Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Identity as a weapon for peacebuilding : Strategies and practices of the indigenous guard from Northern Cauca, Columbia
Chaves Pérez, Paola - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N. Aarts, co-promotor(en): S. van Bommel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463951777 - 213
The power of narratives: Explaining inaction on gender mainstreaming in Uganda's climate change policy
Acosta, M.F. ; Wessel, M.G.J. van; Bommel, S. van; Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Jassogne, Laurence ; Feindt, P.H. - \ 2019
Development Policy Review (2019). - ISSN 0950-6764 - p. 1 - 27.
Expectations that gender‐mainstreaming efforts would effectively advance gender equality have been disappointed in contemporary sub‐Saharan Africa. Examining this apparent disconnect, we focus on the narratives through which policy‐makers relate to, and dis/engage with, gender issues. Using in‐depth interviews and stakeholder meetings, our multi‐step analysis identifies story episodes from which we reconstruct stories and narratives. The analysis reveals a complex ecology of 22 stories, clustered in five main narratives. While most stories unfold a gender equality narrative, four competing narratives emerge. Shifts during conversations from the gender equality to other narratives reveal that the discursive engagement with gender mainstreaming is accompanied by simultaneous resistance, deconstruction and revocation. These narrative shifts exercise four distinct power effects: They (1) shift blame for ineffective gender implementation; (2) legitimize policy inaction; (3) foreground and naturalize patriarchy; and (4) promote the diversion of resources. The implicit communicative strategies exercise power through ideas (persuade listeners that the equality narrative is inappropriate), power over ideas (gender equality ideas are rejected or frustrated) and power in ideas (entrenched patriarchy ideas are reproduced). Attention to ideational power through policy narrative contributes to explain implementation issues with gender mainstreaming in Uganda, and is likely to be relevant beyond this case.
What does it Mean to Make a ‘Joint’ Decision? Unpacking Intra-household Decision Making in Agriculture: Implications for Policy and Practice
Acosta, Mariola ; Wessel, M. van; Bommel, Severine Van; Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Twyman, Jennifer ; Jassogne, Laurence ; Feindt, Peter H. - \ 2019
Journal of Development Studies (2019). - ISSN 0022-0388

Strategies to empower women in development contexts frequently address their authority to take decisions within their household, including decisions that are taken jointly by couples. Assessing empowerment in joint decision-making has traditionally followed a dichotomous approach: decisions are either joint or not, with the former associated with women’s empowerment. This paper contributes to a more nuanced understanding of the empowerment effects of joint decision-making, based on case study data from Uganda. We present survey data revealing significant gender differences in perception of decision-making over the adoption of agricultural practices and consumption expenses. Women reported joint decision-making more often than men, who presented themselves more as sole decision makers. We supplement the survey data with an in-depth study in Lodi village, where we reconstruct meanings attached to joint decision-making using focus group discussions, a decision-making game and participant observation. Reported joint decision-making included a range of practices from no conversation among partners to conversations where female spouse’s ideas are considered but the man has the final say. The findings suggest that local interpretations of joint decision-making, in at least this case of a dominantly patriarchal context, can limit its potential for assessing women’s empowerment.

From first to last bite: Temporal dynamics of sensory and hedonic perceptions using a multiple-intake approach
Bommel, Roelien van; Stieger, Markus ; Boelee, Nicole ; Schlich, Pascal ; Jager, G. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 78 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293
Composite food - Multiple-intake assessment - Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) - Temporal drivers of liking (TDL)

Sensory perceptions evolve over time. Evaluation of sensory and hedonic perceptions after one bite are common. However, single bite assessments do not represent normal eating behaviour as consumers eat food portions with multiple bites. We hypothesise that dynamics of sensations and hedonics not only evolve within a bite but also evolve over bites. This study aims to investigate the temporal dynamics of sensations and hedonic perceptions using multiple-intake assessment employing Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS) and Alternated Temporal Drivers of Liking (A-TDL). Seventy-six participants evaluated six yogurts with granola pieces varying in size, hardness and concentration. An attentional shift was observed from yogurt attributes (creamy and sour) in the beginning of each mouthful to granola attributes (sweet, wheat and sticky) at the end of each mouthful. Sticky sensations gradually increased in dominance duration from the first to the fifth mouthful for five of six yogurts demonstrating the built up of dominance of this attribute. Creamy, crunchy and sweet were observed to be positive drivers of liking, consequently increasing liking. Sour and sticky were negative drivers of liking, decreasing liking upon dominance of these attributes. We conclude that consumer's sensory perception of food products changes from bite to bite. Our findings indicate that multiple-intake evaluations of dynamic sensations provide additional information about food perception, such as the built up of sensations from bite to bite. These changes in sensations cannot be captured by single bite assessments.

