Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Van insect naar vis
    Haenen, O.L.M. ; Borghuis, A. ; Weerman, E. - \ 2019
    Visionair : het vakblad van sportvisserij Nederland 13 (2019)53. - ISSN 1569-7533 - p. 42 - 43.
    In juni 2019 werd door onze koning het grootste kweekbedrijf van insectenlarven ter wereld, PROTIX, geopend. In eerdere uitgaven van Visionair werd aandacht besteed aan de potentie van insecten(larven) die hier als grondstof voor de aquacul-tuur worden gekweekt.
    Temporal Limits of Visual Motion Processing: Psychophysics and Neurophysiology
    Borghuis, Bart G. ; Tadin, Duje ; Lankheet, Martin J.M. ; Lappin, Joseph S. ; Grind, Wim A. van de - \ 2019
    Vision 3 (2019)1. - ISSN 2411-5150 - 17 p.
    Under optimal conditions, just 3–6 ms of visual stimulation suffices for humans to see motion. Motion perception on this timescale implies that the visual system under these conditions reliably encodes, transmits, and processes neural signals with near-millisecond precision. Motivated by in vitro evidence for high temporal precision of motion signals in the primate retina, we investigated how neuronal and perceptual limits of motion encoding relate. Specifically, we examined the correspondence between the time scale at which cat retinal ganglion cells in vivo represent motion information and temporal thresholds for human motion discrimination. The timescale for motion encoding by ganglion cells ranged from 4.6 to 91 ms, and depended non-linearly on temporal frequency, but not on contrast. Human psychophysics revealed that minimal stimulus durations required for perceiving motion direction were similarly brief, 5.6–65 ms, and similarly depended on temporal frequency but, above ~10%, not on contrast. Notably, physiological and psychophysical measurements corresponded closely throughout (r = 0.99), despite more than a 20-fold variation in both human thresholds and optimal timescales for motion encoding in the retina. The match in absolute values of the neurophysiological and psychophysical data may be taken to indicate that from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) through to the level of perception little temporal precision is lost. However, we also show that integrating responses from multiple neurons can improve temporal resolution, and this potential trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution would allow for loss of temporal resolution after the LGN. While the extent of neuronal integration cannot be determined from either our human sychophysical or neurophysiological experiments and its contribution to the measured temporal resolution is unknown, our results demonstrate a striking similarity in stimulus dependence between the temporal fidelity established in the retina and the temporal limits of human motion discrimination.
    β2→1-fructans modulate the immune system in vivo in a microbiota-dependent and -independent fashion
    Fransen, Floris ; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M. ; Elderman, Marlies ; Bosveld, M. ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, F. ; Borghuis, Theo ; Kousemaker, Ben ; Winkel, Simon ; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa van der; Jonge, Marien I. de; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Smidt, H. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2018
    Mus musculus - GSE94516 - PRJNA371228
    It has been shown in vitro that only specific dietary-fibers contribute to immunity but studies in vivo are not conclusive. Here we investigated degree of polymerization (DP) dependent effects of β2→1-fructans on immunity via microbiota-dependent and -independent effects. To this end, conventional or germ-free mice received short- or long-chain β2→1-fructan for 5 days. Immune cell populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and Peyer's patches (PPs) were analyzed with flow cytometry, genome-wide gene expression in the ileum was measured with microarray, and gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples. We found that β2→1-fructans modulated immunity by both microbiota and microbiota-independent effects. Moreover, effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans type polymer. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans enhanced T-helper 1 cells in Peyer's patches, whereas only short-chain β2→1-fructans increased regulatory T cells and CD11b-CD103- DCs in the MLN. A common feature after short- and long-chain β2→1-fructan treatment was enhanced Fut2 expression and other IL-22-dependent genes in the ileum of conventional mice. These effects were not associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, or altered production of short-chain fatty acids. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans also induced immune effects in germ-free animals, demonstrating direct effect independent from the gut microbiota. Also, these effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans. Short-chain β2→1-fructan induced lower CD80 expression by CD11b-CD103- DCs in PPs, whereas long-chain β2→1-fructan specifically modulated B cell responses in germ-free mice. In conclusion, support of immunity is determined by the chemical structure of β2→1-fructans and is partially microbiota-independent.
    Aged gut microbiota contributes to systemical inflammaging after transfer to germ-free mice
    Fransen, Floris ; Beek, A.A. van; Borghuis, Theo ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, F. ; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa van der; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Jonge, Marien I. De; Boekschoten, M.V. ; Smidt, H. ; Faas, Marijke M. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2018
    Wageningen University
    Mus musculus - GSE104063 - PRJNA408136
    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer’s patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized germ-free mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here we show by transferring aged microbiota to young germ-free mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the germ-free mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young germ-free mice.
    Aged gut microbiota contributes to systemical inflammaging after transfer to germ-free mice
    Fransen, Floris ; Beek, Adriaan A. van; Borghuis, Theo ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Gaast - de Jongh, Christa van der; Savelkoul, Huub F.J. ; Jonge, Marien I. de; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Faas, Marijke M. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-3224
    Aging - Germ-free mice - Gut microbiome - Immune system - Inflammaging
    Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study, gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free (GF) mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized GF mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here, we show by transferring aged microbiota to young GF mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the GF mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young GF mice.
    The impact of gut microbiota on gender-specific differences in immunity
    Fransen, Floris ; Beek, Adriaan A. van; Borghuis, Theo ; Meijer, Ben ; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa van der; Savelkoul, Huub F. ; Jonge, Marien I. de; Faas, Marijke M. ; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Aidy, Sahar El ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 14 p.
    Gender - Germ-free mice - Gut microbiota - Immunity - Inflammation

