Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Twenty-three unsolved problems in hydrology (UPH)–a community perspective
Blöschl, Günter ; Bierkens, Marc F.P. ; Chambel, Antonio ; Cudennec, Christophe ; Destouni, Georgia ; Fiori, Aldo ; Kirchner, James W. ; McDonnell, Jeffrey J. ; Savenije, Hubert H.G. ; Sivapalan, Murugesu ; Stumpp, Christine ; Toth, Elena ; Volpi, Elena ; Carr, Gemma ; Lupton, Claire ; Salinas, Josè ; Széles, Borbála ; Viglione, Alberto ; Aksoy, Hafzullah ; Allen, Scott T. ; Amin, Anam ; Andréassian, Vazken ; Arheimer, Berit ; Aryal, Santosh K. ; Baker, Victor ; Bardsley, Earl ; Barendrecht, Marlies H. ; Bartosova, Alena ; Batelaan, Okke ; Berghuijs, Wouter R. ; Beven, Keith ; Blume, Theresa ; Bogaard, Thom ; Borges de Amorim, Pablo ; Böttcher, Michael E. ; Boulet, Gilles ; Breinl, Korbinian ; Brilly, Mitja ; Brocca, Luca ; Buytaert, Wouter ; Castellarin, Attilio ; Castelletti, Andrea ; Chen, Xiaohong ; Chen, Yangbo ; Chen, Yuanfang ; Chifflard, Peter ; Claps, Pierluigi ; Clark, Martyn P. ; Collins, Adrian L. ; Croke, Barry ; Dathe, Annette ; David, Paula C. ; Barros, Felipe P.J. de; Rooij, Gerrit de; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di; Driscoll, Jessica M. ; Duethmann, Doris ; Dwivedi, Ravindra ; Eris, Ebru ; Farmer, William H. ; Feiccabrino, James ; Ferguson, Grant ; Ferrari, Ennio ; Ferraris, Stefano ; Fersch, Benjamin ; Finger, David ; Foglia, Laura ; Fowler, Keirnan ; Gartsman, Boris ; Gascoin, Simon ; Gaume, Eric ; Gelfan, Alexander ; Geris, Josie ; Gharari, Shervan ; Gleeson, Tom ; Glendell, Miriam ; Gonzalez Bevacqua, Alena ; González-Dugo, María P. ; Grimaldi, Salvatore ; Gupta, A.B. ; Guse, Björn ; Han, Dawei ; Hannah, David ; Harpold, Adrian ; Haun, Stefan ; Heal, Kate ; Helfricht, Kay ; Herrnegger, Mathew ; Hipsey, Matthew ; Hlaváčiková, Hana ; Hohmann, Clara ; Holko, Ladislav ; Hopkinson, Christopher ; Hrachowitz, Markus ; Illangasekare, Tissa H. ; Inam, Azhar ; Innocente, Camyla ; Istanbulluoglu, Erkan ; Jarihani, Ben ; Kalantari, Zahra ; Kalvans, Andis ; Khanal, Sonu ; Khatami, Sina ; Kiesel, Jens ; Kirkby, Mike ; Knoben, Wouter ; Kochanek, Krzysztof ; Kohnová, Silvia ; Kolechkina, Alla ; Krause, Stefan ; Kreamer, David ; Kreibich, Heidi ; Kunstmann, Harald ; Lange, Holger ; Liberato, Margarida L.R. ; Lindquist, Eric ; Link, Timothy ; Liu, Junguo ; Loucks, Daniel Peter ; Luce, Charles ; Mahé, Gil ; Makarieva, Olga ; Malard, Julien ; Mashtayeva, Shamshagul ; Maskey, Shreedhar ; Mas-Pla, Josep ; Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria ; Mazzoleni, Maurizio ; Mernild, Sebastian ; Misstear, Bruce Dudley ; Montanari, Alberto ; Müller-Thomy, Hannes ; Nabizadeh, Alireza ; Nardi, Fernando ; Neale, Christopher ; Nesterova, Nataliia ; Nurtaev, Bakhram ; Odongo, Vincent O. ; Panda, Subhabrata ; Pande, Saket ; Pang, Zhonghe ; Papacharalampous, Georgia ; Perrin, Charles ; Pfister, Laurent ; Pimentel, Rafael ; Polo, María J. ; Post, David ; Prieto Sierra, Cristina ; Ramos, Maria Helena ; Renner, Maik ; Reynolds, José Eduardo ; Ridolfi, Elena ; Rigon, Riccardo ; Riva, Monica ; Robertson, David E. ; Rosso, Renzo ; Roy, Tirthankar ; Sá, João H.M. ; Salvadori, Gianfausto ; Sandells, Mel ; Schaefli, Bettina ; Schumann, Andreas ; Scolobig, Anna ; Seibert, Jan ; Servat, Eric ; Shafiei, Mojtaba ; Sharma, Ashish ; Sidibe, Moussa ; Sidle, Roy C. ; Skaugen, Thomas ; Smith, Hugh ; Spiessl, Sabine M. ; Stein, Lina ; Steinsland, Ingelin ; Strasser, Ulrich ; Su, Bob ; Szolgay, Jan ; Tarboton, David ; Tauro, Flavia ; Thirel, Guillaume ; Tian, Fuqiang ; Tong, Rui ; Tussupova, Kamshat ; Tyralis, Hristos ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Beek, Rens van; Ent, Ruud J. van der; Ploeg, Martine van der; Loon, Anne F. Van; Meerveld, Ilja van; Nooijen, Ronald van; Oel, Pieter R. van; Vidal, Jean Philippe ; Freyberg, Jana von; Vorogushyn, Sergiy ; Wachniew, Przemyslaw ; Wade, Andrew J. ; Ward, Philip ; Westerberg, Ida K. ; White, Christopher ; Wood, Eric F. ; Woods, Ross ; Xu, Zongxue ; Yilmaz, Koray K. ; Zhang, Yongqiang - \ 2019
Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)10. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1141 - 1158.
