Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Approaches to analyse and model changes in impacts: reply to discussions of “How to improve attribution of changes in drought and flood impacts”*
    Kreibich, Heidi ; Blauhut, Veit ; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H. ; Bouwer, Laurens M. ; Lanen, Henny A.J. Van; Mejia, Alfonso ; Mens, Marjolein ; Loon, Anne F. Van - \ 2020
    Hydrological Sciences Journal 65 (2020)3. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 491 - 494.
    damage - dynamic risk - hydrological extremes - new data - projecting risk

    We thank the authors, Brunella Bonaccorso and Karsten Arnbjerg-Nielsen for their constructive contributions to the discussion about the attribution of changes in drought and flood impacts. We appreciate that they support our opinion, but in particular their additional new ideas on how to better understand changes in impacts. It is great that they challenge us to think a step further on how to foster the collection of long time series of data and how to use these to model and project changes. Here, we elaborate on the possibility to collect time series of data on hazard, exposure, vulnerability and impacts and how these could be used to improve e.g. socio-hydrological models for the development of future risk scenarios.

    How to improve attribution of changes in drought and flood impacts
    Kreibich, Heidi ; Blauhut, Veit ; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H. ; Bouwer, Laurens M. ; Lanen, Henny A.J. Van; Mejia, Alfonso ; Mens, Marjolein ; Loon, Anne F. Van - \ 2019
    Hydrological Sciences Journal 64 (2019)1. - ISSN 0262-6667 - p. 1 - 18.
    consecutive hydro-hazards - damage - dynamic risk - hydrological extremes - paired catchments - trend attribution - vulnerability

    For the development of sustainable, efficient risk management strategies for the hydrological extremes of droughts and floods, it is essential to understand the temporal changes of impacts, and their respective causes and interactions. In particular, little is known about changes in vulnerability and their influence on drought and flood impacts. We present a fictitious dialogue between two experts, one in droughts and the other in floods, showing that the main obstacles to scientific advancement in this area are both a lack of data and a lack of commonly accepted approaches. The drought and flood experts “discuss” available data and methods and we suggest a complementary approach. This approach consists of collecting a large number of single or multiple paired-event case studies from catchments around the world, undertaking detailed analyses of changes in impacts and drivers, and carrying out a comparative analysis. The advantages of this approach are that it allows detailed context- and location-specific assessments based on the paired-event analyses, and reveals general, transferable conclusions based on the comparative analysis of various case studies. Additionally, it is quite flexible in terms of data and can accommodate differences between floods and droughts.

    Salinity-induced increase of the hydraulic conductivity in the hyporheic zone of coastal wetlands
    Dijk, Gijs van; Nijp, Jelmer J. ; Metselaar, Klaas ; Lamers, Leon P.M. ; Smolders, Alfons J.P. - \ 2017
    Hydrological Processes 31 (2017)4. - ISSN 0885-6087 - p. 880 - 890.
    Downward seepage - Hydraulic conductivity - Methane - Methanogenesis - Pore dilation - Salinization
    In coastal zones globally, salinization is rapidly taking place due to the combined effects of sea level rise, land subsidence, altered hydrology, and climate change. Although increased salinity levels are known to have a great impact on both biogeochemical and hydrological processes in aquatic sediments, only few studies have included both types of processes and their potential interactions. In the present paper, we used a controlled 3-year experimental mesocosm approach to test salinity induced interactions and discuss mechanisms explaining the observed hydrological changes. Surface water salinity was experimentally increased from 14 to 140 mmol Cl per L (0.9 and 9 PSU) by adding sea salt which increased pore water salinity but also increased sulfate reduction rates, leading to higher sulfide, and lower methane concentrations. By analyzing slug test data with different slug test analysis methods, we were able to show that hydraulic conductivity of the hyporheic zone increased 2.8 times by salinization. Based on our hydrological and biogeochemical measurements, we conclude that the combination of pore dilation and decreased methane production rates were major controls on the observed increase in hydraulic conductivity. The slug test analysis method comparison allowed to conclude that the adjusted Bouwer and Rice method results in the most reliable estimate of the hydraulic conductivity for hyporheic zones. Our work shows that both physical and biogeochemical processes are vital to explain and predict hydrological changes related to the salinization of hyporheic zones in coastal wetlands and provides a robust methodological approach for doing so.
    Improving predictions and management of hydrological extremes through climate services
    Hurk, Bart J.J.M. van den; Bouwer, Laurens M. ; Buontempo, Carlo ; Döscher, Ralf ; Ercin, Ertug ; Hananel, Cedric ; Hunink, Johannes E. ; Kjellström, Erik ; Klein, Bastian ; Manez, Maria ; Pappenberger, Florian ; Pouget, Laurent ; Ramos, Maria Helena ; Ward, Philip J. ; Weerts, Albrecht H. ; Wijngaard, Janet B. - \ 2016
    Climate Services 1 (2016). - ISSN 2405-8807 - p. 6 - 11.
    Climate projections - Climate services - Sectoral climate impacts - Water - Weather forecasting

