Antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation: call to action for change in recommendation
Bourassa, Megan W. ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Adu‐Afarwuah, Seth ; Ahmed, Saima ; Ajello, Clayton ; Bergeron, Gilles ; Black, Robert ; Christian, Parul ; Cousens, Simon ; Pee, Saskia de; Dewey, Kathryn G. ; Arifeen, Shams El ; Engle‐Stone, Reina ; Fleet, Alison ; Gernand, Alison D. ; Hoddinott, John ; Klemm, Rolf ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Kupka, Roland ; McLean, Erin ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Persson, L. ; Rasmussen, Kathleen M. ; Shankar, Anuraj H. ; Smith, Emily ; Sudfeld, Christopher R. ; Udomkesmalee, Emorn ; Vosti, Stephen A. - \ 2020
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1465 (2020)1. - ISSN 0077-8923 - p. 5 - 7.
Review of the evidence regarding the use of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation in low- and middle-income countries
Bourassa, Megan W. ; Osendarp, Saskia J.M. ; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth ; Ahmed, Saima ; Ajello, Clayton ; Bergeron, Gilles ; Black, Robert ; Christian, Parul ; Cousens, Simon ; Pee, Saskia de; Dewey, Kathryn G. ; Arifeen, Shams El ; Engle-Stone, Reina ; Fleet, Alison ; Gernand, Alison D. ; Hoddinott, John ; Klemm, Rolf ; Kraemer, Klaus ; Kupka, Roland ; McLean, Erin ; Moore, Sophie E. ; Neufeld, Lynnette M. ; Persson, Lars Åke ; Rasmussen, Kathleen M. ; Shankar, Anuraj H. ; Smith, Emily ; Sudfeld, Christopher R. ; Udomkesmalee, Emorn ; Vosti, Stephen A. - \ 2019
Annals of the New York Academy Of Sciences 1444 (2019)1. - ISSN 0077-8923 - p. 6 - 21.
LMICs - micronutrient - pregnancy - supplements
Inadequate micronutrient intakes are relatively common in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially among pregnant women, who have increased micronutrient requirements. This can lead to an increase in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. This review presents the conclusions of a task force that set out to assess the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes and adverse birth outcomes in LMICs; the data from trials comparing multiple micronutrient supplements (MMS) that contain iron and folic acid (IFA) with IFA supplements alone; the risks of reaching the upper intake levels with MMS; and the cost-effectiveness of MMS compared with IFA. Recent meta-analyses demonstrate that MMS can reduce the risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in comparison with IFA alone. An individual-participant data meta-analysis also revealed even greater benefits for anemic and underweight women and female infants. Importantly, there was no increased risk of harm for the pregnant women or their infants with MMS. These data suggest that countries with inadequate micronutrient intakes should consider supplementing pregnant women with MMS as a cost-effective method to reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes.
High-Resolution Mapping of Nitrogen Dioxide With TROPOMI : First Results and Validation Over the Canadian Oil Sands
Griffin, Debora ; Zhao, Xiaoyi ; McLinden, Chris A. ; Boersma, Folkert ; Bourassa, Adam ; Dammers, Enrico ; Degenstein, Doug ; Eskes, Henk ; Fehr, Lukas ; Fioletov, Vitali ; Hayden, Katherine ; Kharol, Shailesh K. ; Li, Shao Meng ; Makar, Paul ; Martin, Randall V. ; Mihele, Cristian ; Mittermeier, Richard L. ; Krotkov, Nickolay ; Sneep, Maarten ; Lamsal, Lok N. ; Linden, Mark ter; Geffen, Jos van; Veefkind, Pepijn ; Wolde, Mengistu - \ 2019
Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)2. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 1049 - 1060.
nitrogen dioxide - OMI - TROPOMI
TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), on-board the Sentinel-5 Precurser satellite, is a nadir-viewing spectrometer measuring reflected sunlight in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. From these spectra several important air quality and climate-related atmospheric constituents are retrieved, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at unprecedented spatial resolution from a satellite platform. We present the first retrievals of TROPOMI NO2 over the Canadian Oil Sands, contrasting them with observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite instrument, and demonstrate TROPOMI's ability to resolve individual plumes and highlight its potential for deriving emissions from individual mining facilities. Further, the first TROPOMI NO2 validation is presented, consisting of aircraft and surface in situ NO2 observations, and ground-based remote-sensing measurements between March and May 2018. Our comparisons show that the TROPOMI NO2 vertical column densities are highly correlated with the aircraft and surface in situ NO2 observations, and the ground-based remote-sensing measurements with a low bias (15–30 %); this bias can be reduced by improved air mass factors.
Limb-nadir matching using non-coincident NO2 observations : Proof of concept and the OMI-minus-OSIRIS prototype product
Adams, Cristen ; Normand, Elise N. ; McLinden, Chris A. ; Bourassa, Adam E. ; Lloyd, Nicholas D. ; Degenstein, Douglas A. ; Krotkov, Nickolay A. ; Belmonte Rivas, Maria ; Boersma, Folkert ; Eskes, Henk - \ 2016
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 9 (2016)8. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 4103 - 4122.
A variant of the limb-nadir matching technique for deriving tropospheric NO2 columns is presented in which the stratospheric component of the NO2 slant column density (SCD) measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is removed using non-coincident profiles from the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS). In order to correct their mismatch in local time and the diurnal variation of stratospheric NO2, OSIRIS profiles, which were measured just after sunrise, were mapped to the local time of OMI observations using a photochemical box model. Following the profile time adjustment, OSIRIS NO2 stratospheric vertical column densities (VCDs) were calculated. For profiles that did not reach down to the tropopause, VCDs were adjusted using the photochemical model. Using air mass factors from the OMI Standard Product (SP), a new tropospheric NO2 VCD product-referred to as OMI-minus-OSIRIS (OmO)-was generated through limb-nadir matching. To accomplish this, the OMI total SCDs were scaled using correction factors derived from the next-generation SCDs that improve upon the spectral fitting used for the current operational products. One year, 2008, of OmO was generated for 60° S to 60° N and a cursory evaluation was performed. The OmO product was found to capture the main features of tropospheric NO2, including a background value of about 0.3 × 1015 molecules cm-2 over the tropical Pacific and values comparable to the OMI operational products over anthropogenic source areas. While additional study is required, these results suggest that a limb-nadir matching approach is feasible for the removal of stratospheric NO2 measured by a polar orbiter from a nadir-viewing instrument in a geostationary orbit such as Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) or Sentinel-4.