hydrology - interdisciplinary - knowledge gaps - research agenda - science questions

This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused on the process-based understanding of hydrological variability and causality at all space and time scales. Increased attention to environmental change drives a new emphasis on understanding how change propagates across interfaces within the hydrological system and across disciplinary boundaries. In particular, the expansion of the human footprint raises a new set of questions related to human interactions with nature and water cycle feedbacks in the context of complex water management problems. We hope that this reflection and synthesis of the 23 unsolved problems in hydrology will help guide research efforts for some years to come.

Forest decision support systems for the analysis of ecosystem services provisioning at the landscape scale under global climate and market change scenarios
Nordström, Eva-Maria ; Nieuwenhuis, Maarten ; Başkent, Emin Zeki ; Biber, Peter ; Black, Kevin ; Borges, Jose G. ; Bugalho, Miguel N. ; Corradini, Giulia ; Corrigan, Edwin ; Eriksson, Ljusk Ola ; Felton, Adam ; Forsell, Nicklas ; Hengeveld, Geerten ; Hoogstra-Klein, Marjanke ; Korosuo, Anu ; Lindbladh, Matts ; Lodin, Isak ; Lundholm, Anders ; Marto, Marco ; Masiero, Mauro ; Mozgeris, Gintautas ; Pettenella, Davide ; Poschenrieder, Werner ; Sedmak, Robert ; Tucek, Jan ; Zoccatelli, Davide - \ 2019
European Journal of Forest Research 138 (2019)4. - ISSN 1612-4669 - p. 561 - 581.
Sustainable forest management is driving the development of forest decision support systems (DSSs) to include models and methods concerned with climate change, biodiversity and various ecosystem services (ESs). The future development of forest landscapes is very much dependent on how forest owners act and what goes on in the wider world; thus, models are needed that incorporate these aspects. The objective of this study is to assess how nine European state-of-the-art forest DSSs cope with these issues. The assessment focuses on the ability of these DSSs to generate landscape-level scenarios to explore the output of current and alternative forest management models (FMMs) in terms of a range of ESs and the robustness of these FMMs in the face of increased risks and uncertainty. Results show that all DSSs assessed in this study can be used to quantify the impacts of both stand- and landscape-level FMMs on the provision of a range of ESs over a typical planning horizon. DSSs can be used to assess how timber price trends may impact that provision over time. The inclusion of forest owner behavior as reflected by the adoption of specific FMMs seems to be also in the reach of all DSSs. Nevertheless, some DSSs need more data and development of models to estimate the impacts of climate change on biomass production and other ESs. Spatial analysis functionality needs to be further developed for a more accurate assessment of the landscape-level output of ESs from both current and alternative FMMs.
Tools and Technologies for the Monitoring, Control and Surveillance of Unwanted Catches
James, Kelly M. ; Campbell, Neill ; Viðarsson, Jónas R. ; Vilas, Carlos ; Plet-Hansen, Kristian S. ; Borges, Lisa ; González, Óscar ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I. ; Antelo, Luis Taboada ; Pérez-Bouzada, Jorge ; Ulrich, Clara - \ 2019
In: The European Landing Obligation / Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian, Ulrich, Clara, Kennelly, Steven J., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030033071 - p. 363 - 382.
A key requirement for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation is the need to monitor and regulate unwanted catches at sea. This issue is
particularly challenging because of the large number of vessels and trips that need to be monitored and the remoteness of vessels at sea. Several options exist in theory, ranging from patrol vessels to onboard observers and self-sampling. Increasingly though, technology is developing to provide remote Electronic Monitoring (EM) with cameras at lower costs. This chapter first provides an overall synthesis of the pro’s and con’s of several monitoring tools and technologies. Four EM technologies already trialled in EU fisheries are then summarised. We conclude that it is now possible to conduct reliable and cost-effective monitoring of unwanted catches at sea, especially if various options are used in combination. However, effective monitoring is a necessary condition for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation but insufficient unless it is implemented with a high level of coverage and with the support of the fishing industry.
Adoption of innovation in agriculture: a critical review of economic and psychological models
Rossi Borges, J.A. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Emvalomatis, Grigorios - \ 2019
International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development 13 (2019)1. - ISSN 1740-8822 - p. 36 - 56.