    The EU Roadmap on climate services can be seen as a result of a convergence between the society's call for "actionable research", and the ability of the climate research community to provide tailored data, information and knowledge. However, although weather and climate have clearly distinct definitions, a strong link between weather and climate services exists that is not explored extensively. Stakeholders being interviewed in the context of the Roadmap consider climate as a far distant long term feature that is difficult to incorporate in present-day decision taking, which is dominated by daily experience with handling extreme events. In this paper we argue that this experience is a rich source of inspiration to increase society's resilience to an unknown future.A newly started European research project, IMPREX, is built on the notion that "experience in managing current day weather extremes is the best learning school to anticipate consequences of future climate". This paper illustrates possible ways to increase the link between information and services for the water sector, by addressing weather and climate time scales and discussing the underlying concepts of IMPREX and its expected outcome.

    Modeling the effects of saline groundwater and irrigation water on root zone salinity and sodicity dynamics in agro-ecosystems
    Shah, S.H.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Sjoerd van der Zee, co-promotor(en): R.W. Vervoort. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735256 - 201
    grondwater - zout water - modelleren - irrigatiewater - wortels - zoutgehalte - agro-ecosystemen - bodemfysica - bodemzoutgehalte - groundwater - saline water - modeling - irrigation water - roots - salinity - agroecosystems - soil physics - soil salinity

    Recent trends and future projections suggest that the need to produce more food and fibre for the world’ s expanding population will lead to an increase in the use of marginal-quality water and land resources (Bouwer, 2000; Gupta and Abrol, 2000; Wild, 2003). This is particularly relevant to less-developed, arid and semi-arid countries, in which problems of soil and water quality degradation are common (Qadir and Oster, 2004). The aim, therefore, should be to increase yield per unit of land rather than the area cultivated. More efforts are needed to improve productivity as more lands are becoming degraded. It is estimated that about 15% of the total land area of the world has been degraded by soil erosion and physical and chemical degradation, including soil salinization (Wild, 2003).

    The main sources of soil salinity and sodicity development are groundwater and irrigation water. In discharge areas of the landscape, water exits from groundwater to the soil surface bringing the salts dissolved in it. The driving force for upward movement of water and salts is evaporation from the soil plus plant transpiration. Salt accumulation is high when the water table depth is less than a threshold. However, this threshold depth may vary depending on soil hydraulic properties and climatic conditions. Groundwater associated salinity and sodicity affects around 350 X 104km2in the world (Szabolcs, 1989).

    In this thesis, the focus is to quantify and understand the salinity and sodicity dynamics, and the feedback on dynamics in groundwater dependent agro-ecosystems. First we have considered the impact of salt coming from groundwater on capillary fluxes and on the root zone water and salt dynamics. Groundwater can be a source of both water and salts in semi-arid areas, and therefore capillary pressure induced upward water flow may cause root zone salinization. To identify which conditions result in hazardous salt concentrations in the root zone, we combined the mass balance equations for salt and water, further assuming a Poisson-distributed daily rainfall and brackish groundwater quality. For the water fluxes (leaching, capillary upflow, and evapotranspiration), we account for osmotic effects of the dissolved salt mass using Van‘t Hoff’s law. Root zone salinity depends on salt transport via capillary flux and on evapotranspiration, which concentrates salt in the root zone. Both a wet climate and shallow groundwater lead to wetter root zone conditions, which in combination with periodic rainfall enhances salt removal by leaching. For wet climates, root zone salinity (concentrations) increases as groundwater is more shallow (larger groundwater influence). For dry climates, salinity increases as groundwater is deeper due to a drier root zone and less leaching. For intermediate climates, opposing effects can push the salt balance in either way. Root zone salinity increases almost linearly with groundwater salinity. With a simple analytical approximation, maximum concentrations can be related with the mean capillary flow rate, leaching rate, water saturation and groundwater salinity, for different soils, climates and groundwater depths.