Discursive translations of gender mainstreaming norms : The case of agricultural and climate change policies in Uganda
Acosta, Mariola ; Bommel, Severine van; Wessel, Margit van; Ampaire, Edidah L. ; Jassogne, Laurence ; Feindt, Peter H. - \ 2019
Women's Studies International Forum 74 (2019). - ISSN 0277-5395 - p. 9 - 19.
Gender mainstreaming - Norm domestication - Norm translation - Transformational potential - Uganda

While the international norm on gender mainstreaming, UN-backed since 1995, has been widely adopted in national policies, gender inequalities are rarely systematically addressed on the ground. To explain this limited effectiveness, this paper takes a discourse analytical perspective on gender policy and budgeting, with a focus on the translation of the international norm into domestic norms and policies. An in-depth, inductive analysis of 107 policy documents in Uganda examines how the gender mainstreaming norm has been translated at three administrative levels: national, district, sub-county. The analysis finds five processes that reduce the norm's transformational potential: neglecting gender discourse, gender inertia, shrinking gender norms, embracing discursive hybridity and minimizing budgets. Overall, gender mainstreaming largely stopped at the discursive level, and often paradoxically depoliticized gender. The findings explain why gender mainstreaming might be helpful but not sufficient for advancing gender equality and suggest additional focus on promising practices, women's rights movements and stronger monitoring.

Dutch consumers do not hesitate : Capturing implicit ‘no dominance’ durations using Hold-down Temporal Dominance methodologies for Sensations (TDS) and Emotions (TDE)
Bommel, Roelien van; Stieger, Markus ; Schlich, Pascal ; Jager, Gerry - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 71 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 332 - 342.
Chocolates - Dynamic sensory measurements - No dominance duration time - Temporal Dominance of Emotions (TDE) - Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS)

In the ‘classic’ Temporal Dominance (TD) method, panellists are instructed to select a dominant attribute, which remains dominant until another attribute is selected. This procedure does not allow recording ‘no dominance (ND)’. ND periods can occur because of indecisive selection behaviour due to hesitation or uncertainty about attribute selection and time needed to switch from one attribute to another. ND periods may create noise in TD data. ND can be recorded implicitly using a ‘Hold-down’ procedure, where panellists actively hold down the attribute button that is perceived dominant, but release it when no longer dominant. The ‘Hold-down’ procedure allows subjects to report indecisive behaviour simply by not holding down a button. This study compared the ‘classic’ and ‘Hold-down’ TD methodologies. One hundred and thirty-seven participants evaluated four dark chocolates in two sessions, one for sensory (TDS) and one for emotion (TDE) evaluations. Participants employed either classic (n = 68) or Hold-down (n = 69) TD following a between subjects design. Similar dominance rates and dynamic evolutions of attributes during consumption were observed for both methods. ND durations between attribute selections were shorter than 1 s during sensory and emotion evaluations. Such short ND durations unlikely reflect periods of true hesitation, but rather reflect the time needed to switch between dominant attributes. No evidence is found for Hold-down TD outperforming classic TD in terms of sensitivity and discrimination ability. In conclusion, irrespective of the conceptual likelihood regarding the occurrence of ‘no dominance’ periods, the present study failed to demonstrate moments of hesitation using the ‘Hold-down’ procedure.