    Males and females are known to have gender-specific differences in their immune system and gut microbiota composition. Whether these differences in gut microbiota composition are a cause or consequence of differences in the immune system is not known. To investigate this issue, gut microbiota from conventional males or females was transferred to germ-free (GF) animals of the same or opposing gender. We demonstrate that microbiota-independent gender differences in immunity are already present in GF mice. In particular, type I interferon signaling was enhanced in the intestine of GF females. Presumably, due to these immune differences bacterial groups, such as Alistipes, Rikenella, and Porphyromonadaceae, known to expand in the absence of innate immune defense mechanism were overrepresented in the male microbiota. The presence of these bacterial groups was associated with induction of weight loss, inflammation, and DNA damage upon transfer of the male microbiota to female GF recipients. In summary, our data suggest that microbiota-independent gender differences in the immune system select a gender-specific gut microbiota composition, which in turn further contributes to gender differences in the immune system.

    β2→1-fructans modulate the immune system in vivo in a microbiota-dependent and -independent fashion
    Fransen, Floris ; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M. ; Elderman, Marlies ; Bosveld, Margaret ; Aidy, Sahar El; Hugenholtz, Floor ; Borghuis, Theo ; Kousemaker, Ben ; Winkel, Simon ; Gaast-de Jongh, Christa van der; Jonge, Marien I. de; Boekschoten, Mark V. ; Smidt, Hauke ; Schols, Henk A. ; Vos, Paul de - \ 2017
    Frontiers in Immunology 8 (2017). - ISSN 1664-3224
    Germ-free mice - Gut microbiota - Mucosal immunology - Prebiotics - β2→1-fructans
    It has been shown in vitro that only specific dietary fibers contribute to immunity, but studies in vivo are not conclusive. Here, we investigated degree of polymerization (DP) dependent effects of β2→1-fructans on immunity via microbiota-dependent and -independent effects. To this end, conventional or germ-free mice received short- or long-chain β2→1-fructan for 5 days. Immune cell populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and Peyer's patches (PPs) were analyzed with flow cytometry, genome-wide gene expression in the ileum was measured with microarray, and gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples. We found that β2→1-fructans modulated immunity by both microbiota and microbiota-independent effects. Moreover, effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans type polymer. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans enhanced T-helper 1 cells in PPs, whereas only short-chain β2→1-fructans increased regulatory T cells and CD11b-CD103- dendritic cells (DCs) in the MLN. A common feature after short- and long-chain β2→1-fructan treatment was enhanced 2-alpha-l-fucosyltransferase 2 expression and other IL-22-dependent genes in the ileum of conventional mice. These effects were not associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, or altered production of short-chain fatty acids. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans also induced immune effects in germ-free animals, demonstrating direct effect independent from the gut microbiota. Also, these effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans. Short-chain β2→1-fructan induced lower CD80 expression by CD11b-CD103- DCs in PPs, whereas long-chain β2→1-fructan specifically modulated B cell responses in germ-free mice. In conclusion, support of immunity is determined by the chemical structure of β2→1-fructans and is partially microbiota independent.
    Spike-Interval Triggered Averaging Reveals a Quasi-Periodic Spiking Alternative for Stochastic Resonance in Catfish Electroreceptors
    Lankheet, M.J.M. ; Klink, P.C. ; Borghuis, B.G. ; Noest, A.J. - \ 2012
    PLoS ONE 7 (2012)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 11 p.
    white-noise analysis - interspike intervals - binocular-rivalry - nervous-system - organs - responses - neuron - input - motoneurons - cells