    A Soil sodicity (quantified by ESP) model based on the soil salinity model (as discussed above) has been developed. For sodicity calculations, we have used the Gapon equation favored in salinity research. The simulation results show that soil salinity and sodicity development in groundwater driven agro-ecosystems play a major role in soil structure degradation. To identify which conditions can make soil sodic, we have modeled the coupled water, salt, and cation balances. The root zone salinity Cand sodicity ESPgradually change to their long term average values. These long term average values are independent of the cation exchange capacity CEC. The rate of change depends inversely on the size of the root zone reservoir, i.e., on root zone thickness for C, and additionally on CEC, for ESP.Soil type can have a large effect on both the rate of approach of the long term steady state salinity and sodicity, and on the long term levels, as it affects the incoming and out-going water and chemical fluxes. Considering two possible sources of salts, i.e., groundwater and irrigation water (here represented by rainfall), the long term salt concentration Cof the root zone corresponds well with a flux weighted average of infiltrating and upflowing salt mass divided by the average water drainage. In full analogy, the long term ESPcan be approximated very well for different groundwater depths and climates. A more refined analytical approximation, based on the analytical solution of the water balance of Vervoort and Van der Zee(2008), leads to a quite good approximation of long term salinity and sodicity, for different soils, groundwater depths, and climates.

    Modeling is an efficient tool to investigate water and solute movement in groundwater driven agro-ecosystems. However, in most available models (SWAP,MODFLOW/MT3D) continuing degradation of soil hydraulic properties as a result of rising Na+concentrations is ignored. Disregarding the soil hydraulic degradation due to sodicity level in some cases makes modeling water and solute movement within the soil profile questionable. We have translated the effects of soil salinity and sodicity into reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity to quantify the feedback effects of reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity on root zone fluxes, salinity, and sodicity under different groundwater depths and climates of Oenpelli and Tennant Creek Airport located in the North Territory of Australia. The reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity due to salinity and sodicity (Ks(C,ESP))has been calculated by using the procedure developed by McNeal(1968). The significant feedback effects of Ks(C,ESP) on salt concentration and soil ESPdepend on many important parameters like groundwater depth, leaf area index, weather seasonality and non-seasonality, and soil type. Out of these important parameters, weather seasonality is the main driver that can develop significant feedback effects of Ks(C,ESP) onsalt concentration and soil ESP. Furthermore, Ks(C,ESP) although decreasing the capillary flux, leaching flux, and evapotranspiration, it increases the magnitude of runoff. Also when Ks(C,ESP)affects both capillary and leaching flux under seasonal rainfall, the feedback effects are significant compared to the partial feedback (Ks(C,ESP)affects only leaching flux, but not capillary flux).

    In the second theme of this thesis, we have focused on optimizing irrigation water between two farms under water scarcity and salinity regimes. In arid and semi-arid regions, irrigation water is scarce and often saline. To reduce negative effects on crop yields, the irrigated amounts must include water for leaching and therefore exceed evapotranspiration. The leachate (drainage) water returns to water sources such as rivers or groundwater aquifers and increases their level of salinity and the leaching requirement for irrigation water of any sequential user. We develop a sequential (upstream-downstream) model of irrigation that predicts crop yields and water consumption and tracks the water flow and level of salinity along a river dependent on irrigation management decisions. The model incorporates an agro-physical model of plant response to environmental conditions including feedbacks. For a system with limited water resources, the model examines the impacts of water scarcity, salinity and inefficient application on yields for specific crop, soil, and climate conditions. As a general pattern we find that, as salinity level and technical inefficiency increase, the system benefits when upstream farms use less water than is available to them, to provide downstream farms with more and better quality water. We compute the marginal value of water, i.e. the price water that would command on a market, for different levels of water scarcity, salinity and levels of water loss.

    In summary this thesis aims to understand theoretically how soil salinity and sodicity develop under different climates, groundwater depths, soil types, root zone thicknesses, and different groundwater salinities. The developed salinity sodicity model can be applied in potential salt affected areas to predict the long term salinity, sodicity trends. Furthermore, quantification of feedback effects of reduction in saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks(C,ESP)) on root zone fluxes, salinity, and sodicity guide us towards better management of soil, vegetation, and irrigation/groundwater.

