Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Educational differences in healthy, environmentally sustainable and safe food consumption among adults in the Netherlands
    Bussel, Lenneke M. Van; Rossum, Caroline T.M. Van; Temme, Elisabeth H.M. ; Boon, Polly E. ; Ocké, Marga C. - \ 2020
    Public Health Nutrition 23 (2020)12. - ISSN 1368-9800 - p. 2057 - 2067.
    24-h recall - Educational level - Environmentally sustainable food - Food consumption - Food safety - Healthy food

    Objective:To assess the differences in healthy, environmentally sustainable and safe food consumption by education levels among adults aged 19-69 in the Netherlands.Design:This study used data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-10. Food consumption data were obtained via two 24-h recalls. Food consumption data were linked to data on food composition, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe) and concentrations of contaminants. The Dutch dietary guidelines (2015), dietary GHGe and dietary exposure to contaminants were used as indicators for healthy, environmentally sustainable and safe food consumption, respectively.Setting:The Netherlands.Participants:2106 adults aged 19-69 years.Results:High education groups consumed significantly more fruit (+28 g), vegetables (men +22 g; women +27 g) and fish (men +6 g; women +7 g), and significantly less meat (men -33 g; women -14 g) compared with low education groups. Overall, no educational differences were found in total GHGe, although its food sources differed. Exposure to contaminants showed some differences between education groups.Conclusions:The consumption patterns differed by education groups, resulting in a more healthy diet, but equally environmentally sustainable diet among high compared with low education groups. Exposure to food contaminants differed between education groups, but was not above safe levels, except for acrylamide and aflatoxin B1. For these substances, a health risk could not be excluded for all education groups. These insights may be used in policy measures focusing on the improvement of a healthy diet for all.

    Positioning of systemic intermediaries in sustainability transitions : Between storylines and speech acts
    Lente, Harro van; Boon, Wouter P.C. ; Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2020
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions (2020). - ISSN 2210-4224 - 13 p.
    Innovation intermediaries - Positioning theory - Speech act - Storyline - Sustainability transitions

    How do systemic intermediaries obtain legitimate roles for themselves in innovation systems and transition processes? This is still an understudied question in the study of systemic intermediaries. We start from the observation that roles, or positions, are not given, but emerge in interactions as a negotiated set of rights and obligations. Inspired by positioning theory, which has its roots in symbolic interactionism, we analyse how positions are invoked in the actors’ various actions and statements (‘speech acts’) and how they draw from the mutually constructed narratives (‘storylines’) that enable and constrain the range of possible positions. We analyse, over time, the positioning of three Dutch systemic intermediaries in agriculture, energy production, and healthcare. We conclude that systemic intermediaries move together with the promise of the field and, as a consequence, have to reposition themselves. In different phases, they both profit and suffer from the dilemma between initiating and sustaining innovative systemic changes.

    Elevated viscosities in a simulated moving bed for γ-aminobutyric acid recovery
    Schultze-Jena, A. ; Boon, M.A. ; Vroon, R.C. ; Bussmann, P.J.Th. ; Janssen, A.E.M. ; Padt, A. van der - \ 2020
    Journal of Separation Science 43 (2020)7. - ISSN 1615-9306 - p. 1256 - 1264.
    chromatography - concentration profile - productivity - simulated moving bed - viscosity

    Process streams of agro-food industries are often large and viscous. In order to fractionate such a stream the viscosity can be reduced by either a high temperature or dilution, the former is not an option in case of temperature sensitive components. Such streams are diluted prior to chromatographic fractionation, resulting in even larger volumes and high energy costs for sub-sequential water removal. The influence of feed viscosity on the performance of simulated moving bed chromatography has been investigated in a case study of the recovery of a γ-aminobutyric acid rich fraction from tomato serum. This work addresses the chromatographic system design, evaluates results from a pilot scale operation, and uses these to calculate the productivity and water use at elevated feed concentration. At the two higher feed viscosities (2.5 and 4 mPa·s) water use is lower and productivity higher, compared to the lowest feed viscosity (1 mPa·s). The behavior of the sugars for different feed viscosities can be described well by the model using the ratio of feed to eluent as dilution factor. The behavior of γ-aminobutyric acid is highly concentration dependent and the recovery could not be accurately predicted.