    Catfish detect and identify invisible prey by sensing their ultra-weak electric fields with electroreceptors. Any neuron that deals with small-amplitude input has to overcome sensitivity limitations arising from inherent threshold non-linearities in spike-generation mechanisms. Many sensory cells solve this issue with stochastic resonance, in which a moderate amount of intrinsic noise causes irregular spontaneous spiking activity with a probability that is modulated by the input signal. Here we show that catfish electroreceptors have adopted a fundamentally different strategy. Using a reverse correlation technique in which we take spike interval durations into account, we show that the electroreceptors generate a supra-threshold bias current that results in quasi-periodically produced spikes. In this regime stimuli modulate the interval between successive spikes rather than the instantaneous probability for a spike. This alternative for stochastic resonance combines threshold-free sensitivity for weak stimuli with similar sensitivity for excitations and inhibitions based on single interspike intervals.
    Phylogenetic analyses of the leaf beetle genus Galerucella: evidence for host switching at speciation?
    Borghuis, A. ; Madsen, O. ; Ouborg, N.J. ; Groenendael, J. van - \ 2009
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 53 (2009)2. - ISSN 1055-7903 - p. 361 - 367.
    sympatric speciation - reproductive isolation - race formation - genetic differentiation - quantitative traits - nymphaeae - evolution - chrysomelidae - coleoptera - insects
    It is still the subject of lively debate whether sympatric speciation is a general mode of speciation as opposed to allopatric speciation. In herbivorous insects, host switching, i.e. colonization of, and adaptation to, a new host by a herbivore, has been proposed as one of the driving mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Evidence for host switching as a speciation driving mechanism can be inferred from phylogenies of herbivores and host plants: if the host plant phylogeny is randomly distributed over the herbivore phylogeny, this indicates host switching. The Chrysomelid beetle genus Galerucella is a good taxon to study for evidence of host switching, because several closely related Galerucella species form sympatric species complexes associated with various unrelated plant species. Here we present the phylogenetic relationships of 10 species in the genus Galerucella, based on the mitochondrial gene fragments of the NADH-2 (410 bp) and CO-I (659 bp) genes, and analyzed with Bayesian, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods. The resulting molecular phylogenetic tree proved to be largely congruent with morphologically based taxonomy. The host-associated taxa of the Galerucella nymphaeae species complex are not defined as distinct gene pools under the phylogenetic species concept (PSC), however, the species complex as a whole is. Two results indicate the contribution of host switching to the speciation of Galerucella: (1) the host-associated taxa of the G. nymphaeae species complex have diverged very recently and (2) constrained ML analyses showed that host use constraints led to a significantly different Galerucella tree compared to unconstrained analyses. This evidence for host switching, together with the observation that several sister taxa using unrelated host plants live in sympatry, suggests that sympatric speciation by host race formation can be an important mode of speciation in this genus
    Adolescents attitudes towards organic food : a survey of 15- to 16 year old school children
    Stobbelaar, D.J. ; Casimir, G.J. ; Borghuis, J. ; Marks, I. ; Meijer, L. ; Zebeda, S. - \ 2007
    International Journal of Consumer Studies 31 (2007)4. - ISSN 1470-6423 - p. 349 - 356.
    Adolescents are the consumers of tomorrow; therefore policies aimed at increasing organic food consumption should address the needs of this group. To discover their attitudes towards organic food and their knowledge of the subject, a survey among almost 700 school children aged 15-16¿years was conducted. Four main groups of questions were used: adolescents' knowledge of organic food, attitudes, whether they bought organic food and the perceived influences they exerted on the buying patterns of their parents. From the survey it can be concluded that adolescents' attitudes towards organic food are positive, but their knowledge of and their willingness to buy it are low. Campaigns aimed at encouraging the purchasing of organic food targeted at adolescents should particularly emphasize those characteristics of organic foods that they can relate to their interests and ethical preferences, for example, animal welfare and environmental considerations.
    Temporal interactions in direction-selective complex cells of area 18 and the posteromedial lateral suprasylvian cortex (PMLS) of the cat
    Vajda, Ildikó ; Borghuis, Bart G. ; De Grind, Wim A. Van; Lankheet, Martin J.M. - \ 2006
    Visual Neuroscience 23 (2006)2. - ISSN 0952-5238 - p. 233 - 246.
    Cat extrastriate area - Motion opponency - Motion vision - Random pixel array - Second-order reverse correlation

