruis, J. ; Aarts, N. - \ 2012
Agricultural Systems 113 (2012)2012. - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 39 - 49.
production systems - land-use - knowledge - complex - networks - models - policy
The purpose of this article is to investigate the functions of design process outputs (such as design briefs, scale models, visualizations, animations) as boundary objects in the implementation of novel agricultural production system concepts. The case study analysis of the innovation process that led to the establishment of the Rondeel poultry husbandry system reveals that the interpretative flexibility of design process outputs as boundary objects helps in creating mutual understanding among diverse actors involved in the implementation of a novel agricultural production system concept, and in mobilizing support for it. In some cases, boundary objects allow for interpretative flexibility but remain stable in shape; sometimes, however, the boundary objects themselves change as a result of the redesign process they induce. Furthermore, implementers of novel systems may prefer to maintain a rigid interpretation of the boundary object, using such interpretative rigidity of the boundary object as both an inclusion and exclusion mechanism for actors and options in the innovation process. The results confirm that a design process output such as a scale model can be purposefully created to serve as a boundary object and support novel agricultural system concept implementation. However, the effectiveness of a boundary object cannot be predicted and fully planned ex-ante.
Gum and resin-producing species in the drylands of Ethiopia: productive bricolage footprints on the landscape
Teshale Woldeamanuel Habebo, Teshale - \ 2012
In: Forest-people interfaces - Understanding community forestry and bio-cultural diversity / Arts, B.J.M., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 49 - 68.
Forest market governance: exploring a practice-based approach
Hoogstra, M.A. - \ 2012
In: Forest people interfaces; Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity / Arts, B.J.M., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 291 - 307.
Institutional bricolage in community forestry: an agenda for future research
Koning, J. de; Cleaver, F. - \ 2012
In: Forest people interfaces; Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity / Arts, B.J.M., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 277 - 290.
Exploring forest governance in Tanzania
Katani, J.Z. ; Babili, I.H. - \ 2012
In: Forest people interfaces; Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity / Arts, B.J.M., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 259 - 275.
Forest governance: a state of the art review
Arts, B.J.M. ; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. - \ 2012
In: Forest people interfaces; Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity / Arts, B.J.M., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 241 - 257.
Governing biocultural diversity in mosaic landscapes
Oosten, C.J. van; Hijweege, W.L. - \ 2012
In: Forest people interfaces; Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity / Arts, B.J.M., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 211 - 222.
Biocultural diversity in the Netherlands: from ecologically noble savages towards biocultural creatives
Elands, B.H.M. ; Koppen, C.S.A. van - \ 2012
In: Forest people interfaces; Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity / Arts, B.J.M., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 181 - 193.
Woodfuel and producers' livelihoods in the Congo Basin
Schure, J.M. - \ 2012
In: Forest people interfaces; Understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity / Arts, B.J.M., van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 87 - 104.
Forest-people interfaces : understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity
Arts, B.J.M. ; Bommel, S. van; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086867493 - 317
bossen - bosbouw - agroforestry - sociale bosbouw - bosproducten anders dan hout - bosproducten - mensen - gemeenschapsbosbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbeleid - forests - forestry - agroforestry - social forestry - non-wood forest products - forest products - people - community forestry - natural resources - resource management - forest management - forest policy
This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resource management; biocultural diversity; and forest governance. In so doing, the books offers a comprehensive and current review on social issues related to forests that other, more specialized publications, lack. It is also theory-rich, offering both mainstream and critical perspectives, and presents up-to-date empirical materials. Reviewing these four major research themes, the main conclusion of the book is that naïve optimism associated with forest-people interfaces should be tempered. The chapters show that economic development, political empowerment and environmental aims are not easily integrated. Hence local landscapes and communities are not as 'makeable' as is often assumed. Events that take place on other scales might intervene; local communities might not implement policies locally; and governance practices might empower governments more than communities. This all shows that we should go beyond community-based ideas and ideals, and look at practices on the ground.
The (onto) politics of classifying biocultural diversity: a tale of chaos, order and control
Bommel, S. van; Turnhout, E. - \ 2012
In: Forest-People Interfaces / Arts, B.J.M, van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 223 - 238.
How scientific visions matter: insights from three long-term socio-ecological research (LTSER) platforms under construction in Europe
Mauz, I. ; Peltola, T. ; Granjou, C. ; Bommel, S. van; Buijs, A.E. - \ 2012
Environmental Science & Policy 19-20 (2012). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 90 - 99.