    Marine stepping‐stones: Connectivity of Mytilus edulis populations between offshore energy installations
    Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Crooijmans, Richard ; Pelt, Hilde Van; Kleissen, Frank ; Gerla, Daan ; Beermann, Jan ; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. ; Becking, Leontine E. ; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C. - \ 2020
    Molecular Ecology 29 (2020)4. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 686 - 703.
    Stepping-stones - Mytilus edulis - particle tracking models - North Sea - connectivity - offshore installations
    Recent papers postulate that epifaunal organisms use artificial structures as stepping-stones to spread to areas that are too distant to reach in a single generation. With thousands of artificial structures present in the North Sea, we test the hypothesis that these structures are connected by water currents and act as an interconnected reef. Population genetic structure of the Blue mussel, Mytilus edulis was expected to follow a pattern predicted by particle tracking models (PTM). Correlation between population genetic differentiation, based on microsatellite markers, and particle exchange was tested. Specimens of M. eduliswere found at each location, although the PTM indicated that locations >85 km offshore were isolated from coastal sub-populations. Fixation coefficient FST correlated with the number of arrivals in the PTM. However, the number of effective migrants per generation as inferred from coalescent simulations did notshow a strong correlation with the arriving particles. Isolation by distance analysis showed no increase in isolation with increasing distance and we did not find clear structure among the populations. The marine stepping-stone effect is obviously important for the distribution of M. edulis in the North Sea and it mayinfluence ecologically comparable species in a similar way. In the absence of artificial shallow hard substrates, M. edulis would be unlikely to survive in offshore North Sea waters. Although we found an indication that FST was lower between connected locations, isolation by distance analysis showed noincrease in isolation with increasing distance. Finally, we did not find clear structure among the populations.
    High viscosity preparative chromatography for food applications
    Schultze-Jena, A. ; Boon, M.A. ; Vroon, R.C. ; Bussmann, P.J.Th. ; Janssen, A.E.M. ; Padt, A. van der - \ 2020
    Separation and Purification Technology 237 (2020). - ISSN 1383-5866
    Food fractionation - Preparative chromatography - Productivity - System size - Viscosity

    The strength of chromatography lies in the ability of fine-tuning recovery for specific target components or fractions of interest. A downside of industrial chromatography is the need to dilute streams, as it is often applied today. This article challenges the conventional low concentration of input streams and investigates size exclusion chromatography at concentrated streams of high viscosity. Chromatographic operation with concentrated streams leads to an increased pressure drop over the column and decreased mass transfer kinetics, but also lower volumes compared to diluted streams. The objective of this research was to investigate separation performance and system dimensions as a function of viscosity for food type streams, in scenarios where viscosity is not caused by target components. Disadvantages due to increased stream volume with decreasing concentration and benefits due to decreased viscosity were evaluated, aiming to find minimal column volume. Separation performance was evaluated for a range of target components in a preparative lab-scale system using a size exclusion resin and mobile phase viscosities in the range of 1.2–8.7 mPa⋅s. Mobile phases were viscosified through addition of sucrose, glycerol, or dextran. Change in mass transfer resistance, measured via van Deemter curves, was related to the change in diffusivity through viscosity. The analysis of different viscosifying agents emphasized the influence of viscosity inside the pores, rather than viscosity of the bulk phase. The viscosity inside the pores was calculated via the partition coefficient of each viscosifying agent. Based on the slopes of van Deemter curves, column dimensions were calculated for different scenarios, assuming a non-compressible stationary phase. Column volume remained constant with stream dilution from 8.7 mPa⋅s down to about 2.5 mPa⋅s. However, at the same time column geometry changed to thinner and longer columns with decreasing viscosity, in order to accommodate throughput and pressure drop. When diluting to even lower viscosities, column volume increased, since stream viscosity is less sensitive to stream concentration at the low viscosity range. These results are relevant to a wide range of industries utilizing weak interaction chromatography, especially those where the main driver of process development is cost reduction and where a trade-off between purity, yield, and costs has to be made.