    Temporal interactions in direction-sensitive complex cells in area 18 and the posteromedial lateral suprasylvian cortex (PMLS) were studied using a reverse correlation method. Reverse correlograms to combinations of two temporally separated motion directions were examined and compared in the two areas. A comparison to the first-order reverse correlograms allowed us to identify nonlinear suppression or facilitation due to pairwise combinations of motion directions. Results for area 18 and PMLS were veiy different. Area 18 showed a single type of nonlinear behavior: similar directions facilitated and opposite directions suppressed spike probability. This effect was most pronounced for motion steps that followed each other immediately and decreased with increasing delay between steps. In PMLS, the picture was much more diverse. Some cells exhibited nonlinear interactions, that were opposite to those in area 18 (facilitation for opposite directions and suppression for similar ones), while the majority did not show a systematic interaction profile. We conclude that nonlinear second-order reverse correlation characteristics reveal different functional properties, despite similarities in the first-order reverse correlation profiles. Directional interactions in time revealed optimal integration of similar directions in area 18, but motion opponency - at least in some cells - in PMLS.

    Temporal dynamics of direction tuning in motion-sensitive macaque area MT
    Perge, János A. ; Borghuis, Bart G. ; Bours, Roger J.E. ; Lankheet, Martin J.M. ; Wezel, Richard J.A. Van - \ 2005
    Journal of Neurophysiology 93 (2005)4. - ISSN 0022-3077 - p. 2104 - 2116.

    We studied the temporal dynamics of motion direction sensitivity in macaque area MT using a motion reverse correlation paradigm. Stimuli consisted of a random sequence of motion steps in eight different directions. Cross-correlating the stimulus with the resulting neural activity reveals the temporal dynamics of direction selectivity. The temporal dynamics of direction selectivity at the preferred speed showed two phases along the time axis: one phase corresponding to an increase in probability for the preferred direction at short latencies and a second phase corresponding to a decrease in probability for the preferred direction at longer latencies. The strength of this biphasic behavior varied between neurons from weak to very strong and was uniformly distributed. Strong biphasic behavior suggests optimal responses for motion steps in the antipreferred direction followed by a motion step in the preferred direction. Correlating spikes to combinations of motion directions corroborates this distinction. The optimal combination for weakly biphasic cells consists of successive steps in the preferred direction, whereas for strongly biphasic cells, it is a reversal of directions. Comparing reverse correlograms to combinations of stimuli to predictions based on correlograms for individual directions revealed several nonlinear effects. Correlations for successive presentations of preferred directions were smaller than predicted, which could be explained by a static nonlinearity (saturation). Correlations to pairs of (nearly) opposite directions were larger than predicted. These results show that MT neurons are generally more responsive when sudden changes in motion directions occur, irrespective of the preferred direction of the neurons. The latter nonlinearities cannot be explained by a simple static nonlinearity at the output of the neuron, but most likely reflect network interactions.

    Dynamics of directional selectivity in MT receptive field centre and surround
    Perge, János A. ; Borghuis, Bart G. ; Bours, Roger J.E. ; Lankheet, Martin J.M. ; Wezel, Richard J.A. Van - \ 2005
    European Journal of Neuroscience 22 (2005)8. - ISSN 0953-816X - p. 2049 - 2058.
    Electrophysiology - Extrastriate cortex - Macaque monkey - Middle temporal area - Motion perception

    We studied receptive field organization of motion-sensitive neurons in macaque middle temporal cortical area (MT), by mapping direction selectivity in space and in time. Stimuli consisted of pseudorandom sequences of single motion steps presented simultaneously at many different receptive field locations. Spatio-temporal receptive field profiles were constructed by cross-correlating stimuli and spikes. The resulting spike-triggered averages revealed centre-surround organization. The temporal dynamics of the receptive fields were generally biphasic with increased probability for the preferred direction at short latency (50-70 ms) and decreased probability at longer latency (80-100 ms). The response latency of the receptive field surround was on average 16 ms longer than that of the centre. Our results show that surround input and biphasic behaviour reflect two different mechanisms, which make MT cells specifically sensitive to motion contrast in space and time.