    Aandacht voor levensbeschouwing vraagt om onderbouwing
    Jochemsen, H. - \ 2010
    In: Kwaliteit van zorg. Optimaal zonder levensbeschouwing? / Bouwer, J., v.d. Haar, B., Assen : Van Gorcum - ISBN 9789023244905 - p. 93 - 100.
    Imagining the unimaginable:synthesis of essays on abrupt and extreme climate change
    Martens, P. ; Aerts, J.C.J.H. ; Amelung, B. ; Bouwer, L.M. ; Chiung Ting Chang, ; Huynen, M. ; Ierland, E.C. van; Koppen, C.S.A. van; McEvoy, D. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2010
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2 (2010)5-6. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 347 - 355.
    With a shutdown or slowdown of the oceanic thermohalinecirculation, which acts as a conveyor belt that transportswarmer waters northwards to the maritime regions of Western Europe, many parts of Europe could face abrupt decreases intemperature, with potentially serious social and economicconsequences. What do we know about the potential impacts and society’s vulnerability to them, how can we best prepare, and what is the cost of action likely to be? How well prepared are we for abrupt and extreme climate change? This paper reflects on five essays, each looking at the issue through a different lens: legal, institutional, sectoral, multi-sectoral, and economic.
    Recensie van Klaas Bouwer
    Kooij, P. - \ 2009
    Bijdragen en mededelingen : Historisch jaarboek voor Gelderland 2009 (2009). - ISSN 0923-2834 - p. 282 - 283.
    Aandacht voor veiligheid
    Aerts, J. ; Sprong, T. ; Bannink, B. ; Bessembinder, J. ; Koomen, E. ; Jacobs, Ch ; Hoeven, N. van der; Huitema, D. ; Klooster, S. van 't; Veraart, J.A. ; Walraven, A. ; Jonkman, S.N. ; Maaskant, B. ; Bouwer, L.M. ; Bruijn, K. de; Oosterveld, E. ; Schuurman, H. ; Peters, K. ; Ottevanger, W. ; Immerzeel, W. ; Droogers, P. ; Kwadijk, J. ; Kind, J. ; Voogt, L. ; Klis, H. van der; Dellink, R. ; Affolter, F. ; Bubeck, Ph. ; Meulen, M. van der; Lange, G. de; Bregman, B. ; Brink, H. van den; Buiteveld, H. ; Drijfhout, S. ; Feijt, A. ; Hazeleger, W. ; Hurk, B.J.J.M. van den; Katsman, C. ; Kattenberg, A. ; Lenderink, G. ; Meijgaard, E. van; Siegmund, P. ; Wit, M. de; Naples, M. - \ 2008
    rotterdam : AVV (Rapport / Leven met Water 009/2008) - ISBN 9789088150043 - 196
    waterbeheer - klimaatverandering - veiligheid - kustgebieden - inundatie - infrastructuur - beleid - nederland - water management - climatic change - safety - coastal areas - flooding - infrastructure - policy - netherlands
    De komende decennia worden er tussen de 500.000 en 1.500.000 woningen gebouwd waarvan een groot deel in laag Nederland. Deze studie laat zien dat door deze woningen overstromingsbestendig te bouwen schadereductie mogelijk is. Het schaderisico wordt dan nog eens een factor 2 minder als naast een Business as Usual variant nieuwbouwwoningen worden opgehoogd tot +5 m NAP. De kosten van opgehoogde nieuwbouwhuizen zijn hoger en variëren tussen de 0,4 en 1.7 miljard euro/jaar, hetgeen overeenkomt met 0,1-0,5% van het BNP. Dijkversterking levert de hoogste reductie op in het schaderisico bij de gehanteerde scenario’s. Gevolgbeperkende maatregelen in de ruimtelijk ordening als additionele oplossingsrichting zijn echter goed mogelijk als er ook een economische perspectief is bijvoorbeeld door middel van multifunctioneel ruimtegebruik.
    Klimaatverandering en overstromingen, meten focus op Nederland
    Bouwer, L. ; Vellinga, P. - \ 2008
    In: Van Natuurlandschap tot Risicomaatschappij. De geografie van de relatie tussen mens en milieu / Dietz, A.J., den Hertog, F., van der Wusten, H., Amsterdam : Amsterdam University Press - ISBN 9789053567982 - p. 186 - 190.
    Het IPCC-rapport en de betekenis voor Nederland
    Dorland, R. van; Janssen, B. ; Brink, H. van den; Drijfhout, S. ; Haak, H. ; Haarsma, R. ; Hazelegger, W. ; Hurk, B. van den; Katsman, C. ; Kattenberg, A. ; Komen, G. ; Lenderink, G. ; Oldenborgh, G.J. van; Reijmerink, M. ; Siegmund, P. ; Weber, N. ; Hove, B. van; Veraart, J.A. ; Verhagen, J. ; Berkhout, F. ; Bouwer, L. ; Eickhout, B. ; Haanstra, H. ; Kabat, P. ; Leemans, R. ; Tak, M. ; Meyer, L. ; Vuuren, D.P. van; Seedrechts, A. ; Bosch, P. ; Daniëls, B. ; Ybema, R. ; Drunen, M. van; Meijer, N. - \ 2007