    Deletion of haematopoietic Dectin-2 or CARD9 does not protect from atherosclerosis development under hyperglycaemic conditions
    Thiem, Kathrin ; Hoeke, Geerte ; Zhou, Enchen ; Hijmans, Anneke ; Houben, Tom ; Boels, Margien G. ; Mol, Isabel M. ; Lutgens, Esther ; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit ; Bussink, Johan ; Kanneganti, Thirumala D. ; Boon, Mariëtte R. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Tack, Cees J. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Berbée, Jimmy F.P. ; Diepen, Janna A. van - \ 2020
    Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research 17 (2020)1. - ISSN 1479-1641
    Atherosclerosis - C-type lectin receptors - CARD9 - Dectin-2 - hyperglycaemia - inflammation - monocytes/macrophages

    Background: C-type lectin receptors, including Dectin-2, are pattern recognition receptors on monocytes and macrophages that mainly recognize sugars and sugar-like structures present on fungi. Activation of C-type lectin receptors induces downstream CARD9 signalling, leading to the production of cytokines. We hypothesized that under hyperglycaemic conditions, as is the case in diabetes mellitus, glycosylated protein (sugar-like) structures activate C-type lectin receptors, leading to immune cell activation and increased atherosclerosis development. Methods: Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were lethally irradiated and transplanted with bone marrow from control wild-type, Dectin-2−/− or Card9−/− mice. After 6 weeks of recovery, mice received streptozotocin injections (50 mg/g BW; 5 days) to induce hyperglycaemia. After an additional 2 weeks, mice were fed a Western-type diet (0.1% cholesterol) for 10 weeks. Results and Conclusion: Deletion of haematopoietic Dectin-2 reduced the number of circulating Ly6Chi monocytes, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production, but did not affect atherosclerosis development. Deletion of haematopoietic CARD9 tended to reduce macrophage and collagen content in atherosclerotic lesions, again without influencing the lesion size. Deletion of haematopoietic Dectin-2 did not influence atherosclerosis development under hyperglycaemic conditions, despite some minor effects on inflammation. Deletion of haematopoietic CARD9 induced minor alterations in plaque composition under hyperglycaemic conditions, without affecting lesion size.

    Predicting intraparticle diffusivity as function of stationary phase characteristics in preparative chromatography
    Schultze-Jena, A. ; Boon, M.A. ; Winter, D.A.M. de; Bussmann, P.J.T. ; Janssen, A.E.M. ; Padt, A. van der - \ 2020
    Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1613 (2020). - ISSN 0021-9673
    Intraparticle diffusivity - Parallel pore model - Porosity - Preparative chromatography

    Diffusion inside pores is the rate limiting step in many preparative chromatographic separations and a key parameter for process design in weak interaction aqueous chromatographic separations employed in food and bio processing. This work aims at relating diffusion inside porous networks to properties of stationary phase and of diffusing molecules. Intraparticle diffusivities were determined for eight small molecules in nine different stationary phases made from three different backbone materials. Measured intraparticle diffusivities were compared to the predictive capability of the correlation by Mackie and Meares and the parallel pore model. All stationary phases were analyzed for their porosity, apparent pore size distribution and tortuosity, which are input parameters for the models. The parallel pore model provides understanding of the occurring phenomena, but the input parameters were difficult to determine experimentally. The model predictions of intraparticle diffusion were of limited accuracy. We show that prediction can be improved when combining the model of Mackie and Meares with the fraction of accessible pore volume. The accessible pore volume fraction can be determined from inverse size exclusion chromatographic measurements. Future work should further challenge the improved model, specifically widening the applicability to greater accessible pore fractions (> 0.7) with corresponding higher intraparticle diffusivities (Dp/Dm > 0.2). A database of intraparticle diffusion and stationary phase pore property measurements is supplied, to contribute to general understanding of the relationship between intraparticle diffusion and pore properties.