ecological research-program - science - biodiversity
Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER) has been introduced to change the current approach to ecology and turn it into a big science. LTSER Platforms are currently being created across Europe. They are expected to enhance ecology's capacity to produce useful knowledge for facing global environmental challenges. They therefore uphold a grand scientific vision bearing three main characteristics: interdisciplinarity, long-term field sites, and data sharing. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies (STS), we examined the enactment of these great expectations and scientific visions in practice. We carried out an empirical survey in three European LTSER Platforms, all at the early stage of construction: Lepsämänjoki in Finland, zone atelier Alpes in France and the Veluwe in the Netherlands. The way in which the three characteristics of the LTSER vision were put into practice was the focus of our investigation. As could be expected, they were not translated directly into reality. At first sight, they even had rather minor tangible effects. But the processes turned out to be as important as the products: the platforms provided the partners with an opportunity to learn to cooperate across disciplinary and institutional divides. When they occurred, these learning processes were situated. They were also ongoing and incomplete. This explains why the same grand visions were enacted in various ways and to different extents depending on the local contexts. The value of LTSER therefore lies not only in its ability to offer new research fields, instruments and data, but also in its potential to help researchers learn to collaborate with colleagues from other disciplines and institutions as well as with non-academic partners
Learning from the actors: rise and demise of a CBNRM initiative in Mexico
Verschoor, G.M. ; Musalem, N. - \ 2012
In: Forest-People Interfaces / Arts, B.J.M, van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 149 - 164.
Forest-People Interfaces: from local creativity to global concerns
Arts, B.J.M. ; Bommel, S. van; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2012
In: Forest-People Interfaces / Arts, B.J.M, van Bommel, S., Ros-Tonen, M.A.F., Verschoor, G.M., Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861934 - p. 15 - 26.
Self-organization in innovation networks: stories of success and failure
Bommel, S. van; Aarts, N. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2011
Framing Nature Conservation Experts and Expertise in the Drentsche Aa Area in the Netherlands: A Contextual Approach
Bommel, S. van; Aarts, N. - \ 2011
In: Framing Matters. Perspectives on Negotiation Research and Practice in Communication / Donohue, W.A., Rogan, R.G., Kaufman, S., New York : Peter Lang - ISBN 9781433111495 - p. 191 - 209.
Greenport Shanghai: tussen droom en werkelijkheid
Steuten, C.D.M. ; Bommel, S. van; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Aarts, N. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Sectie Communicatiewetenschap - 35 p.
Governance and Contested Land Use in The Netherlands : the Case of the Drentsche Aa
Bommel, S. van; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Turnhout, E. ; Röling, N.G. - \ 2011
In: Territorial Governance: Local Development, Rural Areas and Agrofood Systems. Part 2 / Torre, A., Traversac, J.B., Berlin : Springer - ISBN 9783790824216 - p. 123 - 139.
This chapter investigates, theoretically as well as empirically, the way in which initiatives aimed at territorial governance work out in practice. The concept of territorial governance has increasingly received attention in policy plans as well as in the policy science literature. So far, little is known about how espoused shifts towards territorial governance manifest themselves in practice. By analysing the shift in governance in the Drentsche Aa in the Netherlands, this chapter sheds light on what happens when the espoused shift to territorial governance is applied to concrete situations, in which different dilemmas and opposing forces are at play. It shows that territorial governance in the Drentsche Aa area is struggling with tensions between regional multi-actor practices and hierarchical policy practices. We conclude that shifts in governance indeed occurred in this area, but that they manifested themselves in practice as hybrids between area based hierarchy and multi actor initiatives. As such the shifts are not as straightforward and unambiguous as sometimes thought and/or aimed for in literature, but instead their manifestation in practice is complex, ambiguous and context dependent
Afstemming van sectoraal beleid en integrale gebiedsprocessen
Kuindersma, W. ; Boonstra, F.G. ; Brunt, D. ; Bommel, S. van - \ 2010
Wageningen : Alterra (Reeks ILG en gebiedsprocessen nr. 8) - 109
regionaal beleid - regionale planning - regionale ontwikkeling - overheidsbeleid - beleid - natuurbeleid - natura 2000 - overheidssector - particuliere sector - gelderse vallei - de peel - noordwest-overijssel - gelderland - noord-brabant - overijssel - nederland - europa - regional policy - regional planning - regional development - government policy - policy - nature conservation policy - natura 2000 - public sector - private sector - gelderse vallei - de peel - noordwest-overijssel - gelderland - noord-brabant - overijssel - netherlands - europe
Integrale gebiedsprocessen zijn populair in het landelijk gebied. Ondertussen gaat de sectorale beleidsontwikkeling op nationaal en Europees niveau gewoon door. Dit zorgt voor (nieuwe) afstemmingsproblemen. Dit rapport laat drie praktijkvoorbeelden zien van afstemming tussen bestaande gebiedsprocessen en Natura 2000 en nieuw nationaal natuurbeleid. Dit vraagt om meer onderlinge communicatie en reflectie en communicatie: gebiedspartijen die hun integrale gebiedsplan ter discussie durven te stellen en overheden met oog voor de implementatiepraktijk van sectoraal beleid.