    Jongeren en biologisch voedsel : een onderzoek naar de biologische consument en de jongere consument in het bijzonder
    Borghuis, J. ; Marks, I. ; Meijer, L. ; Zebeda, S. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 210) - ISBN 9789067548649 - 42 p.
    biologische voedingsmiddelen - houding van consumenten - consumenten - jeugd - consumentenvoorkeuren - marktonderzoek - nederland - organic foods - consumer attitudes - consumers - youth - consumer preferences - market research - netherlands
    Voor een studiedag van de studiekringen Biologische landbouw en consumentenstudies van Wageningen UR hebben vier studenten een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de voorkeuren van jongeren van 15-16 jaar voor biologische voedsel. Het rapport is uitgegevendoor de wetenschapswinkel
    Dynamics of directional selectivity in area 18 and PMLS of the cat
    Vajdal, Ildikó ; Lankheet, Martin J.M. ; Borghuis, Bart G. ; De Grind, Wim A. Van - \ 2004
    Cerebral Cortex 14 (2004)7. - ISSN 1047-3211 - p. 759 - 767.
    Cat extrastriate area - Motion vision - Random pixel array - Reverse correlation - Single unit recording

    Visual latencies and temporal dynamics of area 18 and PMLS direction-selective complex cells were defined with a reverse correlation method. The method allowed us to analyze the time course of responses to motion steps, without confounding temporal integration effects. Several measures of response latency and direction tuning dynamics were quantified: optimal latency (OL), latency of first and last significant responses (FSR, LSR), the increase and decrease of direction sensitivity in time, and the change of direction tuning in time. FSR, OL and LSR values for PMLS and area 18 largely overlapped. The small differences in mean latencies (3-4 ms for FSR and OL and 11.9 ms for the LSR) were not statistically significant. All cells in area 18 and the vast majority of cells in PMLS showed no systematic changes in preferred direction (monophasic neurons). In PMLS 5 out of 41 cells showed a reversal of preferred direction after ∼56 ms relative to their OL (biphasic neurons). Monophasic cells showed no systematic changes in direction tuning width during the interval from FSR to LSR. In both areas, development of direction sensitivity was significantly faster than return to the non direction sensitive state, but no significant difference was found between the two areas. We conclude that, for the monophasic type of direction-selective complex cells, the dynamics of primary motion processing are highly comparable for area 18 and PMLS. This suggests that motion information is predominantly processed in parallel, presumably based on input from the fast conducting thalamocortical Y-pathway.

    Partial cytochrome oxidase II sequences distinguish the sibling species Trichogramma minutum Riley and Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti
    Borghuis, A. ; Pinto, J.D. ; Platner, G.R. ; Stouthamer, R. - \ 2004
    Biological Control 30 (2004). - ISSN 1049-9644 - p. 90 - 94.
    complex hymenoptera - biological-control - t-platneri - utility - gene - dna
    The egg parasitoids Trichogramma minutum Riley and Trichogramma platneri Nagarkatti are commonly used in North America for the control of Lepidoptera in orchards, These species are morphologically indistinguishable, but reproductively incompatible. An easy identification technique is highly desirable, because release of the wrong species in the native area of the other species may result in a depression of intended biological control. Here we show that the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene differ between the species. These differences can be visualized by restricting the COII PCR product with the restriction enzyme; VspI. This method makes a rapid identification of these economically important sibling species possible. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The motion reverse correlation (MRC) method:: A linear systems approach in the motion domain
    Borghuis, Bart G. ; Perge, János A. ; Vajda, Ildikó ; Wezel, Richard J.A. Van; De Grind, Wim A. Van; Lankheet, Martin J.M. - \ 2003
    Journal of Neuroscience Methods 123 (2003)2. - ISSN 0165-0270 - p. 153 - 166.
    Area MT - Cat - Direction selectivity - Monkey - Motion vision - Reverse correlation - Visual cortex

    We introduce the motion reverse correlation method (MRC), a novel stimulus paradigm based on a random sequence of motion impulses. The method is tailored to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of motion selectivity in cells responding to moving random dot patterns. Effectiveness of the MRC method is illustrated with results obtained from recordings in both anesthetized cats and an awake, fixating macaque monkey. Motion tuning functions are computed by reverse correlating the response of single cells with a rapid sequence of displacements of a random pixel array (RPA). Significant correlations between the cell's responses and various aspects of stimulus motion are obtained at high temporal resolution. These correlations provide a detailed description of the temporal dynamics of, for example, direction tuning and velocity tuning. In addition, with a spatial array of independently moving RPAs, the MRC method can be used to measure spatial as well as temporal receptive field properties. We demonstrate that MRC serves as a powerful and time-efficient tool for quantifying receptive field properties of motion selective cells that yields temporal information that cannot be derived from existing methods.

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