    Benthic effects of offshore renewables: identification of knowledge gaps and urgently needed research
    Dannheim, Jennifer ; Bergström, Lena ; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. ; Brzana, Radosław ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Dauvin, Jean-Claude ; Mesel, Ilse De; Derweduwen, Jozefien ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Hutchison, Zoë L. ; Jackson, Angus C. ; Janas, Urszula ; Martin, Georg ; Raoux, Aurore ; Reubens, Jan ; Rostin, Liis ; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Wilding, Thomas A. ; Wilhelmsson, Dan ; Degraer, Steven ; Norkko, Joanna - \ 2020
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 77 (2020)3. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1092 - 1108.
    benthos - environmental impact - knowlegde gaps - marine ecology - offshore wind farms - renewable energy
    As the EU's commitment to renewable energy is projected to grow to 20% of energy generation by 2020, the use of marine renewable energy from wind, wave and tidal resources is increasing. This literature review (233 studies) (i) summarizes knowledge on how marine renewable energy devices affect benthic environments, (ii) explains how these effects could alter ecosystem processes that support major ecosystem services and (iii) provides an approach to determine urgent research needs. Conceptual diagrams were set up to structure hypothesized cause-effect relationships (i.e. paths). Paths were scored for (i) temporal and spatial scale of the effect, (ii) benthic sensitivity to these effects, (iii) the effect consistency and iv) scoring confidence, and consecutively ranked. This approach identified prominent knowledge gaps and research needs about (a) hydrodynamic changes possibly resulting in altered primary production with potential consequences for filter feeders, (b) the introduction and range expansion of non-native species (through stepping stone effects) and, (c) noise and vibration effects on benthic organisms. Our results further provide evidence that benthic sensitivity to offshore renewable effects is higher than previously indicated. Knowledge on changes of ecological functioning through cascading effects is limited and requires distinct hypothesis-driven research combined with integrative ecological modelling.
    Radial Chromatography
    Boon, M.A. ; Raedts, M. - \ 2019
    A single day of high-fat diet feeding induces lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in brown adipose tissue in mice
    Kuipers, Eline N. ; Held, Ntsiki M. ; Het Panhuis, Wietse In; Modder, Melanie ; Ruppert, Philip M.M. ; Kersten, Sander ; Kooijman, Sander ; Guigas, Bruno ; Houtkooper, Riekelt H. ; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Boon, Mariëtte R. - \ 2019
    American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 317 (2019)5. - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E820 - E830.
    brown adipose tissue - high-fat diet - lipid accumulation - macrophage - mitochondrial dynamics

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) catabolizes glucose and fatty acids to produce heat and thereby contributes to energy expenditure. Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) feeding results in so-called 'whitening' of BAT characterized by increased lipid deposition, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduced fat oxidation. The aim of the current study was to unravel the rate and related mechanisms by which HFD induces BAT whitening and insulin resistance. Wild-type mice were fed a HFD for 0, 1, 3, or 7 days. Within 1 day of HFD, BAT weight and lipid content were increased. HFD also immediately reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by BAT, indicating rapid induction of insulin resistance. This was accompanied by a tendency toward a reduced uptake of triglyceride-derived fatty acids by BAT. Mitochondrial mass and Ucp1 expression were unaltered, whereas after 3 days of HFD, markers of mitochondrial dynamics suggested induction of a more fused mitochondrial network. Additionally, HFD also increased macrophage markers in BAT after 3 days of HFD. Counterintuitively, the switch to HFD was accompanied by an acute rise in core body temperature. We showed that a single day of HFD feeding is sufficient to induce the first signs of whitening and insulin resistance in BAT, which reduces the uptake of glucose and triglyceride-derived fatty acids. BAT whitening and insulin resistance are likely sustained by reduced mitochondrial oxidation due to changes in mitochondrial dynamics and macrophage infiltration, respectively. Likely, the switch to HFD swiftly induces thermogenesis in other metabolic organs, which allows attenuation of BAT thermogenesis.