Eindrapport invloed van maïs-rassen op het foerageergedrag van dassen : Variatie in gewasschade
Thissen, J. ; Bommel, Frans van; Groten, J.A.M. ; Haye, M.J.J. la - \ 2018
Nijmegen : Zoogdiervereniging VZZ - 35 p.
Trust at a distance
Vries, J.R. de; Bommel, S. van; Peters, K. - \ 2018
Citizen science for development : Potential role of mobile phones in information sharing on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Laikipia, Kenya
Chepkwony, Richard ; Bommel, Severine van; Langevelde, Frank van - \ 2018
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 86-87 (2018). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 123 - 135.
Diseases - Empowerment - EVOCA - Human–wildlife conflicts - Insecurity - Mobile phones

Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) constitute a lethal and widespread problem in many tropical areas, with major ramifications for livestock production, wildlife management, and human health and livelihoods. Despite various control strategies applied, TTBDs remain a complex problem, and integrated approaches must be developed to control them effectively. To address this problem, Wageningen University and Research established an interdisciplinary project in 2015 – Environmental Virtual Observatories for Connective Actions (EVOCA) – that focuses, among other things, on mobile phone-based information sharing platforms for TTBDs in Kenya. This study in Laikipia, a semi-arid savanna area of Kenya, is designed to (i) identify issues that complicate effective TTBD control, (ii) explore whether and how local people use mobile phones to address problems, including TTBDs, and (iii) reflect on what citizen science can contribute to the development of mobile phone-based platforms for TTBDs. The study, conducted between November 2016 and August 2017, adopted a mixed-methods approach comprising 21 interviews, field observations, document reviews, and a workshop. Results suggest that the TTBD problem is compounded by a combination of local issues. Insecurity, human–wildlife conflicts, and occurrences of notifiable zoonotic diseases are among the most pressing issues that affect people and influence the kind of information that they share using mobile phones. The motivation to share information on insecurity and human–wildlife conflicts stems from the urgent need for people to collaborate and facilitate prompt action by the security agencies and expectations of compensation from the government for wildlife damages, respectively. Mobile phone adoption rate in Laikipia is ∼70%, suggesting that mobile phones (simple and smart) are widely used for various socioeconomic activities: to communicate with family members and friends and to access information on pressing issues, forming issue-based networks of communication. The widespread use of mobile phones for economic activities such as businesses and banking services have empowered people economically, improving their livelihoods, whereas those without access are probably excluded (disconnected). This study suggests that, despite the widespread adoption of mobile phones, sharing information on TTBDs does not seem to be a major priority for Laikipia residents, as other issues such as insecurity or human–wildlife conflicts take precedence. The design of mobile phone platforms and citizen science for TTBDs should consider such confounding factors to connect with the issues affecting local people.

Trust at a distance-trust in online communication in environmental and global health research projects
Vries, Jasper R. de; Bommel, Séverine van; Peters, Karin - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2071-1050
Ability - Collaboration - Integrity - Online - Trust - Virtual teams

Online collaboration to deal with (global) environmental and public health problems continues to grow as the quality of technology for communication improves. In these collaborations, trust is seen as important for sustainable collaborations and organizations. However, face-to-face communication, which is often lacking in these contexts, is seen as a pre-requisite for trust development. Therefore, this paper aims to explore empirically which factors influence the emergence of trust in the early stages of online collaboration. Using the relevant literature, we conducted a series of interviews around projects in the field of public health and the environment on the interface between science and practice. The results show that trust does develop between participants. This trust is strongly influenced by perceived ability and integrity, fostered by reputation, third-party perceptions, and project structure. In these contexts, these types of trust facilitate collaboration but are also influenced by a wider set of aspects such as power, expectations, and uncertainty. However, from the results we also conclude that online collaboration does not create benevolence and a shared identity, thereby limiting further trust development and leading to less strong relations. Strong relations, however, are deemed important to reach creative and innovative solutions and long-term sustainable collaboration and organizations.

