Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Insights into heterologous biosynthesis of Arteannuin B and artemisinin in physcomitrella patens
Ikram, Nur Kusaira Khairul ; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar ; Peramuna, Anantha ; Krol, Alexander R. Van Der; Bouwmeester, Harro ; Simonsen, Henrik Toft - \ 2019
Molecules 24 (2019)21. - ISSN 1420-3049
Artemisinin - Biotechnology - Malaria - Physcomitrella patens - Sesquiterpenoids

Metabolic engineering is an integrated bioengineering approach, which has made considerable progress in producing terpenoids in plants and fermentable hosts. Here, the full biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin, originating from Artemisia annua, was integrated into the moss Physcomitrella patens. Different combinations of the five artemisinin biosynthesis genes were ectopically expressed in P. patens to study biosynthesis pathway activity, but also to ensure survival of successful transformants. Transformation of the first pathway gene, ADS, into P. patens resulted in the accumulation of the expected metabolite, amorpha-4,11-diene, and also accumulation of a second product, arteannuin B. This demonstrates the presence of endogenous promiscuous enzyme activity, possibly cytochrome P450s, in P. patens. Introduction of three pathway genes, ADSCYP71AV1- ADH1 or ADS-DBR2-ALDH1 both led to the accumulation of artemisinin, hinting at the presence of one or more endogenous enzymes in P. patens that can complement the partial pathways to full pathway activity. Transgenic P. patens lines containing the different gene combinations produce artemisinin in varying amounts. The pathway gene expression in the transgenic moss lines correlates well with the chemical profile of pathway products. Moreover, expression of the pathway genes resulted in lipid body formation in all transgenic moss lines, suggesting that these may have a function in sequestration of heterologous metabolites. This work thus provides novel insights into the metabolic response of P. patens and its complementation potential for A. annua artemisinin pathway genes. Identification of the related endogenous P. patens genes could contribute to a further successful metabolic engineering of artemisinin biosynthesis, as well as bioengineering of other high-value terpenoids in P. patens.

Plant host and drought shape the root associated fungal microbiota in rice
Andreo-Jimenez, Beatriz ; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe ; Lê Van, Amandine ; Heutinck, Arvid ; Duhamel, Marie ; Kadam, Niteen ; Jagadish, Krishna ; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien ; Bouwmeester, Harro - \ 2019
PeerJ 2019 (2019)9. - ISSN 2167-8359
Drought - Fungi - Host - Microbiota - Oryza sativa (rice) - Yield

Background and Aim. Water is an increasingly scarce resource while some crops, such as paddy rice, require large amounts of water to maintain grain production. A better understanding of rice drought adaptation and tolerance mechanisms could help to reduce this problem. There is evidence of a possible role of root-associated fungi in drought adaptation. Here, we analyzed the endospheric fungal microbiota composition in rice and its relation to plant genotype and drought. Methods. Fifteen rice genotypes (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) were grown in the field, under well-watered conditions or exposed to a drought period during flowering. The effect of genotype and treatment on the root fungal microbiota composition was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA high throughput sequencing. Grain yield was determined after plant maturation. Results. There was a host genotype effect on the fungal community composition. Drought altered the composition of the root-associated fungal community and increased fungal biodiversity. The majority of OTUs identified belonged to the Pezizomycotina subphylum and 37 of these significantly correlated with a higher plant yield under drought, one of them being assigned to Arthrinium phaeospermum. Conclusion. This study shows that both plant genotype and drought affect the rootassociated fungal community in rice and that some fungi correlate with improved drought tolerance. This work opens new opportunities for basic research on the understanding of how the host affects microbiota recruitment as well as the possible use of specific fungi to improve drought tolerance in rice.

A microscopy-based approach to understand polarized exocytosis during plant defence
Overdijk, Elysa-Maria Janna Regina - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. Govers, co-promotor(en): T. Ketelaar; K. Bouwmeester. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950565 - 161
The mechanism underlying strigolactone diversification in sorghum and its role in resistance against the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica
Shimels, Mahdere Z. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.J. Bouwmeester, co-promotor(en): C.P. Ruyter-Spira. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950916 - 153
Thee met een wolkje nanoplastic
Bouwmeester, H. - \ 2019
Hoe weet een plant wat goed voor haar is?
Bouwmeester, Harro - \ 2019
Kan uw bedrijf wel een misoogst of prijsval aan?
Asseldonk, Marcel van - \ 2019
Online and in situ analysis of organs-on-a-chip
Santbergen, Milou J.C. ; Zande, Meike van der; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Nielen, Michel W.F. - \ 2019
TrAC : Trends in Analytical Chemistry 115 (2019). - ISSN 0165-9936 - p. 138 - 146.
Electrochemical sensor - Mass spectrometry - Online analysis - Optical detector - Organ-on-a-chip

Organ-on-a-chip technology is used to study biological processes that involve multiple cell types and temporal changes like, homeostasis, metabolism and responses to chemical triggers. Main benefits of organ-on-a-chip systems include: improved mimicking of the in vivo situation, easy manipulation of the microenvironment and low reagent consumption. Exploiting the unique dynamic aspects of organ-on-a-chip technology, such as liquid flow, automated online measurement of parameters by sensors or online coupling to analytical equipment becomes feasible. Apart from the challenge to detect drug uptake and chemical changes in real-time with high resolution at the microscale, the biggest challenge, is detection of the analyte of interest in cell culture medium, as this contains high amounts of salts, sugars and proteins required by the living cells. In this review online and in situ analytical techniques integrated with organ-on-a-chip devices are discussed with special emphasis on maintaining the biological relevance, achieving analytical compatibility, system integration and final applicability.