    Alleen een skippybal lost niks op
    Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D. - \ 2019
    High viscosity industrial chromatography for mild food fractionation
    Schultze-Jena, Anton - \ 2019
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A. van der Padt, co-promotor(en): A.E.M. Janssen; F. Boon. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950305 - 140

    Agro-food streams, present in large volumes, contain compounds attractive for food industry, if they are separated from unwanted components. Recovery of such components offers a large potential for industrial applications. A trend towards enriched fractions, rather than purified products, enables sustainable process design via chromatographic separation. Chromatography has the potential to fractionate these agro-food streams at large industrial scale, while maintaining functionality and operating in a sustainable and economical manner. The separation mechanism can be fine-tuned to target specific molecular characteristics. Because the streams to be processed are so large, large equipment is required, which renders the process economically unfeasible. Process economics can be improved by reducing the size of the chromatographic installation, which is directly dependent on the volume to be processed. The stream to be processed can be reduced by increase of concentration, which leads to higher viscosity. The aim of this thesis is to understand the interplay between feed viscosity, mass transfer resistance, pressure drop and eventually productivity and water use of a chromatographic system.

    In the design of industrial chromatographic processes, both experiments at lab scale and model calculations are used. Experiments are performed to determine model parameters and to validate the model. Subsequently the model is used to scale-up. Experiments require, in addition to the column, the use of further equipment (connectors, tubing, valves, detectors, etc.), all of which add to extra-column volume. The contribution of the extra-column volume to peak broadening is often neglected assuming that by doing so the column efficiency is underestimated and scaling up results in an oversized system. Chapter 2 addresses method development for measuring the mass transfer resistance in a chromatographic column in such a way that the data can be used to scale up to industrial scale. It was shown, that correction for the extra-column contribution to band broadening must be made in many cases, otherwise the column efficiency is overestimated and subsequently industrial designs under-dimensioned.

    In chapter 3, the main hindrance to mass transfer is identified and measured: the intraparticle diffusivity. In industrial applications, generally stationary phase particles of large diameters are used. Large particle sizes facilitate operation at a low pressure drop, but they introduce large characteristic lengths that the molecules have to travers by diffusion. It is difficult to predict intraparticle diffusivity and therefore measurement for each new molecule/stationary phase combination is required. In an attempt to link and quantify pore and molecule characteristics, intraparticle diffusivities, pore diameters, porosities, and tortuosities are measured in various stationary phases with a selection of (relatively) small molecules. Two models from literature that relate stationary phase properties to intraparticle diffusivity, are tested for their predictive quality, but give unsatisfactory results. By modifying one of the models with the addition of the accessible pore fraction, calculated from inverse size exclusion measurements, a good fit of all intraparticle diffusivities for all stationary phases and all molecules is observed. This improved model can serve as a predictive tool for intraparticle diffusivity.

    Implications of using a concentrated feed with an increased viscosity on mass transfer resistance inside a chromatographic column is described in chapter 4. Dependence of intraparticle diffusivity on viscosifiers ability, those molecules in the mobile phase which contribute to viscosity, to penetrate pore volume is shown. The ability to penetrate pore volume is expressed by the partition coefficient KD. These results are used to determine the window of operation for viscous feed streams. It is shown that diluting highly viscous feed streams prior to chromatographic separation, should go no further than approximately 2.5 mPa·s. If the feed stream is diluted to lower viscosities, column volume will increase. Diluting feed streams from 8 mPa·s down to around 2.5 mPa·s shows little influence on column volume, but column dimensions change, with a tendency to get narrower and longer as viscosity decreases.

    In chapter 5, knowledge gained from working at high viscosities in single column systems is challenged on a multicolumn simulated moving bed SMB system with tomato serum as feed and ion-exclusion as separation mechanism. The aim was obtaining a γ-aminobutyric acid enriched and monomeric sugar strapped fraction. The behavior of the sugars for different feed viscosities is calculated well by the model when the ratio of feed to eluent is used as dilution factor. The behavior of γ-aminobutyric acid in ion-exclusion chromatography is highly concentration dependent and the recovery is not calculated with accuracy. The SMB at the two higher feed viscosities (2.5 and 4 mPa·s) outperforms the SMB at the lower feed viscosity (1 mPa·s) both in terms of water use and productivity.