Discourse-Framing-Storytelling. How do they differ and relate?
Vries, J.R. de; Dewulf, A.R.P.J. ; Metze, T.A.P. ; Bommel, S. van; Hulst, Merlijn van; Ostaijen, Mark van - \ 2017
Hoe de implementatiekloof te dichten? Een analyse voor perspectieven in het overstromingsbeleid
Coninx, I. - \ 2017
KU Leuven. Promotor(en): Marleen, prof. dr. Brans. - Leuven : KU Leuven - 316 p.
Als overheidsbeleid de gestelde doelen niet haalt, dan is er sprake van een implementatiekloof (Laurian & Crawford, 2016). Ook het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid lijkt een implementatiekloof te kennen, want ondanks een palet aan preventieve, effectgerichte en curatieve overstromingsmaatregelen wordt de schade door overstromingen jaarlijks nog op zo een 50 miljoen euro geschat (Brouwers et al., 2015). Implementatie is in feite gedrag (O'Toole Jr, 2000; Robichau & Lynn Jr, 2009) en gedrag wordt ingegeven door houdingen (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). Daarom wil dit onderzoek nagaan of houdingen van betrokken beleidsactoren een rol spelen bij de implementatie van overstromingsmaatregelen (hoofdstuk 2). Beleidsactoren van 26 organisaties of groepen geven het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid een echt multiactor-, multisector- en multilevelkarakter (hoofdstuk 1). Het onderzoek beantwoordt enkele vragen over houdingen, zoals of ze een rol spelen bij de uitvoering, welke verschillende houdingen er zijn, hoe die houdingen bepaald worden en wat de dominante evaluatiecriteria zijn. Op basis van die inzichten worden mechanismen ontwikkeld om de implementatiekloof te dichten. Vervolgens worden perspectieven voor het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid beschreven. De analyse vond plaats voor 15 overstromingsmaatregelen bij 347 actoren en in 3 casegebieden in Vlaanderen. Dit gebeurde via verschillende dataverzameling- en data-analysemethoden om triangulatie op vele fronten te waarborgen (hoofdstuk 3).De analyse toont dat houdingen een rol spelen, want veel beleidsactoren staan nog negatief tegenover bepaalde overstromingsmaatregelen met een ruimtelijke impact (hoofdstuk 4). Diverse ‘evaluatiecriteria’ – criteria, gebruikt om houding te bepalen tijdens de evaluatieve afweging – bepalen die houdingen. Ten eerste worden houdingen gevormd door belangen en hebben mensen een positieve houding ten aanzien van maatregelen die hun baten opleveren (Gintis, 2000; Henrich et al., 2001; Jager, Janssen, De Vries, De Greef, & Vlek, 2000; Persky, 1995). Ten tweede worden houdingen bepaald door waarden, wat richtinggevende principes zijn van wat volgens de mens wenselijk en juist is (Kempton, Boster, & Hartley, 1995). Men heeft positieve houding ten aanzien van maatregelen die in lijn liggen met zijn waarden. Ten derde worden houdingen gevormd door denkkaders en percepties (Bartlett, 1932; Benford & Snow, 2000; Berger & Luckmann, 1966). Dat zijn cognitieve voorstellingen die gebruikt worden om betekenis te geven aan informatie (Buijs, 2009b; Minsky, 1975). Percepties spelen altijd een rol bij houdingbepaling, zo blijkt ook uit de analyse (hoofdstuk 5).De combinatie van evaluatiecriteria vormt een verhaallijn, die toe te kennen is aan elk van de actoren. Elke overstromingsmaatregel kent verschillende verhaallijnen. Hoe meer verhaallijnen, hoe meer divers de evaluatiecriteria die elke actor gebruikt. In dit onderzoek is vooral nagegaan waar spanning optreedt tussen de verhaallijnen en welke evaluatiecriteria aan de basis liggen van de negatieve houdingen (hoofdstuk 5). In het Vlaams overstromingsbeleid verklaren vooral percepties en waarden de implementatiekloof. Zelfs over het huidige beleidsparadigma ‘ruimte voor water’ bestaan er twee verschillende percepties: ‘ruimte maken’ en ‘ruimte vinden’ voor water. Die twee percepties weerspiegelen de bereidheid van mensen om het huidige ruimtegebruik aan te passen. Die percepties en andere fundamentele verschillen houden de uitvoering van het overstromingsbeleid in de tang. Het valt op dat binnen één actorgroep veel verschillende verhaallijnen te vinden