Two main models have been used to analyse farmers’ decisions to
adopt an innovation; the first is based on the concept of utility maximisation
(UM) and the second is based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). This
study uses a vote-count method to identify the effect of different variables on
farmers’ adoption decisions in 36 studies using either UM or the TPB. Results
from the UM studies show that the explanatory variables mostly have an
insignificant effect on the adoption decision. When the effects are significant,
the sign of the effect is inconsistent across studies. Results from the TPB
studies show that correlations between the psychological constructs used in this
type of model are significant in most cases. However, most variables are only
used in one or two studies and it is therefore not
A global spatially explicit database of changes in island palaeo-area and archipelago configuration during the late Quaternary
Norder, Sietze J. ; Baumgartner, John B. ; Borges, Paulo A.V. ; Hengl, Tomislav ; Kissling, Daniel W. ; Loon, E.E. van; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F. - \ 2018
Global Ecology and Biogeography 27 (2018)5. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 500 - 505.
general dynamic model - glacial sensitive model - insular biodiversity patterns - island archaeology - island biogeography - palaeo-geography - palaeo-shorelines - Pleistocene climate change - prehistoric human settlement patterns - sea level fluctuations

Motivation: Past sea level fluctuations have shaped island area and archipelago configuration. The availability of global high-resolution data on bathymetry and past sea levels allows reconstruction of island palaeo-geography. Studies on the role of palaeo-area often consider only the Last Glacial Maximum, which neglects the dynamics of island fusion and fission resulting from cyclic sea level fluctuations throughout the Quaternary. Currently, no global database is available to test the role of changing island geographies driven by Quaternary sea level change on evolutionary, ecological and archaeological patterns. However, data on island palaeo-environments is crucial for understanding insular biodiversity distributions and human settlement patterns. Here, we present the Palaeo-Islands and Archipelago Configuration (PIAC) database, containing sea level-driven palaeo-geography changes over the late Quaternary of 178 islands in 27 archipelagos, and discuss its relevance, limitations and uncertainties. The R functions developed to create the PIAC database are provided to allow calculations for other islands, time steps, sea-level curves and higher spatio-temporal resolutions. Main types of variables contained: Polygon shapefiles with archipelago configuration and tables with palaeo-area per island. Spatial location and grain: The database has a global representation, with 27 archipelagos being covered: Aldabra, Azores, Balearic Islands, California Channel Islands, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cook Islands, Crozet Islands, Dutch Caribbean, Galápagos, Gulf of Guinea, Hawaii, Inner Seychelles, Juan Fernández, Kuril Islands, Madeira, Marianas, Marquesas, Mascarenes, Phoenix Islands, Pitcairn Islands, Prince Edward Islands, Revillagigedo, Samoan Islands, Society Islands and Tristan da Cunha. All data are at 1 km2 spatial resolution. Time period and grain: The focus of this paper is on the last 35 kyr; data for the last 140 kyr are also provided. The grain is 1 kyr temporal resolution. Level of measurement: Data are per island, grouped per archipelago. Software format: The data were produced in the R programming language.

Mapping and assessing ecosystem services in the EU - Lessons learned from the ESMERALDA approach of integration
Burkhard, Benjamin ; Maes, Joachim ; Potschin-Young, Marion B. ; Santos-Martín, Fernando ; Geneletti, Davide ; Stoev, Pavel ; Kopperoinen, Leena ; Adamescu, Cristian Mihai ; Adem Esmail, Blal ; Arany, Ildikó ; Arnell, Andy ; Balzan, Mario ; Barton, David N. ; Beukering, Pieter van; Bicking, Sabine ; Borges, Paulo Alexandre Vieira ; Borisova, Bilyana ; Braat, Leon ; Brander, Luke M. ; Bratanova-Doncheva, Svetla ; Broekx, Steven ; Brown, Claire ; Cazacu, Constantin ; Crossman, Neville ; Czúcz, Bálint ; Danĕk, Jan ; Groot, Rudolf de; Depellegrin, Daniel ; Dimopoulos, Panayotis ; Elvinger, Nora ; Erhard, Markus ; Fagerholm, Nora ; Frélichová, Jana ; Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne ; Grudova, Margarita ; Haines-Young, Roy ; Inghe, Ola ; Kallay, Tamas Kristof ; Kirin, Tamara ; Klug, Hermann ; Kokkoris, Ioannis P. ; Konovska, Iskra ; Kruse, Marion ; Kuzmova, Iliyana ; Lange, Manfred ; Liekens, Inge ; Lotan, Alon ; Lowicki, Damian ; Luque, Sandra ; Marta-Pedroso, Cristina ; Mizgajski, Andrzej ; Mononen, Laura ; Mulder, Sara ; Müller, Felix ; Nedkov, Stoyan ; Nikolova, Mariana ; Östergård, Hannah ; Penev, Lyubomir ; Pereira, Paulo ; Pitkänen, Kati ; Plieninger, Tobias ; Rabe, Sven Erik ; Reichel, Steffen ; Roche, Philip K. ; Rusch, Graciela ; Ruskule, Anda ; Sapundzhieva, Anna ; Sepp, Kalev ; Sieber, Ina Maren ; Šmid Hribar, Mateja ; Stašová, Simona ; Steinhoff-Knopp, Bastian ; Stępniewska, Małgorzata ; Teller, Anne ; Vackar, David ; Weelden, Martine van; Veidemane, Kristina ; Vejre, Henrik ; Vihervaara, Petteri ; Viinikka, Arto ; Villoslada, Miguel ; Weibel, Bettina ; Zulian, Grazia - \ 2018
Wadden Sea Ecosystem 3 (2018). - ISSN 0946-896X
Assessment - Ecosystem services - EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 - Mapping - Project

The European Union (EU) Horizon 2020 Coordination and Support Action ESMERALDA aimed at developing guidance and a flexible methodology for Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services (MAES) to support the EU member states in the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy’s Target 2 Action 5. ESMERALDA’s key tasks included network creation, stakeholder engagement, enhancing ecosystem services mapping and assessment methods across various spatial scales and value domains, work in case studies and support of EU member states in MAES implementation. Thus ESMERALDA aimed at integrating various project outcomes around four major strands: i) Networking, ii) Policy, iii) Research and iv) Application. The objective was to provide guidance for integrated ecosystem service mapping and assessment that can be used for sustainable decision-making in policy, business, society, practice and science at EU, national and regional levels. This article presents the overall ESMERALDA approach of integrating the above-mentioned project components and outcomes and provides an overview of how the enhanced methods were applied and how they can be used to support MAES implementation in the EU member states. Experiences with implementing such a large pan-European Coordination and Support Action in the context of EU policy are discussed and recommendations for future actions are given.

Absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion of (−)-epicatechin : A review of recent findings
Borges, Gina ; Ottaviani, Javier I. ; Hooft, Justin J.J. van der; Schroeter, Hagen ; Crozier, Alan - \ 2018
Molecular Aspects of Medicine 61 (2018). - ISSN 0098-2997 - p. 18 - 30.
(–)-Epicatechin - Absorption - Disposition - Excretion - Flavan-3-ols - Metabolism

This paper reviews pioneering human studies, their limitations and recent investigations on the absorption, metabolism, distribution and excretion (aka bioavailability) of (–)-epicatechin. Progress has been made possible by improvements in mass spectrometric detection when coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and through the increasing availability of authentic reference compounds of in vivo metabolites of (–)-epicatechin. Studies have shown that [2- 14 C](–)-epicatechin is absorbed in the small intestine with the 12 structural-related (–)-epicatechin metabolites (SREMs), mainly in the form of (–)-epicatechin-3′-O-glucuronide, 3′-O-methyl-(–)-epicatechin-5-sulfate and (–)-epicatechin-3′-sulfate, attaining sub-μmol/L peak plasma concentrations (C max ) ∼1 h after ingestion. SREMs were excreted in urine over a 24 h period in amounts corresponding to 20% of (–)-epicatechin intake. On reaching the colon the flavan-3-ol undergoes microbiota-mediated conversions yielding the 5C-ring fission metabolites (5C-RFMs) 5-(hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactones and 5-(hydroxyphenyl)–γ-hydroxyvaleric acids which appear in plasma as phase II metabolites with a C max of 5.8 h after intake and are excreted in quantities equivalent to 42% of the ingested (–)-epicatechin. Other catabolites excreted in 0–24 h urine in amounts equivalent to 28% of intake included 3-(3′-hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, hippuric acid and 3′-hydroxyhippuric acid. Overall (–)-epicatechin is highly bioavailable with urinary excretion indicating that 95% is absorbed and passes through the circulatory systems as a diversity of phase II metabolites. Rats produce a very different profile of SREMs than that of humans. These findings demonstrate that ex vivo studies investigating the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of (–)-epicatechin on human health should make use of physiological concentrations human of SREMs and 5C-RFMs, and not the parent (–)-epicatechin, with model systems derived from human cells. In epidemiological studies 5-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-3′-sulfate and 5-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-3′-O-glucuronide, the principal 5C-RFMs in both plasma and urine, could serve as key biomarkers of (–)-epicatechin intake.

Covariation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays : biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications
Junker, Robert R. ; Kuppler, Jonas ; Amo, Luisa ; Blande, James D. ; Borges, Renee M. ; Dam, Nicole M. van; Dicke, Marcel ; Dötterl, Stefan ; Ehlers, Bodil K. ; Etl, Florian ; Gershenzon, Jonathan ; Glinwood, Robert ; Gols, Rieta ; Groot, Astrid T. ; Heil, Martin ; Hoffmeister, Mathias ; Holopainen, Jarmo K. ; Jarau, Stefan ; John, Lena ; Kessler, Andre ; Knudsen, Jette T. ; Kost, Christian ; Larue-Kontic, Anne Amélie C. ; Leonhardt, Sara Diana ; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani ; Majetic, Cassie J. ; Menzel, Florian ; Parachnowitsch, Amy L. ; Pasquet, Rémy S. ; Poelman, Erik H. ; Raguso, Robert A. ; Ruther, Joachim ; Schiestl, Florian P. ; Schmitt, Thomas ; Tholl, Dorothea ; Unsicker, Sybille B. ; Verhulst, Niels ; Visser, Marcel E. ; Weldegergis, Berhane T. ; Köllner, Tobias G. - \ 2018
New Phytologist 220 (2018)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 739 - 749.
biosynthetic constraints - chemical communication - correlation network analysis - floral scents - phenotypic integration - vegetative scents

Chemical communication is ubiquitous. The identification of conserved structural elements in visual and acoustic communication is well established, but comparable information on chemical communication displays (CCDs) is lacking. We assessed the phenotypic integration of CCDs in a meta-analysis to characterize patterns of covariation in CCDs and identified functional or biosynthetically constrained modules. Poorly integrated plant CCDs (i.e. low covariation between scent compounds) support the notion that plants often utilize one or few key compounds to repel antagonists or to attract pollinators and enemies of herbivores. Animal CCDs (mostly insect pheromones) were usually more integrated than those of plants (i.e. stronger covariation), suggesting that animals communicate via fixed proportions among compounds. Both plant and animal CCDs were composed of modules, which are groups of strongly covarying compounds. Biosynthetic similarity of compounds revealed biosynthetic constraints in the covariation patterns of plant CCDs. We provide a novel perspective on chemical communication and a basis for future investigations on structural properties of CCDs. This will facilitate identifying modules and biosynthetic constraints that may affect the outcome of selection and thus provide a predictive framework for evolutionary trajectories of CCDs in plants and animals.