    De Bilt / Wageningen : PCCC - Platform Communication on Climate Change - 52
    klimaatverandering - inventarisaties - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - climatic change - inventories - scientific research
    Het IPCC brengt verspreid over 2007 in vier delen het vierde klimaatrapport uit (Fourth Assessment Report - AR4). Het geeft daarmee de nieuwste inzichten op het gebied van klimaatverandering in de wereld. Aan het AR4 hebben honderden gerenommeerde klimaatonderzoekers uit de hele wereld meegewerkt, waaronder verschillende uit Nederland. De hoofdrapporten met de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing komen dit jaar stapsgewijs beschikbaar. Eind november volgt het zogeheten ‘synthesis report’ van het IPCC. In dit rapport zullen de bevindingen en conclusies van de drie werkgroeprapporten in samenhang beschouwd worden om zo een integraal wetenschappelijk beeld te geven van ons huidige begrip van klimaatverandering. Deze stand van zaken rond klimaatverandering en Nederland wordt gegeven door: MNP, KNMI, VU Amsterdam, Universiteit Utrecht, NWO, Wageningen UR en ECN
    Klimaatverandering: gevolgen, adaptatie en kwetsbaarheid in beeld gebracht : brochure naar aanleiding van de presentatie van het IPCC Working Group II Fourth Assessment Report
    Hove, B. van; Verhagen, J. ; Veraart, J.A. ; Jansen, B. ; Berkhout, F. ; Bouwer, B. ; Eickhout, B. ; Haanstra, H. ; Kabat, P. ; Leemans, R. ; Tak, M. - \ 2007
    [S.l.] : LNV, directie Platteland en Wageningen UR, Alterra - 34
    klimaatverandering - effecten - adaptatie - zeeniveau - mitigatie - climatic change - effects - adaptation - sea level - mitigation
    Deze brochure presenteert de belangrijkste conclusies uit het Fourth Assessment Report van Werkgroep II (WGII 4AR) van het Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). De werkzaamheden van deze werkgroep bestrijken de mondiale en regionale gevolgen van klimaatverandering en zeespiegelstijging, de kwetsbaarheid van verschillende sectoren, en de mogelijkheden van aanpassing of adaptatie
    Special issue on responsible management of water in agriculture Wesseling-van Schilfgaarde-Bouwer special issue of agricultural water management - Preface
    Raats, P.A.C. - \ 2006
    Agricultural Water Management 86 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 1 - 1.
    Contributions by Jans Wesseling, Jan van Schilfgaarde, and Herman Bouwer to effective and responsible water management in agriculture
    Raats, P.A.C. ; Feddes, R.A. - \ 2006
    Agricultural Water Management 86 (2006)1-2. - ISSN 0378-3774 - p. 9 - 29.
    hydraulic conductivity - irrigation management - unconfined aquifers - rapid-infiltration - salinity sensors - minimizing salt - drain water - air entry - soil - flow
    The first three, successive Editors-in-Chief of Agricultural Water Management, Jans Wesseling, Jan van Schilfgaarde, and Herman Bouwer, were of Dutch origin, received their early training immediately after World War II, and started their careers in the early 1950s: Jans in The Netherlands and Jan and Herman in the USA. In this paper we review the circumstances and the highlights of their contributions to responsible management of water in agriculture. Following a sketch of the state of agricultural water management research around 1950, both in The Netherlands and in the USA, we describe their training, document their early scientific contributions, especially in the realm of agricultural drainage, and highlight their later service as research managers. The three careers reflect the great progress in the second half of the 20th century: the scope of water management research widened, computational capabilities became more powerful, experimental methods became more sophisticated. With increasing attention for environmental implications of water management, the focus of research changed from mainly water quantity to both water quantity and quality. The review of the careers of the first three Editors-in-Chief shows that the journal Agricultural Water Management from its inception and throughout its first quarter century was in very good hands.