    Finally in chapter 6 the main findings and conclusions are discussed. Further addressed are the use of temperature to reduce viscosity and an assumption used in this thesis, that the required number of theoretical plates remains constant when comparing designs for various feed concentrations. At the end of this chapter an outlook is given on future perspectives for the effort of decreasing chromatographic system size.

    Passing the baton: How intermediaries advance sustainability transitions in different phases
    Kivimaa, Paula ; Hyysalo, Sampsa ; Boon, Wouter ; Klerkx, Laurens ; Martiskainen, Mari ; Schot, Johan - \ 2019
    Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions 31 (2019). - ISSN 2210-4224 - p. 110 - 125.
    Change agents - Intermediaries - Intermediation - Multilevel perspective - Sustainability transition - Transition phases

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to intermediaries, actors connecting multiple other actors, in transition processes. Research has highlighted that intermediary actors (e.g. innovation funders, energy agencies, NGOs, membership organisations, or internet discussion forums) operate in many levels to advance transitions. We argue that intermediation, and the need for it, varies during the course of transition. Yet, little explicit insight exists on intermediation in different transition phases. We integrate existing conceptual models on transition dynamics and phases and a typology of transition intermediaries to examine how intermediaries advance transitions in different phases. We illustrate our conceptual insights through examples from car clubs, heat pumps and low-energy housing. We conclude that intermediation is paramount from predevelopment to stabilisation of a transition. Intermediary functions change from supporting experimentation and articulation of needs in predevelopment, to the aggregation of knowledge, pooling resources, network building and stronger institutional support and capacity building in acceleration.

    Towards a typology of intermediaries in sustainability transitions: A systematic review and a research agenda
    Kivimaa, P. ; Boon, Wouter ; Hyysalo, Sampsa ; Klerkx, L.W.A. - \ 2019
    Research Policy 48 (2019)4. - ISSN 0048-7333 - p. 1062 - 1075.
    Intermediary actors have been proposed as key catalysts that speed up change towards more sustainable socio-technical systems. Research on this topic has gradually gained traction since 2009, but has been complicated by the inconsistency regarding what intermediaries are in the context of such transitions and which activities they focus on, or should focus on. We briefly elaborate on the conceptual foundations of the studies of intermediaries in transitions, and how intermediaries have been connected to different transition theories. This shows the divergence – and sometimes a lack – of conceptual foundations in this research. In terms of transitions theories, many studies connect to the multi-level perspective and strategic niche management, while intermediaries in technological innovation systems and transition management have been much less explored. We aim to bring more clarity to the topic of intermediaries in transitions by providing a definition of transition intermediaries and a typology of five intermediary types that is sensitive to the emergence, neutrality and goals of intermediary actors as well as their context and level of action. Some intermediaries are specifically set up to facilitate transitions, while others grow into the role during the process of socio-technical change. Based on the study, as an important consideration for future innovation governance, we argue that systemic and niche intermediaries are the most crucial forms of intermediary actors in transitions, but they need to be complemented by a full ecology of intermediaries, including regime-based transition intermediaries, process intermediaries and user intermediaries.
    Innovatiemonitor : resultaten 2018
    Haas, W. de; Agricola, H.J. ; Vreke, J. ; Boon, Bertine ; Kievit, H. - \ 2018
    Ede : Regio FoodValley - 71 p.
    De Regio Foodvalley2 is dit jaar gestart met een innovatiemonitor.
    De monitor is gericht op: (1) inzicht in het innovatief
    gehalte van de regio en (2) beschrijving van een aantal ‘best
    practices’ van innovatie. Beide kunnen worden gebruikt als
    input voor uitwisseling en interacties tussen ondernemers
    om de innovatie in de Foodvalley te ondersteunen.
    Aandachtssectoren voor innovatie
    De Foodvalley heeft ruim 30 duizend bedrijfsvestigingen.
    Op deze bedrijven bevinden zich circa 175 duizend arbeidsplaatsen.
    Daarbinnen zijn acht sectoren specifiek van belang
    voor innovatie, vanwege een combinatie van redenen:
    regionale specialisatie (bijv. Foodcluster), relatief grote omvang
    (bijv. Bouw) en/of inhoudelijk innovatief (ICT, Creatieve
    industrie). Deze acht innovatieve sectoren omvatten bijna
    veertig procent van de arbeidsplaatsen in de Foodvalley.
    De keuze voor deze acht sectoren wil niet zeggen dat elders
    geen innovatie plaats vindt, maar wel dat deze sectoren de
    innovatieve kracht van de Foodvalley kenmerken.
    Foodcluster: een verhaal apart
    Het foodcluster is de naamgever van de regio. Het is
    de grootste aandachtssector. Met name de food-industrie
    groeit sterk. Binnen de Food-diensten is de WUR erg
    belangrijk. De primaire landbouw maakt geen deel uit van
    het foodcluster.
    Innovatie in de aandachtssectoren
    Hoeveel bedrijven zijn actief bezig
    met innovatie? Waarop richten deze
    innovaties zich?
    Uit een enquête onder ruim 1200 bedrijven binnen de
    aandachtssectoren blijkt dat de sectoren met de meeste
    innovatieactiviteiten de Creatieve Industrie, de Energie en
    Milieutechniek en de ICT zijn. In de bouw en de transport
    en logistiek komen de minste innovatieactiviteiten voor. De
    innovaties waar bedrijven aan werken zijn in de meeste
    gevallen productinnovaties. Ook procesinnovaties komen
    veel voor. Overall gezien, wordt het minste geïnnoveerd in
    de externe organisatie van bedrijven.
    IL-37 expression reduces lean body mass in mice by reducing food intake
    Kuipers, Eline N. ; Dam, Andrea D. van; Ballak, Dov B. ; Wit, Ellemiek A. de; Dinarello, Charles A. ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Diepen, Janna A. van; Rensen, Patrick C.N. ; Boon, Mariëtte R. - \ 2018
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19 (2018)8. - ISSN 1661-6596
    Energy metabolism - Food intake - High fat diet - IL-37