A framework for modeling adaptive forest management and decision making under climate change
Yousefpour, Rasoul ; Temperli, Christian ; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl ; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark ; Meilby, Henrik ; Lexer, Manfred J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Bugmann, Harald ; Borges, Jose G. ; Palma, João H.N. ; Ray, Duncan ; Zimmermann, Niklaus E. ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Kremer, Antoine ; Kramer, Koen ; Reyer, Christopher P.O. ; Lasch-Born, Petra ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Hanewinkel, Marc - \ 2017
Ecology and Society 22 (2017)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
Behavioral adaptation - Europe - Forest management - Knowledge management - Mathematical programming - Process-based models - Spatial planning
Adapting the management of forest resources to climate change involves addressing several crucial aspects to provide a valid basis for decision making. These include the knowledge and belief of decision makers, the mapping of management options for the current as well as anticipated future bioclimatic and socioeconomic conditions, and the ways decisions are evaluated and made. We investigate the adaptive management process and develop a framework including these three aspects, thus providing a structured way to analyze the challenges and opportunities of managing forests in the face of climate change. We apply the framework for a range of case studies that differ in the way climate and its impacts are projected to change, the available management options, and how decision makers develop, update, and use their beliefs about climate change scenarios to select among adaptation options, each being optimal for a certain climate change scenario. We describe four stylized types of decision-making processes that differ in how they (1) take into account uncertainty and new information on the state and development of the climate and (2) evaluate alternative management decisions: the “no-change,” the “reactive,” the “trend-adaptive,” and the “forward-looking adaptive” decision-making types. Accordingly, we evaluate the experiences with alternative management strategies and recent publications on using Bayesian optimization methods that account for different simulated learning schemes based on varying knowledge, belief, and information. Finally, our proposed framework for identifying adaptation strategies provides solutions for enhancing forest structure and diversity, biomass and timber production, and reducing climate change-induced damages. They are spatially heterogeneous, reflecting the diversity in growing conditions and socioeconomic settings within Europe.
Are forest disturbances amplifying or canceling out climate change-induced productivity changes in European forests?
Reyer, Christopher Paul Oliver ; Bathgate, Stephan ; Blennow, K. ; Borges, J.G. ; Bugmann, Harald ; Delzon, Sylvain ; Faias, Sonia P. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Gardiner, Barry ; Gonzalez-Olabarria, J.R. ; Gracia, Carlos ; Guerra Hernandez, Jordi ; Kellomaki, Seppo ; Kramer, K. ; Lexer, M.J. ; Lindner, Marcus ; Maaten, Ernest van der; Maroschek, M. ; Muys, Bart ; Nicoll, B. ; Palahi, M. ; Palma, J.H.N. ; Paulo, Joana A. ; Peltola, H. ; Pukkala, T. ; Rammer, W. ; Ray, D. ; Sabaté, S. ; Schelhaas, M. ; Seidl, R. ; Temperli, Christian ; Tomé, Margarida ; Yousefpour, R. ; Zimmerman, N.E. ; Hanewinkel, Marc - \ 2017
Environmental Research Letters 12 (2017)3. - ISSN 1748-9326
Recent studies projecting future climate change impacts on forests mainly consider either the effects of climate change on productivity or on disturbances. However, productivity and disturbances are intrinsically linked because 1) disturbances directly affect forest productivity (e.g. via a reduction in leaf area, growing stock or resource-use efficiency), and 2) disturbance susceptibility is often coupled to a certain development phase of the forest with productivity determining the time a forest is in this specific phase of susceptibility. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of forest productivity changes in different forest regions in Europe under climate change, and partition these changes into effects induced by climate change alone and by climate change and disturbances. We present projections of climate change impacts on forest productivity from state-of-the-art forest models that dynamically simulate forest productivity and the effects of the main European disturbance agents (fire, storm, insects), driven by the same climate scenario in seven forest case studies along a large climatic gradient throughout Europe. Our study shows that, in most cases, including disturbances in the simulations exaggerate ongoing productivity declines or cancel out productivity gains in response to climate change. In fewer cases, disturbances also increase productivity or buffer climate-change induced productivity losses, e.g. because low severity fires can alleviate resource competition and increase fertilization. Even though our results cannot simply be extrapolated to other types of forests and disturbances, we argue that it is necessary to interpret climate change-induced productivity and disturbance changes jointly to capture the full range of climate change impacts on forests and to plan adaptation measures.
Sustainability assessment of agricultural systems : The validity of expert opinion and robustness of a multi-criteria analysis
Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz ; Borges, João A.R. ; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M. ; Boer, Imke J.M. de; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M. - \ 2017
Agricultural Systems 157 (2017). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 118 - 128.