Researchers as translator storytellers
Bommel, Severine van - \ 2010
Travelling standards: enactment, friction and alignment in the case of the Forest Stewardship Council certification scheme
Bommel, Severine van - \ 2010
How Participation Creates Citizens: Participatory Governance as Performative Practice
Turnhout, E. ; Bommel, S. van; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2010
Ecology and Society 15 (2010)4. - ISSN 1708-3087 - p. 26 - 41.
adaptive management - deliberation - politics - policy - conservation - innovation - consensus - forestry - systems - debate
Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives. This article takes a critical perspective on participation by discussing how participation may influence the ways in which citizens can become involved. Participation unavoidably involves (1) restrictions about who should be involved and about the space for negotiation, (2) assumptions about what the issue at stake is, and (3) expectations about what the outcome of participation should be and how the participants are expected to behave. This is illustrated by a case study about the Dutch nature area, the Drentsche Aa. The case study demonstrates how the participatory process that took place and the restrictions, assumptions, and expectations that were involved resulted in six forms of citizen involvement, both intended and unintended, which ranged between creativity, passivity, and entrenchment. Based on these findings, the article argues that participation does not merely serve as a neutral place in which citizens are represented, but instead creates different categories of citizens. Recognizing this means reconceiving participation as performative practice. Such a perspective goes beyond overly optimistic views of participation as a technique whose application can be perfected, as well as pessimistic views of participation as repression or domination. Instead, it appreciates both intended and unintended forms of citizen involvement as meaningful and legitimate, and recognizes citizenship as being constituted in interaction in the context of participation
Klimaatverandering in Nederland: aanpassen met beleid
Kuindersma, W. ; Bommel, S. van - \ 2010
Rooilijn 43 (2010)1. - ISSN 1380-2860 - p. 14 - 21.
klimaatverandering - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - climatic change - environmental policy - government policy
Klimaatadaptatie is een nieuw beleidsveld met een groeiende invloed op het ruimtelijke en het waterbeleid in Nederland. Maar hoe kan dit nieuwe beleidsthema in bestaand beleid geïntegreerd worden? Klimaatadaptatie dient zowel nationaal als regionaal en lokaal beleid te worden: anders dreigen ongewenste effecten. Uiteindelijk is een effectief klimaatadaptatiebeleid alleen mogelijk als overheden en andere actoren beried zijn te leren van hun eigen ervaringen en de ervaringen van anderen
Study on the economic, social and environmental impact of the modulation provided for in Article 10 of Council Regulation (EC) No 1782/2003
Nowicki, P.L. ; Heart, K. ; Meijl, H. van; Baldock, D. ; Banse, M.A.H. ; Bartley, J. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Helming, J.F.M. ; Jansson, K. ; Jansson, T.G. ; Terluin, I.J. ; Veen, H.B. van der; Verburg, R.W. - \ 2009
Brussels, DG Agriculture and Rural Development : LEI, The Hague – IEEP, London - 208 p.
Groene diensten in nationale landschappen : potenties bij een veranderende landbouw
Leneman, H. ; Vader, J. ; Slangen, L.H.G. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Polman, N.B.P. ; Elst-van der Lans, M.W.M. van der; Mijnders, C. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 115) - 79
landbouw - landbouwontwikkeling - professionele dienstverlening - boeren - ontwikkeling - nederland - nationale landschappen - agrarisch natuurbeheer - gebiedsontwikkeling - agriculture - agricultural development - professional services - farmers - development - netherlands - national landscapes - agri-environment schemes - area development
De landbouw is voor een belangrijk deel drager van het landschap in Nationale Landschappen. Dit rapport verkent de betekenis van groene diensten door de landbouw, tegen de achtergrond van verschillende ontwikkelingsrichtingen in die landbouw (schaalvergroting - verbreding). Twee kwalitatieve visies worden ontwikkeld aan de hand van al bestaande scenariostudies (de zogenaamde CPB-scenario’s), een analyse van instrumenten van groene diensten in nationaal en internationaal verband en een discussiemiddag. Beide visies laten ontwikkelingsrichtingen van Nationale landschappen zien en werken de rol van groene diensten door de landbouw verder uit. Deze rol wordt uitgewerkt aan de hand van een raamwerk over de organisatie van groene diensten en een analyse van de te realiseren kernkwaliteiten in Nationale Landschappen.
Social learning for solving complex problems: a promising solution or wishful thinking? A case study of multi-actor negotiation for the integrated management and sustainable use of the Drentsche Aa area in the Netherlands
Bommel, S. van; Roling, N.G. ; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2009
Environmental Policy and Governance 19 (2009)6. - ISSN 1756-932X - p. 400 - 412.