    The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 is an anti-inflammatory member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Transgenic expression of IL-37 in mice protects them from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic complications including dyslipidemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. The precise mechanism of action leading to these beneficial metabolic effects is not entirely known. Therefore, we aimed to assess in detail the effect of transgenic IL-37 expression on energy balance, including food intake and energy expenditure. Feeding homozygous IL-37 transgenic mice and wild-type (WT) control mice a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal palm fat) for 6 weeks showed that IL-37 reduced body weight related to a marked decrease in food intake. Subsequent mechanistic studies in mice with heterozygous IL-37 expression versus WT littermates, fed the HFD for 18 weeks, confirmed that IL-37 reduces food intake, which led to a decrease in lean body mass, but did not reduce fat mass and plasma lipid levels or alterations in energy expenditure independent of lean body mass. Taken together, this suggests that IL-37 reduces lean body mass by reducing food intake.

    Report of the Working Group on Marine Benthal and Renewable Energy Developments (WGMBRED) : 6-9 March 2018, Galway, Ireland
    Dannheim, Jennifer ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Boon, Arjen ; Brzana, Radoslaw ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Dauvin, Jean-Claude ; Degraer, Steven ; Jackson, Angus ; Janas, Urszula ; Mesel, I.G. de; O'Beirn, Francis ; Pezy, Jean-Philippe ; Raoux, Aurore ; Sheehan, Emma ; Vanaverbeke, Jan - \ 2018
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES WGMBRED Report 2018/HAPISG:02) - 68 p.
    Environmental benefits of leaving offshore infrastructure in the ocean
    Fowler, Ashley M. ; Jørgensen, A.M. ; Svendsen, Jon C. ; Macreadie, Peter I. ; Jones, Daniel O.B. ; Boon, Arjen R. ; Booth, David J. ; Brabant, Robin ; Callahan, Emily ; Claisse, Jeremy T. ; Dahlgren, Thomas G. ; Degraer, Steven ; Dokken, Quenton R. ; Gill, Andrew B. ; Johns, David G. ; Leewis, Robert J. ; Lindeboom, Han J. ; Linden, Olof ; May, Roel ; Murk, Albertinka J. ; Ottersen, Geir ; Schroeder, Donna M. ; Shastri, Sunil M. ; Teilmann, Jonas ; Todd, Victoria ; Hoey, Gert Van; Vanaverbeke, Jan ; Coolen, Joop W.P. - \ 2018
    Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 16 (2018)10. - ISSN 1540-9295 - p. 571 - 578.
    The removal of thousands of structures associated with oil and gas development from the world’s oceans is well underway, yet the environmental impacts of this decommissioning practice remain unknown. Similar impacts will be associated with the eventual removal of offshore wind turbines. We conducted a global survey of environmental experts to guide best decommissioning practices in the North Sea, a region with a substantial removal burden. In contrast to current regulations, 94.7% of experts (36 out of 38) agreed that a more flexible case-by- case approach to decommissioning could benefit the North Sea environment. Partial removal options were considered to deliver better environmental outcomes than complete removal for platforms, but both approaches were equally supported for wind turbines. Key considerations identified for
    decommissioning were biodiversity enhancement, provision of reef habitat, and protection from bottom trawling, all of which are negatively affected by complete removal. We provide recommendations to guide the revision of offshore decommissioning policy, including a temporary suspension of obligatory removal.