Agricultural systems - Monte Carlo simulation - Multi-criteria assessment - Robustness - Sustainability - Validation
Sustainability assessment of agricultural systems is frequently hampered by data availability. Elicitation of expert opinions combined with multi-criteria assessment (MCA) could be a useful approach for sustainability assessments in data-scarce situations. To our knowledge, the validity of expert opinion used to score sustainability performance of agricultural systems, however, has not been addressed. Also, robustness of the overall outcome of MCA to uncertainty about scores obtained from expert elicitation and weights used to aggregate scores is generally not addressed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the validity of expert opinion, and to evaluate the robustness of the overall MCA outcome to uncertainty about scores and weights. The case study considers three soybean agricultural systems in Latin America: conventional agricultural system, with either genetically modified (GM) or non-genetically modified (non-GM) soybeans, and organic agricultural system. The validation was carried out by comparing the sustainability scores of experts with values from scientific studies. The robustness of the overall outcome of the MCA to uncertainty about scores and weights was assessed using Monte Carlo simulation. The comparison of expert opinion with reviewed studies showed that expert opinions are a potential alternative to extensive data-rich methods. The validity of expert opinions can be increased by considering a larger group of experts, with a high level of knowledge about agricultural systems and sustainability issues. With regard to robustness, the overall outcome of the MCA showed higher variation for organic soybean agricultural systems compared with GM and non-GM, in both Brazil and Argentina.
Decision Support Tools and Strategies to Simulate Forest Landscape Evolutions Integrating Forest Owner Behaviour: A Review from the Case Studies of the European Project, INTEGRAL
Orazio, Christophe ; Montoya, Rebeca ; Régolini, Margot ; Borges, José ; Garcia-Gonzalo, Jordi ; Barreiro, Susana ; Botequim, Brigite ; Marques, Susete ; Sedmák, Róbert ; Smreček, Róbert ; Brodrechtová, Yvonne ; Brukas, Vilis ; Chirici, Gherardo ; Marchetti, Marco ; Moshammer, Ralf ; Biber, Peter ; Corrigan, Edwin ; Eriksson, Ljusk ; Favero, Matteo ; Galev, Emil ; Hengeveld, Geerten ; Kavaliauskas, Marius ; Mozgeris, Gintautas ; Navrátil, Rudolf ; Nieuwenhuis, Maarten ; Paligorov, Ivan ; Pettenella, Davide ; Stanislovaitis, Andrius ; Tomé, Margarida ; Trubins, Renats ; Tuček, Ján ; Vizzarri, Matteo ; Wallin, Ida ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Sallnäs, Ola - \ 2017
Sustainability 9 (2017)4. - ISSN 2071-1050
For forest sustainability and vulnerability assessment, the landscape scale is considered to be more and more relevant as the stand level approaches its known limitations. This review, which describes the main forest landscape simulation tools used in the 20 European case studies of the European project “Future-oriented integrated management of European forest landscapes” (INTEGRAL), gives an update on existing decision support tools to run landscape simulation from Mediterranean to boreal ecosystems. The main growth models and software available in Europe are described, and the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches are discussed. Trades-offs between input efforts and output are illustrated. Recommendations for the selection of a forest landscape simulator are given. The paper concludes by describing the need to have tools that are able to cope with climate change and the need to build more robust indicators for assessment of forest landscape sustainability and vulnerability.
Soil quality after six years of paper mill industrial wastewater application
Almeida, Ivan Carlos Carreiro ; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves ; Neves, Júlio César Lima ; Ruiz, Hugo Alberto ; Lima, Túlio Luís Borges de; Hoogmoed, Willem - \ 2017
Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo 41 (2017). - ISSN 0100-0683
Clay dispersion - Industrial effluent - Salinity - Wastewater disposal - Water reuse

The application of wastewater to irrigate soils may be an attractive option for paper mills, especially when the effluents can also provide nutrients to plants. Since there could be negative environmental effects, such activity must be preceded by a thorough evaluation of the consequences. The changes in soil quality of a Neossolo Flúvico Distrófico (Typic Udifluvent) were evaluated over a period of six years of irrigation with treated effluent from a wood pulp company. Although effluent application for six years did not affect soil resistance to penetration and soil hydraulic conductivity, it promoted a decrease in the mean size of aggregates and an increase in clay dispersion. Effluent application increased soil pH but did not change exchangeable Ca and Mg contents and organic carbon. After a full rotation of eucalyptus cultivation common in Brazil (six years), no negative effects in tree growth were found due to effluent irrigation. However, effluent addition caused higher values of Na adsorption ratio and intermediate electrical conductivity in the soil, which indicates a possible negative effect on soil quality if the application continues over a longer period. Therefore, a monitoring program should be carried out during subsequent crop rotations, and alternatives must be studied to obtain better effluent quality, such as adding Ca and Mg to the wastewater and using gypsum in the soil.

Using the theory of planned behavior to identify key beliefs underlying Brazilian cattle farmers' intention to use improved natural grassland : A MIMIC modelling approach
Rossi Borges, Joao ; Tauer, Loren Willian ; Oude Lansink, Alfons - \ 2016
Land Use Policy 55 (2016). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 193 - 203.