Social learning has been championed as a promising approach to address complex resource problems. According to theory, social learning requires several pre-conditions to be met, including (1) a divergence of interests, (2) mutual interdependence and (3) the ability to communicate. This article investigates what happened when social learning was put into practice in a multi-actor negotiation platform in the Dutch Drentsche Aa area. Our findings show that, although the platform aimed for open dialogue and at first sight appeared to meet the conditions, social learning was not achieved and the negotiations stagnated because of disagreement, frustration and distrust. Further analysis shows that the process was characterized from the beginning by unequal power relations, which enabled a dominant coalition to impose its problem definition and limit possible solutions. The article concludes by discussing the implications of our findings for the theory and practice of social learning Keywords participation • natural resource problems • competing claims • nature conservation policy • multi-stakeholder negotiation platforms
European blues : blue services in a European perspective
Bommel, K.H.M. van; Oltmer, K. ; Pierick, E. ten - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Memorandum / LEI : Werkveld 4, Rurale economie en ruimtegebruik ) - 44
waterbeheer - wateropslag - landgebruik - regionale planning - overstromingen - ecosysteemdiensten - water management - water storage - land use - regional planning - floods - ecosystem services
Land owners who offer blue services make their land available for activities such as water conservation, peak-flow storage or the containment of the rise of the groundwater level, and receive payments that exceed the compensation for incurred costs. The Netherlands is a pioneer in the concept of blue services, but other European countries may also offer possibilities for such activities. There are a number of institutional factors that either hamper or stimulate the realisation of blue services. The factors this study focuses on are, for example, the land price, transaction costs, property rights and the underlying policy rules on several administrative levels. Subsequent to a description of different factors, this study presents case studies of the United Kingdom, Hungary and Germany (the Dinkel river) in which the factors are evaluated according to their contribution to the realisation of blue services. The study focuses on the blue service 'peak-flow storage'.
Kosten voor habitattypen in Natura 2000-gebieden : toepassing van de methode Kosteneffectiviteit natuurbeleid
Oltmer, K. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Clement, J. ; Jong, J.J. de; Rudrum, D.P. ; Schouwenberg, E.P.A.G. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 152) - 65
natuurbescherming - cost effective analysis - kosten - habitats - ecotypen - nederland - natuur - natuurbeheer - nature conservation - cost effectiveness analysis - costs - ecotypes - netherlands - nature - nature management
Deze studie beschrijft de berekening van de kosten voor het natuurbeleid in de Natura 2000-gebieden, gebaseerd op de aanwezige habitattypen. De kosten zijn afgeleid van het benodigde beheer en de milieutekorten rond vermesting en verdroging. De ligging van de habitattypen is bepaald op basis van het koppelingsbestand ´ecotopen en habitattypen´ en op basis van de stikstofdepositie. In totaal gaat het om een areaal van 56.922 ha. De gemiddelde kosten voor het realiseren van de habitattypen liggen bij 800 euro/ha/jaar, variërend van ruim 100 euro/ha/jaar in Groningen tot 3.250 euro/ha/jaar in Utrecht. Door een andere manier van toewijzing van de habitattypen verschillen de in de huidige studie berekende kosten en arealen met milieutekorten van die uit de eerdere studie naar de kosten van de Natura 2000-gebieden.
Natuurbeleid voor de Drentsche Aa: over betrokkenheid, burgerschap en natuurvisies
Bommel, S. van; Turnhout, E. ; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2009
In: Burgers, beleid en natuur: tussen draagvlak en betrokkenheid / Elands, B.H.M., Turnhout, E., Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-studie 9) - ISBN 9789078207092 - p. 25 - 33.
natuurbescherming - landschap - participatie - attitudes - perceptie - nationale landschappen - drenthe - nature conservation - landscape - participation - perception - national landscapes
Het overlegorgaan National beek- en esdorpenlandschap Drentsche Aa houdt dit voorjaar twee inloopavonden om plannen in het gebied te presenteren. Een van de auteurs bezocht deze avond. Insteek van dit hoofdstuk is: de reacties peilen die volgden op de instelling van het multi-stakeholdersplatform en de participatie initiatieven die door dit platform werden genomen; vervolgens aandacht voor natuurvisies en motieven van betrokkenheid, omdat deze meer inzicht zouden kunnen geven in de achtergronden van verschillende vormen van burgerschap
Climate policy integration as a necessity for an efficient climate policy
Mickwitz, P. ; Beck, S. ; Jensen, A. ; Kuindersma, W. ; Bommel, S. van - \ 2009
- p. 1 - 2.
Leren van ervaringen met interactief beleid in het Drentsche Aa-gebied
Bommel, S. van; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Roling, N.G. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2009
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 6 (2009)3. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 26 - 29.
natuurbescherming - deskundigen - participatie - boeren - governance - natuurbeleid - drenthe - nature conservation - experts - participation - farmers - nature conservation policy
Bij complexe problemen waarbij het individuele belang op gespannen voet staat met het natuurbelang, wordt vaak gekozen voor een interactief proces. Toch blijkt in de Nationaal Landschap de Drentsche Aa dat dit niet zaligmakend is, zeker niet als de doelen van tevoren al vastliggen. Pogingen om in een Overlegorgaan tot een gezamenlijke toekomstvisie te komen van natuur en landbouw, liepen hopeloos vast. Uit ons onderzoek naar het planproces bleek dat oud zeer daarbij zeker een rol speelde. Maar ook is duidelijk dat interactieve processen alleen werken als er ruimte is om samen over de doelen en de problemen te onderhandelen. Verder blijkt het heel belangrijk dat de onderhandelaars in zo’n overlegorgaan nauw contact houden met hun achterban. Tenslotte is het van groot belang dat de verschillende soorten beleid waarin het gebiedsproces is ingebed goed is afgestemd.