zijn. Dat leidt tot vragen of het systeem van sectorale vertegenwoordiging in de CIW en de bekkenraden wel goed genoeg kan werken.Er is ook gekeken welk type evaluatiecriteria de actoren vooral gebruiken om houding te bepalen. De meeste actoren laten zich leiden door hun waarden. Alleen de sector ‘landbouw’ en actoren van het Vlaamse/nationale niveau gebruiken vooral belangengerichte evaluatiecriteria (hoofdstuk 6).Wetende dat houdingen een rol spelen bij de implementatiekloof, rest de vraag welke mechanismen kunnen helpen om de implementatiekloof te dichten? Allereerst is het raadzaam om de actoren die een rol spelen bij de uitvoering, al te betrekken bij het interactieve beleidsontwikkelingsproces. Door interactie en cocreatie worden nieuwe inzichten ontwikkeld, kennis uitgewisseld en belangen, waarden en percepties gedeeld (Ter Haar, Aarts, & Verhoeven, 2016). Als bestaande verhaallijnen beter op elkaar afgestemd geraken of mensen verschuiven naar één dominante verhaallijn, dan helpt dat om de implementatiekloof te voorkomen (Hajer, 2005). Bij de uitvoering van de maatregelen helpen interactieve beleidsinstrumenten om gezamenlijke actie tot stand te brengen. Dat is iets dat niet snel gebeurd wanneer beleidsinstrumenten zoals gezag of geld worden ingezet. (Tabel 1: mechanismen om implementatiekloof te dichten) Er wordt vastgesteld dat nog maar weinig van die mechanismen ingebouwd werden in het overstromingsbeleid, aangezien een betekenisvolle proportie actoren zich nog bevindt in de verhaallijn die overeenkomt met het ‘oude paradigma’ van ‘strijden tegen water’. Om de verschillen tussen de evaluatiecriteria te kennen, is het aan te raden om de verhaallijnen te verkennen via interviews en analyse van documenten (= mapping van verhaallijnen) (Kolkman, Veen, & Geurts, 2007).Wetenschap kan een rol spelen bij het dichten van de implementatiekloof, vooral als die verklaard wordt door percepties (Leeuwis & Aarts, 2016; Van Bommel, Röling, Aarts, & Turnhout, 2009), op voorwaarde dat de betrokken actoren de wetenschappelijke kennis beschouwen als gelegitimeerd, geloofwaardig en begrijpelijk (Cash et al., 2003). Anders zal de kennis in twijfel getrokken of zelfs misbruikt worden om specifieke verhaallijnen te ontkrachten. Bovendien zijn er ook andere typen van kennis dan louter wetenschappelijke. ‘Boundary organisations’ kunnen wetenschappelijke kennis inbrengen en zo de implementatiekloof dichten (Guston, 2001). Men moet er wel bewust van zijn dat machtsrelaties het succes van de genoemde mechanismen kunnen beïnvloeden (Van Bommel et al., 2009).Op basis van deze mechanismen zijn vervolgens perspectieven voor de verdere ontwikkeling van het overstromingsbeleid geformuleerd. Het eerste perspectief richt zich op het versterken van bestaande overstromingsmaatregelen via beperkte interventies zoals participatieve monitoring en bespreken en communiceren van (wetenschappelijk) bevindingen. Het tweede perspectief omvat meer ingrijpende interventies, zoals de formele introductie van meerlaagse veiligheid in het beleid, de versterking van de dialoog tussen verhaallijnen in de bekkenorganen en maatregelen om te komen tot een passende verantwoordelijkheidsverdeling tussen overheid en burger, zoals een meerjarig pilotprogramma. De resultaten van dat pilotprogramma kunnen dan geformaliseerd worden in beleidsdocumenten.De algemene conclusie is dat houdingen van betrokken actoren één van de verklaringen kunnen zijn voor een implementatiekloof. Het onderzoek laat zien dat die houdingen kunnen verschillen, maar ook dat houdingen veranderlijk zijn. Daarom is actieve sturing op die houdingverandering een absolute must voor het beleid om zo de implementatiekloof te dichten en zelfs te voorkomen.
Where there is no history : How to create trust and connection in learning for transformation in water governance
Vries, Jasper R. de; Bommel, Séverine van; Blackmore, Chris ; Asano, Yoshiko - \ 2017
Water 9 (2017)2. - ISSN 2073-4441
Climate change adaptation and water governance (CADWAGO) - Knowledge sharing and use - Social learning - Swift trust - Trust dynamics