Brazilian cattle farmers - Farmers' intention - Improved natural grassland - MIMIC models - Theory of planned behavior

In biome Pampa, Brazil, cattle farmers have managed the natural grasslands using practices that result in overgrazing, low productivity and low farm income. In addition, farmers in the region converted natural grasslands from beef production to more profitable activities, such as cash crops. This conversion and overgrazing have caused environmental problems in biome Pampa. Although several innovations that increase beef productivity without damaging the environment are currently available to farmers in the region, the adoption rate remains low. This study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify the beliefs that influence farmers' intention to use improved natural grassland. The TPB hypothesizes that adoption is driven by intention, which in turn is determined by three psychological constructs: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. These three constructs are derived from behavioral, normative and control beliefs, respectively. Results show that attitude had a strong impact on intention, followed by subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Results also show that farmers' intention to use improved natural grassland depends on the extent to which farmers think this innovation allows for increasing the cattle density, the extent to which they think family and cattle traders support them in their decision to adopt and the extent to which farmers think they have sufficient knowledge and access to technical assistance.

Identifying psychological factors that determine cattle farmers' intention to use improved natural grassland
Borges, J.A.R. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2016
Journal of Environmental Psychology 45 (2016). - ISSN 0272-4944 - p. 89 - 96.
The biome Pampa, in Brazil, is under threat from expansion of agriculture and overgrazing. Although several sustainable livestock farming innovations are currently available to farmers in the region, adoption rate remains low. This paper uses the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify the psychological factors that influence farmers' intention to adopt improved natural grassland, an innovation that increases productivity at farm level and reduces damage to the environment. The TPB hypothesizes that adoption is driven by intention, which in turn is determined by three psychological constructs: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Results show that the intention of farmers to use improved natural grassland was mainly determined by their perceptions about the social pressure to use this innovation (subjective norm), followed by their perceptions about their own capability (perceived behavioral control) to use this innovation, and their evaluation of the use of improved natural grassland (attitude).
Balanced Harvest in the Real World. Scientific, Policy and Operational Issues in an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries
Garcia, S.M. ; Bianchi, G. ; Charles, A. ; Kolding, J. ; Rice, J. ; Rochet, M.J. ; Zhou, S. ; Delius, G. ; Reid, D. ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Atcheson, M. ; Bartley, D. ; Borges, L. ; Bundy, A. ; Dagorn, L. ; Dunn, D. ; Hall, M. ; Heino, M. ; Jacobsen, B. ; Jacobsen, N.S. ; Law, R. ; Makino, M. ; Martin, F. ; Skern-Mauritzen, M. ; Suuronen, P. ; Symons, D. - \ 2015
Gland, Switzerland : IUCN - 94 p.
The concept of the Ecosystem Approach has entered the fishery harvesting discussions both from fishery perspectives (Reykjavik Declaration; FAO 2003 Annex to the Code of Conduct and from the principles of the Ecosystem Approach adopted by the CBD in 1995. Both perspectives establish the need to maintain ecosystem structure and functioning, whether for sustainable use of biodiversity (CBD) or simply to keep exploited ecosystems healthy and productive (fisheries). In response, the “Balanced Harvest” (BH) concept was suggested by a group of scientists brought together by the IUCN Fisheries Experts Group during the CBD CoP 10 in 2010. The meeting and the BH concept as consolidated there highlighted some of the collateral ecological effects of current fishing patterns and unbalanced removals of particular components of the food web, stimulating a critical rethinking of current approaches to fisheries management. The meeting on “Balanced Harvest in the real world - Scientific, policy and operational issues in an ecosystem approach to fisheries” (Rome, September 29-October 2, 2014) examined the progress made since 2010 on a number of fronts. It considered questions related to the scientific underpinning of the BH concept, including theory, modelling, and empirical observations. It began to explore the economic, policy and management implications of harvesting in a more balanced way.
How Sensitive Are Ecosystem Services in European Forest Landscapes to Silvicultural Treatment?
Biber, P. ; Borges, J.G. ; Moshammer, R. ; Barreiro, S. ; Botequim, B. ; Brodrechtová, Y. ; Brukas, V. ; Chirici, G. ; Cordero-Debets, R. ; Corrigan, E. ; Eriksson, L.O. ; Favero, M. ; Galev, E. ; Garcia-Gonzalo, J. ; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Kavaliauskas, M. ; Marchetti, M. ; Marques, S. ; Mozgeris, G. ; Navrátil, R. ; Nieuwenhuis, M. ; Orazio, C. ; Paligorov, I. ; Pettenella, D. ; Sedmák, R. ; Smrecek, R. ; Stanislovaitis, A. ; Tomé, M. ; Trubins, R. ; Tucek, J. ; Vizzarri, M. ; Wallin, I. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Sallnäs, O. - \ 2015
Forests 6 (2015)5. - ISSN 1999-4907 - p. 1666 - 1695.
scenario analysis - simulator silva - climate-change - management - growth - tree - impacts - regions - yield - stand
While sustainable forestry in Europe is characterized by the provision of a multitude of forest ecosystem services, there exists no comprehensive study that scrutinizes their sensitivity to forest management on a pan-European scale, so far. We compile scenario runs from regionally tailored forest growth models and Decision Support Systems (DSS) from 20 case studies throughout Europe and analyze whether the ecosystem service provision depends on management intensity and other co-variables, comprising regional affiliation, social environment, and tree species composition. The simulation runs provide information about the case-specifically most important ecosystem services in terms of appropriate indicators. We found a strong positive correlation between management intensity and wood production, but only weak correlation with protective and socioeconomic forest functions. Interestingly, depending on the forest region, we found that biodiversity can react in both ways, positively and negatively, to increased management intensity. Thus, it may be in tradeoff or in synergy with wood production and forest resource maintenance. The covariables species composition and social environment are of punctual interest only, while the affiliation to a certain region often makes an important difference in terms of an ecosystem service’s treatment sensitivity.