    Decoupling Livestock from Land Use through Industrial Feed Production Pathways
    Pikaar, Ilje ; Matassa, Silvio ; Bodirsky, Benjamin L. ; Weindl, Isabelle ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Rabaey, Korneel ; Boon, Nico ; Bruschi, Michele ; Yuan, Zhiguo ; Zanten, Hannah van; Herrero, Mario ; Verstraete, Willy ; Popp, Alexander - \ 2018
    Environmental Science and Technology 52 (2018)13. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7351 - 7359.

    One of the main challenges for the 21st century is to balance the increasing demand for high-quality proteins while mitigating environmental impacts. In particular, cropland-based production of protein-rich animal feed for livestock rearing results in large-scale agricultural land-expansion, nitrogen pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we propose and analyze the long-term potential of alternative animal feed supply routes based on industrial production of microbial proteins (MP). Our analysis reveals that by 2050, MP can replace, depending on socio-economic development and MP production pathways, between 10-19% of conventional crop-based animal feed protein demand. As a result, global cropland area, global nitrogen losses from croplands and agricultural greenhouse gas emissions can be decreased by 6% (0-13%), 8% (-3-8%), and 7% (-6-9%), respectively. Interestingly, the technology to industrially produce MP at competitive costs is directly accessible for implementation and has the potential to cause a major structural change in the agro-food system.

    Probabilistic dietary risk assessment of triazole and dithiocarbamate fungicides for the Brazilian population
    Jardim, Andreia Nunes Oliveira ; Mello, Denise Carvalho ; Brito, Alessandra Page ; Voet, Hilko van der; Boon, Polly E. ; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra - \ 2018
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 118 (2018). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 317 - 327.
    Brazil - Cumulative acute and chronic dietary risk assessment - dithiocarbamates - MCRA - triazoles

    Residue data for triazoles (TR) and dithiocarbamates (DT) in 30,786 samples of 30 foods were obtained from mainly two national monitoring programs, and consumption data from a national survey conducted among persons aged 10 years or older. About 16% of the samples contained TR, mainly grape (53.5%), and 16.2% contained DT, mainly apple (59.3%). Flusilazole was the index compound used for the acute effects of TR for women of child-bearing-age (cranium-facial malformation and skeletal variation), cyproconazole for the chronic effects of TR (hepatoxicity), and ethylene-bis-dithitiocarbamates (EBDC) for DT (thyroid toxicity). Exposures were estimated using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment software. Different models were tested, and a Model-Then-Add approach was found to best estimate the chronic exposures to DT and TR. At the 99.9th percentile (P99.9), the cumulative acute TR intakes accounted for up to 0.5% of the flusilazole ARfD, mainly from beans and rice consumption. The chronic TR and DT intakes accounted for 1 and 6.7% of the respective index compound ADIs, with beans and rice accounting for most of the TR intake (∼70%), and apple for about 51–56% of the DT intake. The estimated risks from the exposure to TR and DT indicate no health concern for the Brazilian population.

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