Trust is often seen as an important element in settings of knowledge sharing and the co-creation of knowledge for dealing with transformations in water governance. However, seemingly similar conversations during a co-creation workshop in Uppsala resulted in both trust and distrust, and thereby influenced consequent possibilities for the co-creation of knowledge. Therefore, this article focuses on how trust influences knowledge sharing and how knowledge sharing influences trust. We use a case study approach to analyze the Uppsala co-creation workshop-part of the Climate Change Adaptation and Water Governance (CADWAGO) project-by comparing 25 conversations, making use of theories on swift trust and trust dynamics. We found four different conversation patterns (1) sending; (2) defending; (3) misunderstanding; and (4) connecting. The first three patterns influenced trust negatively and did not lead to knowledge sharing, whereas pattern four showed trust development and co-creation of knowledge. From our comparative analyses, we conclude that trust starts to emerge when there is mutual openness and empathy visible in turn-taking patterns. More specifically, trust emerges when communication styles allow for recognition and exploring underlying needs and wishes, resulting in a more dynamic dialogue, further trust development, and connection between actors. Our list of conversation patterns is provisional but we argue that understanding how different kinds of interactions can lead to trust or distrust is crucial to understanding why and how learning takes place-insights that are essential for fostering learning and transformations in water governance.

Where there is no history
Vries, J.R. de; Bommel, S. van; Blackmore, C. - \ 2016
Performing and orchestrating governance learning for systemic transformation in practice for climate change adaptation
Bommel, Séverine van; Blackmore, Chris ; Foster, Natalie ; Vries, Jasper de - \ 2016
Outlook on Agriculture 45 (2016)4. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 231 - 237.
Climate change adaptation - Social learning

Barriers to climate change adaptation might not lie so much in ‘gaps’ in scientific or technical understandings but rather in the complexities of social, institutional and cultural transitions in climate change governance. Effective responses to complex environmental issues seem to require ‘co-learning for systemic governance transformations’. However, this process remains poorly understood. This article analyses the performance and orchestration of governance learning for systemic transformation in practice, drawing on examples from the international climate change adaptation and water governance (CADWAGO) project. We show that in these examples the interplay of ‘separating’ and ‘connecting’ is central to transforming governance in the European water management landscape. The article concludes that an orientation to boundary work and co-production of knowledge contributes to scientific narratives that can inspire meaningful connective action and move complex socioecological systems into a more sustainable trajectory.

Onderzoekers WUR testen emotie proefpersonen tijdens eten chocolade
Bommel, M.R.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University & Research
Onderzoekers WUR testen emotie proefpersonen tijdens eten chocolade
Engineers at the Patient’s Bedside: : The Case of Silence in Inter-institutional Educational Innovation
Verouden, Nick ; Sanden, M.C.A. van der; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2016
In: The Silences of Science / Mellor, Felicity, Webster, Stephen, London : Routledge - ISBN 9781472459978 - p. 89 - 112.
Innovation in science and technology is increasingly linked with interdisciplinarity. Encouraging this trend depends in part on cutting-edge educational programmes that revise, reinvent and redesign curricula as interdisciplinary vehicles, establishing and re-establishing relations between traditional fields and areas of expertise (Stone et al., 1999; Casey, 1994). Such programmes are valuable because they can overcome ‘silo’ mentalities and equip prospective students with the skills and knowledge necessary for understanding and solving complex societal problems (Stone et al.,1999; McFadden et al., 2010). Although these programmes are very promising, their development and