Comparing groups of Brazilian cattle farmers with different levels of intention to use improved natural grassland
Rossi Borges, J.A. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2015
Livestock Science 178 (2015). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 296 - 305.
planned behavior - conservation practices - dairy farmers - water conservation - risk perception - adoption - management - decisions - attitudes - technologies
This study used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to analyze the intention of Brazilian farmers to use improved natural grassland. The TPB hypothesizes that the adoption of an innovation is driven by the intention to use it, which in turn is determined by three socio-psychological constructs: attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. These constructs are derived from beliefs. The theoretical framework and model were applied to a sample of 214 Brazilian cattle farmers. Based on the socio-psychological constructs that influence intention, two groups of farmers were identified; farmers that were willing and farmers that were unwilling to use improved natural grassland. Results showed that compared to unwilling farmers, willing farmers evaluated the use of improved natural grassland on their farms more favorably (attitude), they felt a greater social pressure upon them to adopt this innovation (social norm), and they reported a higher capability (perceived behavioral control) to use improved natural grassland. Willing and unwilling farmers also differed in their behavioral beliefs concerning the outcomes of using improved natural grassland, their normative beliefs concerning important others, and their control beliefs concerning factors that could facilitate or inhibit the use of improved natural grassland. The two groups did not differ in most of their socioeconomic characteristics, but did differ in their goals and relative risk attitudes.
The role of psychological factors in the adoption of improved natural grassland by Brazilian cattle farmers in Biome Pampa
Rossi Borges, J.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573154 - 182
agrarische economie - boeren - graslandbeheer - graslandverbetering - houding van boeren - gedragsveranderingen - attitudes - rundvee - vleesvee - rundvleesproductie - duurzame ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - pampa's - brazilië - agricultural economics - farmers - grassland management - grassland improvement - farmers' attitudes - behavioural changes - attitudes - cattle - beef cattle - beef production - sustainable development - sustainability - pampas - brazil
The objective of the research was to explore factors determining cattle farmers' intention to adopt improved natural grassland in Brazil. The research was carried out in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south of Brazil.
Understanding farmers’ intention to adopt improved natural grassland using the theory of planned behavior
Rossi Borges, J.A. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Ribeiro, C.M. ; Lutke, V. - \ 2014
Livestock Science 169 (2014). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 163 - 174.
dairy farmers - conservation - management - attitudes - decisions - england
Studiesontheadoptionofinnovationsusuallyignoreunderlyingpsychologicalconstructs that affectfarmers’ decisionsandbehavior,suchasintention,perceptions,andbeliefs.This paperusespsychologicalconstructsfromthetheoryofplannedbehavior(TPB)toanalyze factors thataffecttheadoptionofimprovednaturalgrassland.TheTPBhypothesizesthat adoption isdrivenbyintention,whichinturnisdeterminedbythreepsychological constructs:attitude,subjectivenorm,andperceivedbehavioralcontrol.Thesethree psychologicalconstructsarederivedfrombehavioral,normativeandcontrolbeliefs, respectively.Thefirstobjectivewastoidentifytheinfluenceofattitude,subjectivenorm, and perceivedbehavioralcontrolontheintentionoffarmerstouseimprovednatural grassland. Thesecondobjectivewastounderstandtheroleoffarmers’ beliefsasdriversof their attitude,subjectivenorm,andperceivedbehavioralcontrol.Thetheoreticalframe- work andmodelwereappliedtoasampleof214Braziliancattlefarmers.Resultsshowed that attitude,subjectivenorm,andperceivedbehavioralcontrolwereallpositivelyand significantlycorrelatedwithintention.Theintentionoffarmerstouseimprovednatural grassland wasthereforeinfluencedbyfarmers’ evaluationoftheuseofimprovednatural grassland (attitude),theirperceptionsaboutthesocialpressuretousethisinnovation (subjectivenorm),andtheirperceptionsabouttheirowncapability(perceivedbehavioral control). Sixbehavioralbeliefswerethedriversofattitude:increasecattleweightgains, increase numberofanimalsperhectare,havepasturethroughouttheyear,increase pastureresistance,preventsoilerosion,anddecreasefeedingcosts.Sevennormative beliefswerethedriversofsubjectivenorm:family,friends,neighborfarmers,cattle traders, workersintheplacewheretheybuytheirinputs,extensionagents,and government.Threecontrolbeliefswerethedriversofperceivedbehavioralcontrol: sufficientknowledge,sufficientskills,andavailabilityofqualifiedtechnicalassistance.The driversofattitude,subjectivenorm,andperceivedbehavioralcontrolcanbeusedby policymakerstoincreasetheadoptionrateofimprovednaturalgrassland.Emphasis should begiventothesixperceivedbenefitsofadoptingimprovednaturalgrassland,the driversofattitude.Theindividualsandgroupswhowerefoundtoinfluencefarmers' decisionstouseit,thedriversofsubjectivenorm,canbeusedaschannelstodisseminate informationabouttheinnovation.Thedriversofperceivedbehavioralcontrolarefactors
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