Preliminary study on haemocyte response to white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Huisman, E.A. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van de - \ 2002
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 51 (2002). - ISSN 0177-5103 - p. 149 - 155.
The role of haemocytes and the lymphoid organ in the clearance of injected Vibrio bacteria in Penaeus monodon shrimp
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Huisman, E.A. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der - \ 2002
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 13 (2002). - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 293 - 309.
In order to study the reaction of Penaeus monodon haemocytes, live Vibrio anguillarum bacteria were injected and the shrimp were periodically sampled. Immuno-double staining analysis with specific antisera against the haemocyte granules and bacteria showed that large numbers of haemocytes encapsulated the bacteria at the site of injection. A rapid decrease of live circulating bacteria was detected in the haemolymph. Bacterial clearance in the haemolymph was induced by humoral factors, as observed by agglutinated bacteria, and followed by uptake in different places in the body. Bacteria mainly accumulated in the lymphoid organ (LO), where they, or their degradation products, could be detected for at least 7 days after injection. The LO consists of folded tubules with a central haemal lumen and a wall, layered with cells. The haemolymph, including the antigens, seemed to migrate from the central tubular lumen through the wall, where the bacteria are arrested and their degradation is started. Electron microscopy of the LO revealed the presence of many phagocytic cells that morphologically resemble small-granular haemocytes. It is proposed that haemocytes settle in the tubule walls before they phagocytose. Immunostaining suggests that many of the haemocytes degranulate in the LO, producing a layer of fibrous material in the outer tubule wall. These findings might contribute to the reduced haemocyte concentration in the haemolymph of diseased animals or following injection of foreign material. It is proposed that the LO is a filter for virtually all foreign material encountered in the haemolymph. Observations from the present study are similar to clearance mechanisms in the hepatic haemolymph vessel in most decapod crustaceans that do not possess a LO. The experimental shrimp appeared to contain many LO spheroids, where bacterial antigens were finally observed as well. It is proposed that the spheroids have a degradation function for both bacterial and viral material, and that their presence is primarily related to the history of the infectious burden of the shrimp.
|Diseases of aquatic organisms
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Huisman, E.A. ; Rombout, J.H.W.M. ; Knaap, W.M.W. van der - \ 2002
In: Diseases of aquatic organisms / Braak Bangkok : Inter Research - p. 149 - 155.
The role of the haematopoietic tissue in haemocyte production and maturation of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Liu, W. ; Taverne, N. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der; Rombout, J.H.W.M. - \ 2002
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 12 (2002)3. - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 253 - 272.
crustacean hemocytes - sicyonia-ingentis - hematopoiesis - morphology - origin - fungus - cells - prawn
The haematopoietic tissue (HPT) of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is located in different areas in the cephalothorax, mainly at the dorsal side of the stomach and in the onset of the maxillipeds and, to a lesser extent, towards the antennal gland. In young and in experimentally stimulated animals, the HPT is expanded in relatively larger and more numerous lobules throughout the cephalothorax. Four cell types could be identified in the HPT by electron microscopy. The type 1 cells are the presumed precursor cells that give rise to a large- and a small-granular young haemocyte, denominated as the type 2 and type 3 cells, respectively. A gradient of maturation from the type 1 towards the type 2 or 3 cells could frequently be observed. The presumed precursor cells are located towards the exterior of the lobules and maturing young haemocytes towards the inner part, where they can be released into the haemal lacunae. The type 4 cells show typical features of interstitial cells. Different stimulation experiments were carried out and various techniques were used to study the HPT in relation to the (circulating) haemocytes. The majority of the cells in the HPT are able to proliferate and proliferation can be increased significantly after the injection of saline and, to a much higher extent, after LPS injection. The circulating haemocytes of crustaceans are generally divided into hyaline (H), semigranular (SG) or granular (G) cells, of which large- and small-granular variants of each of these were suggested in the present study. Even after stimulation in this study, the circulating haemocytes scarcely divide. The high variations that were found in the total haemocyte count in the stimulation experiments were not accompanied by significant differences in differential haemocyte count and, therefore, appeared to be a less useful indicator of stress or health in P. monodon. Light and electron microscopical observations support the regulation of the populations of the different haemocyte types in the circulation by (stored) haemocytes from the connective tissue. In conclusion, according to morphological and immuno-chemical criteria, it is proposed in the present study to divide the haemocytes into a large and a small-granular developmental series. After extensive morphologicalobservations, it is suggested that the hyaline cells are the young and immature haemocytes of both the large- and small-granular cell line that are produced in the HPT, and can be released into the haemolymph. Indications were found that the granular cells, of at least the large-granular cell line, mature and accumulate in the connective tissue and are easily released into the haemolymph. Combining the results of the present study with literature, this proposed model for haemocyte proliferation, maturation and reaction will be discussed
Monoclonal antibodies against haemocyte molecules of Penaeus monodon shrimp react with haemolymph components of other crustaceans and disparate taxa
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Taverne, N. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der; Rombout, J.H.W.M. - \ 2001
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 25 (2001). - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 279 - 283.