implementation also brings challenges. The literature on curriculum development shows that many programmes have struggled to achieve true integration (McFadden et al., 2010; Stone et al., 1999). Dam-Mieras et al. (2008), in their study of an international master’s programme in sustainable development and management developed collaboratively by nine universities, observed that universities have their own experts and own programmes and that the ‘not invented here’ argument influences how details about new programme are discussed. Focussing on innovative online instruction courses, Xu and Morris (2007) found that the absence of group cohesiveness between faculty and project coordinators can hinder the collaborative course development process and affect the quality of the end product. Stone et al. (1999) emphasize that faculty members and administrators work at cross-purposes and view each other’s initiatives with suspicion. Given the importance that scientists, academic institutions and policy makers ascribe to innovation, along with their assumption that such innovation is a sure result of interdisciplinarity, it is essential to gain a better understanding of how curriculum development in academic education actually works. For this chapter, we consider how processes of connecting and inter-

relating could add to our understanding of the problems and dilemmas that arise in developing and implementing such programmes. Scholars of innovation, in science and technology and beyond, have explained that innovation is not some abstract algorithm: it relies on interaction and collaboration between

multiple actors with different expertises, visions, priorities and investment (Van Bommel et al., 2011; Leeuwis and Aarts, 2011; Akrich et al., 2002; Fonseca, 2002). This process of interacting is very difficult, however, and creates many tensions. This is revealed by studies that show the lurking problems of connecting previously unconnected people around new ideas and technologies. These studies show how innovation processes become defined by competition for scarce resources, protracted negotiations over priorities and interests, and dynamics of inclusion and exclusion (Leeuwis andAarts, 2011; Pretty, 1995; Van Bommel et al., 2011). Fonseca (2002) hence explains that innovation always creates a paradoxical situation, in which organizations, in their search to accelerate change and adapt to and find solutions for external challenges and demands, unavoidably create new and unpredictable interactional patterns. Given that interacting is a complicated matter in innovation processes, a

key question within the management of innovation literature is how we can account for the way relevant actors connect, or fail to connect (Akrich et al., 2002). In this respect, verbal communication is often cited as an essential mechanism for effectively connecting important actors and social groups around innovative ideas, products, or technologies (Van Bommel et al., 2011). In turn, the markers of effective verbal communication as a frame for innovation are seen to be openness, dialogue, and the ability to cooperate and be reflective on one’s thoughts and actions (Stilgoe et al., 2013). Thorp and Goldstein (2010), writing about university innovation, describe conversations as the fertile ground from which innovation grows and urge us to make time and space for those conversations. Dialogue and openness are seen as indicators of the quality of interaction, and process transparency as a decisive component of academic innovation. By being open or transparent in discussing issues and problems, actors build confidence that negotiation is ‘real’ and not a cover-up for private backroom deals (de Bruijn and ten Heuvelhof, 2008). Although there is a wealth of research on communication for innovation,

most scholarly work focuses on what is exchanged verbally, on how actors collate all the relevant evidence, put it on the table and discuss it openly. As of yet, silence is absent from these studies of communication for innovation. Building on recent organizational and strategy scholarship, in which silence is approached as an intricate concept with powerful functions and meanings in social interaction (Van Assche and Costaglioli, 2012; Carter et al., 2008; Henriksen and Dayton, 2006; Panteli and Fineman, 2005; Tucker and Edmondson, 2003; Jaworski, 2005; Morrison and Milliken, 2000), we suggest that silence merits much more attention in analyses of academic innovation. This chapter therefore explores the role of moments of silence during interactions within networks developing and implementing educational innovation. The structure of this chapter is as follows. We start by looking at the litera-

ture on dynamic innovation networks and communication and complement these insights with scholarship on silence within organization studies. After briefly introducing our approach, we present the findings of a study of an inter-institutional and interdisciplinary joint bachelor’s programme that was