Climate policy integration, coherence and governance
Mickwitz, P. ; Aix, F. ; Beck, S. ; Carss, D. ; Ferrand, N. ; Görg, C. ; Jensen, A. ; Kivimaa, P. ; Kuhlicke, C. ; Kuindersma, W. ; Máñez, M. ; Melanen, M. ; Monni, S. ; Pedersen, A.B. ; Reinert, H. ; Bommel, S. van - \ 2009
Helsinki : PEER (PEER Report 2) - ISBN 9789521133794 - 92
klimaatverandering - overheidsbeleid - governance - climatic change - government policy - governance
Created in 2001, PEER is a partnership of seven large European environmental research centres. PEER members cover the full spectrum of the environmental sciences and combine basic with applied research anticipating societal needs.
Loyaliteit varkenhouders aan slachterij groeit
Baltussen, W.H.M. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Backus, G.B.C. - \ 2008
Agri-monitor 2008 (2008)maart. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 2
varkenshouderij - varkens - slachtdieren - slachthuizen - agrarische handel - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ketenmanagement - pig farming - pigs - meat animals - abattoirs - agricultural trade - farm management - supply chain management
Het aantal afnemers van varkens per vleesvarkenshouder neemt af. Vooral het aantal varkenshouders met drie of meer afnemers daalt sterk. De trend naar minder afnemers wijst op een betere ketenhechtheid, waardoor kosten bespaard kunnen worden.
Kosteneffectiviteit van de ecologische hoofdstructuur
Koeijer, T.J. de; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Clement, J. ; Groeneveld, R.A. ; Jong, J.J. de; Oltmer, K. ; Reijnen, M.J.S.M. ; Wijk, M. - \ 2008
In: Natuur en landschap in het landelijk gebied: kennis voor beleid / Brouwer, F.M., Dirkx, G.H.P., - p. 31 - 34.
natuurbescherming - kosten-batenanalyse - ecologische hoofdstructuur - natuurontwikkeling - nature conservation - cost benefit analysis - ecological network - nature development
De Nederlandse overheid wil een ecologische hoofdstructuur realiseren voor het duurzaam behouden van de biodiversiteit. Dit impliceert niet alleen de keuze van gebieden, maar ook de vereiste maatregelen in het terrein. Omdat het geld nu eenmaal beperkt is, is de vraag van belang op welke wijze tegen zo laag mogelijke kosten aan natuurontwikkeling gedaan kan worden
Landschappelijke effecten van veranderingen in de landbouw
Verburg, R.W. ; Leneman, H. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Dijk, J.J. van - \ 2008
In: Natuur en landschap in het landelijk gebied: kennis voor beleid / Brouwer, F.M., Dirkx, G.H.P., - p. 8 - 12.
landbouwsituatie - landbouwproductie - landschap - kwaliteit - nationale landschappen - agricultural situation - agricultural production - landscape - quality - national landscapes
Inkomens in de landbouw lopen duidelijk achterop in Nationale Landschappen met kernkwaliteiten die gerelateerd zijn aan behoud van karakteristieke watersystemen zoals kreekrestanten en vrij meanderende beken. Het LEI ontdekte regionale patronen in de productieomstandigheden
Ex post evaluatie van het Plattelandsontwikkelingsprogramma 2000-2006 (POP1). Managementsamenvatting
Staalduinen, L.C. van; Zee, F. van der; Venema, G.S. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Boonstra, F.G. ; Sanders, M.E. ; Linders, A.P.M. - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Samenvatting / LEI : Werkveld, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086152780 - 35
plattelandsontwikkeling - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - evaluatie - nederland - rural development - cap - evaluation - netherlands
Het POP1 is de Nederlandse uitwerking van het EU plattelandsontwikkelingsbeleid in deze periode en is s opgebouwd rond zes prioritaire doelen op het gebied van duurzame landbouw, natuur en landschap, duurzaam waterbeheer, diversificatie economische dragers, recreatie en toerisme en leefbaarheid
Ex post evaluatie van het Plattelandsontwikkelingsprogramma 2000-2006 (POP1). Deel 2: Bijlagen
Venema, G.S. ; Staalduinen, L.C. van; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Boonstra, F.G. ; Sanders, M.E. ; Linders, A.P.M. - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld, Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086152803 - 162
plattelandsontwikkeling - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - evaluatie - nederland - rural development - cap - evaluation - netherlands
Het eerste plattelandsontwikkelingsprogramma Nederland (POP1) vormde de invulling van de tweede pijler van het Gemeenschappelijk Landbouwbeleid van de EU
Ex post evaluatie van het Plattelandsontwikkelingsprogramma 2000-2006 (POP1). Deel 1
Venema, G.S. ; Staalduinen, L.C. van; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Boonstra, F.G. ; Sanders, M.E. ; Linders, A.P.M. - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld Internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086152797 - 306
plattelandsontwikkeling - gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - evaluatie - programma-evaluatie - nederland - financieren - rural development - cap - evaluation - program evaluation - netherlands - financing
Het eerste plattelandsontwikkelingsprogramma Nederland (POP1) vormde de invulling van de tweede pijler van het Gemeenschappelijk Landbouwbeleid van de EU. Het programma liep van 2000 tot 2006 en heeft tot een forse investering geleid, ook van private partijen. Een consortium bestaande uit LEI en Alterra en adviesbureau ERAC, heeft het programma geëvalueerd
Policy integration, coherence and governance in Dutch climate policy : a multi-level analysis of mitigation and adoption policy