In a previous study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different haemolymph molecules of the marine shrimp Penaeus monodon were produced and characterised. It was suggested that these mAbs could be used in studying haemocyte differentiation, behaviour and function in P. monodon. In the present study, the reaction of these mAbs on P. monodon was compared with other crustaceans and disparate taxa. The mAbs also reacted with haemolymph components of three freshwater crustaceans, a terrestrial isopod crustacean and with coelomic fluid of an annelid. No reactions were observed with haemolymph of an insect and a mollusc, nor with blood cells of two vertebrates. This comparative study shows reactivity of the mAbs with a wide range of crustaceans and related animals and suggests that well conserved molecules are recognised, which may indicate functional importance. Well-described mAbs can be used in studies of the crustacean defence system and may finally result in a better insight into this system.
|The use of monoclonal antibodies in functional studies of black tiger shrimp (Paneaus monodon) haemocytes
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Taverne, T. ; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der - \ 2000
In: Aqua 2000 : Aqua 2000, Nice 2000. - Nice : [s.n.], 2000 - p. 724 - 724.
|Haemocyte distribution after different methods of bacterial administration in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der - \ 2000
In: Eighth Congress of the international Society of Developmental and Comparative Immunology : idem, Caims Australia 2000 Caims Australia : - p. S5 - S5.
|Bacterial distribution after different methods of application in black tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon)
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Cornelissen, B.F.J. ; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der - \ 2000
In: Aqua 2000 : Aqua 2000, Nice 2000 Nice : - p. 723 - 723.
|The role of the haemocytes in white spot virus infected black tiger shrimp using monoclonal antibodies
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Taverne, N. ; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der; Rombout, J.H.W.M. - \ 2000
In: Eight Congress of the Int. society of developmental and comparative immunology : idem, Caims Australia 2000. - Caims Australia : [s.n.], 2000 - p. S1 - S1.
Characterisation of different morphological features of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) haemocytes using monoclonal antibodies
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Taverne, N. ; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der; Rombout, J.H.W.M. - \ 2000
Fish and Shellfish Immunology 10 (2000). - ISSN 1050-4648 - p. 515 - 530.
Monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for Penaeus monodon haemocytes were produced by immunising mice with membrane lysates of shrimp haemocytes. Four mabs (WSH 6, WSH 7, WSH 8 and WSH 16) were characterised using flow cytometry, light microscopy, laser scanning microscopy, electron microscopy and immunoprecipitation. WSH 6 recognised a carbohydrate determinant on an 85 kDa molecule. WSH 7, WSH 8 and WSH 16 recognised 50, 35 and 115 kDa molecules, respectively. For all mabs, differences in amount and intensity of the labelling were found when haemocytes were fixed immediately in 2␏ormaldehyde in Alsever's Solution (AS), compared with non-fixed haemocytes that were kept in AS (which reduced activation of the haemocytes) or in L15 cell culture medium. WSH 6 reacted with the cell membranes of all fixed haemocytes, while WSH 7 and WSH 16 reacted with the cell membranes of >80␘f fixed haemocytes. The membrane labelling appeared to decrease when cells were kept in L15 medium. WSH 8 did not react with the haemocyte membranes. All mabs reacted with some granules, mainly present in the hyaline cells, when the haemocytes were immediately fixed. When non-fixed cells were kept in AS and in L15 medium, positive granules were also observed in semigranular and granular haemocytes as well as in the largest granules of a fourth cell type, that contains many granules of different size and electron density. Immunoreactive extracellular thread-like material could be observed in cells in L15 medium. The change in staining pattern was extreme for WSH 8, somewhat less for WSH 6 and WSH 7 and the lowest for WSH 16. Double labelling revealed that all mabs showed a different staining pattern on membranes as well as on granules. WSH 16 also showed labelling in cytoplasmic vesicles, as well as in haemolymph plasma on histological sections. The hypothesis is put forward that immunoreactive molecules recognised by these mabs, are related to haemocyte activation factors.
|Bacterial distribution after different methods of application in black tiger shrimp
Braak, K. ; Botterblom, M. ; Knaap, W. van der; Rombout, J.H.W.M. - \ 2000
In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology 24 : VIIIth ISDCI Congress, Cairns Australia, 2000 - p. S5 - S5.
|Activity of the haematopoietic tissue and characterisation of the haemocytes of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) after challenge
Braak, C.B.T. van de; Botterblom, M.H.A. ; Knaap, W.P.W. van der; Rombout, J.H.W.M. - \ 1999
In: Book of abstracts: Fourth Symposium Diseases in Asian Aquaculture Aquatic Animal Health for Sustainability, November 22-26, 1999 Cebu City Philippines. - [S.l.] : [s.n.], 1999 - p. 1 - 1.