implemented at the interface of health and technology. The purpose of the study was to better understand the significance of moments of silence in developing and implementing this programme. We end with the implications of our findings for steering in the context of interdisciplinary innovation.
Self-Organization and the Bypass: Re-Imagining Institutions for More Sustainable Development in Agriculture and Food
Sherwood, Stephen ; Bommel, Severine Van; Paredes, Myriam - \ 2016
Agriculture 6 (2016)4. - ISSN 2077-0472
In exploring the social dynamics of agrofood movements in Ecuador as examples of self-organization (i.e., locally distributed and resolved development), this article departs from a preoccupation with innovation by means of design and the use of scaling as a metaphor for describing research contributions in agriculture and food. The case material highlights that much development is contingent, unpredictable, and unmanageable as well as unbound to fixed spaces or places. In their study of people’s daily practice, the authors do not find clear boundaries between dichotomies of internal–external, lay–expert, traditional–modern, or local–global organization, but heterogeneous blends of each. For the purposes of sustainable development, this highlights the need for attention to be paid to relationships (social, material, and biological), adaptation (the capacity to innovate), and responsibility (adherence to norms of sustainability). Far from romanticizing self-organization, the authors acknowledge that people and their institutions share varying degrees of complicity for the goods as well as the bads of their economic activity, such as mass soil degradation, agrobiodiversity loss, and poisoning by pesticides. Nevertheless, even under highly difficult conditions, certain actors effectively bypass the limitations of formal institutions in forging a socio-technical course of action (i.e., policy) for relatively healthy living and being. As such, the authors have come to appreciate self-organization as a neglected, if paradoxical, resource for policy transition towards more sustainable agriculture and food.
Learning for transformation of water governance : reflections on design from the climate change adaptation and water governance (CADWAGO) project
Blackmore, Chris ; Bommel, Severine van; Bruin, Annemarieke de; Vries, Jasper de; Westberg, Lotten ; Powell, Neil ; Foster, Natalie ; Collins, Kevin ; Roggero, Pier Paolo ; Seddaiu, Giovanna - \ 2016
Water 8 (2016)11. - ISSN 2073-4441
CADWAGO - Design - Learning - Transformation - water governance
This paper considers how learning for transformation of water governance in the context of climate change adaptation can be designed for and supported, drawing examples from the international climate change adaptation and water governance project (CADWAGO). The project explicitly set out to design for governance learning in the sense of developing elements of social infrastructure such as workshops, performances and online media to bring stakeholders together and to facilitate co-learning of relevance to governance. CADWAGO drew on a variety of international cases from past and ongoing work of the project partners. It created a forum for dialogue among actors from different contexts working at different levels and scales. The range of opportunities and constraints encountered are discussed, including the principles and practicalities of working with distributed processes of design and leadership of events. A range of concepts, tools and techniques were used to consider and facilitate individual and collective learning processes and outcomes associated with water governance in the context of climate adaptation. Questions were addressed about how elements of past, present and future water governance thinking and practice are connected and how multi-level systemic change in governance can take place. Some reflections on the effectiveness of the design for learning process are included. The nature of the contribution that projects such as CADWAGO can make in learning for transformation of water governance practices is also critically considered.
Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption
Silva, Ana Patricia ; Jager, Gerry ; Bommel, Roelien van; Zyl, Hannelize van; Voss, Hans Peter ; Hogg, Tim ; Pintado, Manuela ; Graaf, Kees de - \ 2016
Food Quality and Preference 49 (2016). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 54 - 65.
Beer - Beverage choice - Conceptualisations - Cross-cultural - Drinking behaviour - Emotions - Non-alcoholic beer - Qualitative research - Wine

Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and compared to beer and wine conceptualisations in the Netherlands and Portugal. A qualitative study was performed using a focus group approach with moderate consumers of both countries (n= 56). Content analysis followed by correspondence analysis were used to explore conceptualisations. This study showed similar conceptualisations of the beverages in both countries. NAB has a limited conceptual content, which is mostly functional as a substitute. Beer and wine are rich in both functional and emotional content. Wine is associated with positive low arousal emotional responses, such as calm and loving. Beer is associated with positive high arousal emotional responses, such as adventurous and energetic. NAB evokes neutral and negative emotional responses, such as rational, conscious, and disappointed. The difference in conceptualisations of NAB versus beer/wine might be why NAB is not adopted more widely as a substitute as it does not deliver a comparable emotional response to consumers. NAB should be treated as a beverage in its own right and it might be wise to avoid direct conceptual comparisons with beer. Should the image of NAB be communicated and understood with positive and high arousal associations, such as energetic and convivial, in communication and advertisements, a higher level of congruency between expectation and experience could be achieved.

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