Bommel, S. van; Kuindersma, W. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1799) - 121
klimaatverandering - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - regionaal beleid - governance - zuid-holland - climatic change - government policy - environmental policy - regional policy
This report assesses the integration of climate policy in Dutch public policy at the national, regional, local and area level. The national analysis focuses on the horizontal integration of climate policy in national government programmes, adaptation and mitigation strategies and specific policy instruments. Special attention is being paid on the vertical integration in the water policy sector. The regional analysis focuses on the province of South-Holland and the local analysis focuses on the municipality of Rotterdam. As a complementary approach, a case study is performed in the Zuidplaspolder. This case study reveals the practical implications of climate policy integration for policy implementation in a specific area. The report also suggests means to enhance climate policy integration and to improve policy coherence and it gives suggestions on methods to study policy integration, coherence and governance.
Helpt boeren de nationale landschappen? : een empirische analyse van de landbouw en haar effecten op kernkwaliteiten
Verburg, R.W. ; Leneman, H. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Dijk, J.J. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 83) - 143
landbouw - natuurbescherming - landschapsbescherming - kwaliteit - nederland - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - intensivering - agriculture - nature conservation - landscape conservation - quality - netherlands - farm size - intensification
Dit rapport beschrijft de fysieke en sociaaleconomische ontwikkelingen tussen 1980 en 2005 van de grondgebonden landbouw binnen en buiten de Nationale Landschappen. Verder zijn de relaties tussen bedrijfskenmerken en kernkwaliteiten met behulp van regressiemodellen beschreven. Daarna zijn deze modellen gebruikt om de effecten van schaalvergroting en intensivering op kernkwaliteiten voor het jaar 2020 te berekenen. Effecten van verbreding- en verdiepingactiviteiten op kernkwaliteiten zijn alleen kwalitatief beschreven. De uitkomsten van de ex ante analyse zijn gebruikt om opties voor beleid te formuleren. Trefwoorden: Nationale Landschappen, landbouw, kernkwaliteiten, schaalvergroting, intensivering, verbreding, verdieping
Understanding experts and expertise in different governance contexts : the case of nature conservation in the Drentsche Aa area in the Netherlands
Bommel, S. van - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.G. Röling, co-promotor(en): Noelle Aarts; Esther Turnhout. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852070 - 241
natuurbescherming - deskundigen - nederland - participatie - boeren - governance - natuurbeleid - nature conservation - experts - netherlands - participation - farmers - governance - nature conservation policy
Due to political and social changes, traditional expert-based hierarchical coordination mechanisms (‘government’ settings) are under pressure in nature conservation policy. New network coordination mechanisms, such as communicative or interactive processes of control and forms of self-regulation (‘governance settings’) have changed the role of expert advice in nature conservation policy. . In ‘governance’ settings, the role of expert advice has changed. The aim of the project is to contribute to finding effective solutions to resource dilemmas in nature conservation by enlightening the role of experts and expertise in a diversity of governance contexts
Agrarische structuur, trends en beleid: ontwikkelingen in Nederland vanaf 1950
Bruchem, C. van; Silvis, H.J. ; Berkhout, P. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Everdingen, W.H. van; Kleijn, A.J. de; Pronk, A. - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 2, Sectoren en bedrijven ) - ISBN 9789086152643 - 113
agrarische economie - landbouwsector - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwbeleid - agro-industriële sector - landbouwproductie - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - agrarische structuur - landbouwhervorming - nederland - economische verandering - agro-industriële ketens - agricultural economics - agricultural sector - agricultural development - agricultural policy - agroindustrial sector - agricultural production - farm income - agricultural structure - agrarian reform - netherlands - economic change - agro-industrial chains
In en rond de agrarische sector in Nederland hebben zich de afgelopen decennia ingrijpende veranderingen voorgedaan. Zo is het aandeel van de agrarische sector in de nationale economie stelselmatig teruggelopen. Dit rapport brengt de structurele veranderingen in kaart en analyseert de invloed van beleidsmaatregelen. Geconcludeerd wordt dat de processen van bedrijfsbeëindiging en schaalvergroting die zich in de land/ en tuinbouw voordoen, vooral bepaald zijn door het duurder worden van arbeid, in combinatie met het beschikbaar komenvan arbeidsbesparende technische mogelijkheden.Fundamental changes have taken place in and around the Dutch agricultural sector during the past decades, and the agriculture sector¿s share in the national economy has exhibited a consistent decline. This report maps the structural changes in the sector and analyses the influence of policy measures. The report concludes that the processes resulting in the closure of farms and increases in scale are primarily determined by the increasing cost of labour incombination with the availability of labour/saving technology.