    Climate Change. Beyond Climate, Options for broadening climate policy
    Aerts, J.C.J.H. ; Asselt, H. van; Bakker, S.J.A. ; Bayangos, V. ; Beers, C. van; Berk, M. ; Biermann, F. ; Bouwer, L.M. ; Bree, L. van; Coninck, H.C. de; Dorland, K. ; Egging, R. ; Elzen, M.G.J. den; Gupta, J. ; Heemst, J. van; Jansen, J.C. ; Kok, M.T.J. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Oostvoorn, F. van; Veraart, J.A. ; Verhagen, A. - \ 2004
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM report 500019001) - 256
    klimaat - klimaatverandering - milieufactoren - milieubeleid - brandstoffen - bio-energie - nederland - biobased economy - climate - climatic change - environmental factors - environmental policy - fuels - bioenergy - netherlands - biobased economy
    Fundamenten voor het beleid: de betekenis van historische kaarten voor de planvorming
    Knol, W.C. - \ 2004
    In: Het bos in 1832; de betekenis van de eerste kadastrale gegevens, studiedag Ellecom, 25 maart 2004. - Zuidwolde : Stichting Boskaart Nederland 1832 - ISBN 9789077425022 - p. 47 - 54.
    ruimtelijke ordening - landschap - geschiedenis - cultuurlandschap - physical planning - landscape - history - cultural landscape
    Historische informatie gaat een rol spelen bij ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen als het beleid erop aansluit of wanneer er aanknopingspunten zijn voor nieuwe ontwikkelingen. Interpretatie van kaartmateriaal kan daarbij een hulpmiddel zijn
    Struikbos (kreupelbos en struellen) op de Veluwe: 1832 versus 2003
    Bijlsma, R.J. - \ 2004
    In: Het bos in 1832; de betekenis van de eerste kadastrale gegevens, studiedag, Ellecom, 25 -3-2004. - Zuidwolde : Stichting Boskaart Nederland 1832 - ISBN 9789077425022 - p. 17 - 29.
    bossen - landschap - geschiedenis - veluwe - historische ecologie - forests - landscape - history - veluwe - historical ecology
    Jaarplan Arbo & Milieu 2003: Plant Sciences Group
    Bonte, J. de; Bouwer, R. ; Rus-Kortekaas, W. ; Meijering, A.J. ; PRI, - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (PRI Nota 215) - 38 p.
    Jaarverslag Arbo & Milieu 2002: Kenniseenheid Plant
    Bonte, J. de; Bouwer, R. ; Rus-Kortekaas, W. ; Meijering, A.J. ; Witting, J. ; PRI, - \ 2003
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (PRI Nota 243) - 25 p.
    Nutriënten in stromende wateren; een verkenning van ecologisch relevante hydrologische en hydraulische modelkenmerken
    Verdonschot, P.F.M. - \ 2002
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 516a) - 80
    hydrologie - waterlopen - ecologie - modellen - voedingsstoffen - hydraulica - simulatiemodellen - oppervlakkige afvoer - rivierafvoer - waterbeheer - milieu - nutriënten - oppervlaktewater - hydrology - streams - ecology - models - nutrients - hydraulics - simulation models - runoff - stream flow - water management
    Het doel van deze studie was het zoeken naar ecologisch relevante modelkenmerken in een beperkt aantal beschikbare en goed beschreven hydrologische en hydraulische modellen die gebruikt kunnen worden als bouwstenen van een nieuw te ontwikkelen nutriëntenmodel voor stromende wateren. De algemene conclusie is dat alle onderzochte modellen en rekenpakketten min of meer een eigen keuze van relevante processen bevatten. Dit kan ingegeven zijn door de voorkeur van de bouwer, het doel van het model of de beschikbare informatie. Voor een advies over relevante processen in een nieuw te bouwen model geeft dit onderzoek weinig houvast. De bestaande modellen zijn niet gebouwd voor ecologische doelen en voldoen niet aan de eisen die nodig zijn bij toepassing voor een ecologische normering. Een raamwerk voor een nieuw te ontwikkelen laaglandbekenmodel wordt voorgesteld.
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