Financiële lasten nieuwe EU-verordening diervoederetikettering : lastenverzwaring van de diervoedersector en de overheid in Nederland
Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Meulen, H.A.B. van der - \ 2008
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Sectoren en bedrijven ) - 26
diervoeding - wetgeving - EU regelingen - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - veevoederindustrie - overheid - kosten - animal nutrition - legislation - EU regulations - nutrition labeling - feed industry - public authorities - costs
Het LEI heeft de extra financiële en administratieve lasten bepaald voor zowel het bedrijfsleven als de overheid die ontstaan door de invoering van een nieuwe EU-verordening diervoederetikettering. De belangrijkste wijzigingen ten opzichte van de huidige wetgeving zijn bepaald en de impact hiervan voor bedrijven in de diervoedersector en de overheid is geanalyseerd
Policy makers are from Saturn, ... citizens are from Uranus ... : involving citizens in environmental governance in the Drentsche Aa area
Bommel, S. van; Turnhout, E. ; Aarts, M.N.C. ; Boonstra, F.G. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 78) - 76
landschap - participatie - sociale participatie - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - nederland - natuur - governance - burgers - drenthe - natuurbeleid - nationale landschappen - landscape - participation - social participation - community involvement - netherlands - nature - citizens - nature conservation policy - national landscapes
Dit onderzoek richt zich zowel conceptueel als empirisch op de relatie tussen draagvlak voor natuur, in de zin van betrokkenheid van burgers, en governance in het Nederlandse natuurbeleid. Er is een diepgaande case study uitgevoerd in het gebied van de Drentsche Aa. Gekeken is naar het functioneren van twee multi-actor platforms en naar de samenhang tussen de vertegenwoordigers op deze platforms en hun achterban op lokaal niveau. Hieruit bleek dat governance initiatieven die zich richten op het betrekken van verschillende actoren leiden tot verschillende intentionele en niet-intentionele vormen van burgers en burgerschap, zoals ‘passieve burgers’, ‘vertegenwoordigers’, ‘geassimileerde burgers’, ‘antagonistische burgers’ en ‘creatieve burgers’.Trefwoorden: multi-stakeholder platforms, multi-actor governance, governance, burgers, burgerschap, participatie, betrokkenheid, interactieve beleidsvorming, Drentsche Aa, Drentse Aa
Maakbare burgers? Participatie, betrokkenheid en burgerschap in de Drentsche Aa
Turnhout, E. ; Bommel, S. van; Aarts, N. - \ 2008
Jaarboek Kennissamenleving 2008 (2008)4. - ISSN 1871-0034 - p. 69 - 93.
natuurbescherming - burgers - besluitvorming - participatie - governance - drenthe - nature conservation - citizens - decision making - participation
Kosteneffectiviteit van de terrestrische ecologische hoofdstructuur : een eerste verkenning van mogelijke toepassingen
Koeijer, T.J. de; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Clement, J. ; Groeneveld, R.A. ; Jong, J.J. de; Oltmer, K. ; Reijnen, M.J.S.M. ; Wijk, M.N. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 73) - 86
cost effective analysis - natuurbescherming - nederland - kosten - ecologische hoofdstructuur - terrestrische ecologie - cost effectiveness analysis - nature conservation - netherlands - costs - ecological network - terrestrial ecology
Een methode is uitgewerkt om de kosteneffectiviteit van het natuurbeleid te bepalen voor de terrestrische Ecologische Hoofdstructuur (EHS). Bij de ontwikkeling van de methode zijn de volgende uitgangspunten gehanteerd: in de natuurgebieden worden alle condities die nodig zijn voor duurzame instandhouding van het natuurdoel op peil gebracht. Met behulp van GIS zijn per gridcel van 25x25m de milieucondities (verdroging en vermesting) in beeld gebracht, evenals het huidige grondgebruik. Op basis daarvan is vastgesteld welke maatregelen noodzakelijk zijn om de benodigde condities te realiseren en zijn hier kosten aangeplakt. De kosteneffectiviteit op basis van de benodigde kosten dan wel uitgaven per ha zijn weergegeven per gebied. De ontwikkelde methode kan voor verschillende typen van onderzoeksvragen worden ingezet. Zo kan de methode inzicht geven in de relatieve kosten van verschillende natuurgebieden maar ook in het relatieve belang van verschillende kostenposten. Daarnaast kan bijvoorbeeld gekeken worden naar de relatieve kosteneffectiviteit per provincie en naar de optimale ligging van de natuur gegeven een bepaald kostenplafond, of een gewenste geografische spreiding over Nederland. Trefwoorden: kosteneffectiviteit, terrestrische Ecologische Hoofdstructuur, Instandhoudingscondities, kosten natuurbeleid.
Ontwikkelingen in de maatschappen
Bommel, K.H.M. van; Voskuilen, M.J. - \ 2007
Agri-monitor 2007 (2007)oktober. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - landbouwbedrijven - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - bedrijfsopvolging - bedrijfsbeëindiging in de landbouw - fusies van boerenbedrijven - bedrijfsgrootte in de landbouw - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - farm management - farms - farm structure - succession - farm closures - farm amalgamations - farm size - farm development
De overdracht van een agrarisch bedrijf aan de volgende generatie vindt vaak plaats via een maatschap. Een maatschap geeft de opvolger de mogelijkheid om in het bedrijf de groeien. Ook worden via een maatschap de vaak optredende financiële knelpunten bij een overname in één keer omzeild. Dit artikel gaat in op het aantal gestarte en beëindigde maatschappen ingedeeld naar de leeftijd van de opvolger, de bedrijfsomvang en het type bedrijf.
Bedrijf zoekt vrouw: onderneemster in de agrarische sector
Oltmer, K. ; Bommel, K.H.M. van; Polman, N.B.P. - \ 2007
Agri-monitor 2007 (2007)november. - ISSN 1383-6455 - 3
landbouwsector - arbeid (werk) - werkende vrouwen - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - plattelandsvrouwen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - inkomen van landbouwers - agricultural sector - labour - employed women - female labour - rural women - farm management - entrepreneurship - farmers' income
Het aantal vrouwelijke bedrijfshoofden is in de afgelopen jaren flink gestegen, mede als gevolg van de invoering van man-vrouwmaatschappen. Het grootste deel werkt meer dan 20 uur en op middelgrote bedrijven van tussen de 70 tot 150 nge. Van de ondernemers die het bedrijf voor hun 25ste levensjaar hebben overgenomen, is een kwart van het vrouwelijke geslacht.
Analyse van additionele kosten van Natura 2000 in relatie met ammoniak Aanvulling op additionele kosten en sociaaleconomische gevolgen van Natura 2000 : Een quick scan
Bommel, K.H.M. van; Dijk, J.J. van; Horne, P.L.M. van; Hoste, R. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (LEI rapport 4.06.04) - 16
milieu - economie - sociale economie - ammoniak - economische analyse - kosten - landbouw - bedrijfsvoering - ammoniakemissie - natura 2000 - environment - economics - socioeconomics - ammonia - economic analysis - costs - agriculture - management - ammonia emission
In de meeste Natura 2000-gebieden is sprake van (veel) te hoge stikstofdepositie waardoor de biodiversiteit achteruitgaat. Het teveel aan depositie blijkt uit de mate waarin de critical load van de gevoelige habitats wordt overschreden. Om te kunnen voldoen aan de Natura 2000 verplichtingen, is het nodig dat de stikstofdepositie wordt verminderd. Een groot deel van de stikstofdepositie heeft zijn oorsprong in de landbouw, door emissie van ammoniak. De vraag is, welke extra bijdrage de landbouw moet leveren om de ammoniakemissie te reduceren in het kader van Natura 2000, boven op de inspanningen die anderszins in het milieubeleid zijn of worden voorgeschreven.
De baten van de KRW : een eerste inventarisatie naar de potentiële baten van schoner water voor de land- en tuinbouw
Bommel, K.H.M. van; Bondt, N. ; Dolman, M.A. ; Reijnders, C.E. - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (LEI rapporten : Domein 3, Natuurlijke hulpbronnen en milieu ) - 46
waterbeheer - eu regelingen - richtlijnen (directives) - landbouw - kosten-batenanalyse - landbouwsector - beregening - drinkwater - veevoeding - kaderrichtlijn water - water management - eu regulations - directives - agriculture - cost benefit analysis - agricultural sector - overhead irrigation - drinking water - livestock feeding - water framework directive
In de landbouw wordt water vooral gebruikt voor: - beregening van gewassen (ongeveer 50-150 miljoen m3 per jaar); - drenking van vee (ongeveer 100 miljoen m3 per jaar). Wanneer als gevolg van de KRW de waterkwaliteit verbetert, kan dit tot baten voor de landbouw leiden. In de strategische MKBA voor de KRW is een eerste inschatting gemaakt van de kosten en baten van de KRW. In die studie is voor de baten voor de landbouw een pm post opgenomen. Achtergrondrapport voor de ex ante evaluatie kaderrichtlijn water (KRW)
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