Digestion-on-a-chip: A continuous-flow modular microsystem recreating enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract
Haan, Pim De; Ianovska, Margaryta A. ; Mathwig, Klaus ; Lieshout, Glenn A.A. Van; Triantis, Vassilis ; Bouwmeester, Hans ; Verpoorte, Elisabeth - \ 2019
Lab on a Chip 19 (2019)9. - ISSN 1473-0197 - p. 1599 - 1609.

In vitro digestions are essential for determining the bioavailability of compounds, such as nutrients. We have developed a cell-free, miniaturized enzymatic digestive system, employing three micromixers connected in series to mimic the digestive functions of the mouth, stomach and small intestine. This system continuously processes samples, e.g. containing nutrients, to provide a constant flow of digested materials which may be presented to a subsequent gut-on-a-chip absorption module, containing living human intestinal cells. Our system incorporates three-compartment enzymatic digestion, one of the key functions of the gastrointestinal tract. In each of these compartments, we modify the chemical environment, including pH, buffer, and mineral composition, to closely mimic the local physiological environment and create optimal conditions for digestive processes to take place. It will therefore provide an excellent addition to existing gut-on-a-chip systems, providing the next step in determining the bio-availability of orally administered compounds in a fast and continuous-flow ex vivo system. In this paper, we demonstrate enzymatic digestion in each separate compartment using compounds, starch and casein, as model nutrients. The use of transparent, microfluidic micromixers based on chaotic advection, which can be probed directly with a microscope, enabled enzyme kinetics to be monitored from the very start of a reaction. Furthermore, we have digested lactoferrin in our system, demonstrating complete digestion of this milk protein in much shorter times than achievable with standard in vitro digestions using batch reactors.

Clade 5 aspartic proteases of Phytophthora infestans are virulence factors implied in RXLR effector cleavage
Schoina, Charikleia ; Verbeek-de Kruif, Natalie ; Govers, Francine ; Bouwmeester, Klaas - \ 2019
European Journal of Plant Pathology 154 (2019)1. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 17 - 29.
Enzymatic activity - Late blight disease - Pathogenicity - Plant-pathogen interactions - Proteolysis

Late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive diseases in potato cultivation. To successfully colonize its host, P. infestans secretes a suite of effector proteins that undermine plant immunity, many of which contain a conserved N-terminal RXLR motif that strongly resembles the host targeting motif in effectors of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, we focus on three P. infestans clade 5 aspartic proteases (PiAPs) that are homologous to Plasmepsin V (PMV), a Pl. falciparum AP responsible for cleaving effectors prior to translocation into red blood cells. Malaria parasites expressing mutated PMV are impaired in effector translocation and are less virulent. To determine whether clade 5 PiAPs play similar roles in virulence, we characterized P. infestans transformants with either reduced or enhanced PiAP expression levels. Phytophthora infestans transformants with altered PiAP10 or PiAP12 expression were found to be impaired in mycelial growth and sporangia production, and are hampered in their virulence on potato leaves. This was not observed in PiAP11 transformants. Activity assays showed that PiAP10 and PiAP12 possess moderate protease activity, and can potentially cleave the RXLR effector PiAVR4, but not a PiAVR4 version with a mutated RXLR motif. These findings imply that P. infestans APs function in the proteolytic cleavage of RXLR effectors, and warrant further investigation to verify and confirm the role of clade 5 PiAPs in effector processing.

Evolution of hatching stimulant perception in Potato Cyst Nematode
Vlaar, Lieke ; Rahimi, Mehran ; Rodriguez, Alejandra ; Helder, J. ; Goverse, A. ; Kammenga, J.E. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. - \ 2019
The risk posed by Xanthomonas wilt disease of banana : Mapping of disease hotspots, fronts and vulnerable landscapes
Ocimati, Walter ; Bouwmeester, Hein ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Tittonell, Pablo ; Brown, David ; Blomme, Guy - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)4. - ISSN 1932-6203

Banana production landscapes in the African Great Lakes Region (AGLR) have been under immense pressure from Xanthomonas wilt (XW) disease over the past two decades. XW, first reported on banana in central Uganda and eastern DR Congo in 2001, has since spread to the entire AGLR. XW is currently spreading westwards from hot spots in eastern DR Congo highlands, putting the plantain (Musa AAB genome) belt of central and west Africa at risk. In-depth understanding of the key variables responsible for disease spread, current hotspots, and vulnerable landscapes is crucial for disease early warning and management. We mapped aggregated disease distribution and hotspots in the AGLR and identified vulnerable landscapes across African banana production zones. Available data on disease prevalence collected over 11 years was regressed against environmental and expert developed covariates to develop the AGLR XW hotspots map. For the Africa-wide risk map, precipitation, distance to hotspots, degree of trade in fresh banana products, production zone interconnectedness and banana genotype composition were used as covariates. In the AGLR, XW was mainly correlated to precipitation and disease/banana management. Altitude and temperature had unexpectedly low effects, possibly due to an overriding impact of tool-mediated spread which is part of the management covariate. In the AGLR, the eastern part of DR Congo was a large hotspot with highest vulnerability. Apart from endemic zones in the AGLR and Ethiopia, northern Mozambique was perceived as a moderate risk zone mainly due to the predominance of ‘Bluggoe’ (Musa ABB type) which is highly susceptible to insect-vectored transmission. Presence of XW hotspots (e.g. eastern DR Congo) and vulnerable areas with low (e.g. north-western Tanzania) or no disease (e.g. Congo basin, western DR Congo and northern Mozambique) pressure suggest key areas where proactive measures e.g. quarantines and information sharing on XW diagnosis, epidemiology, and control could be beneficial.

Substrate promiscuity of enzymes from the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathways from Artemisia annua and Tanacetum parthenium allows for novel combinatorial sesquiterpene production
Beyraghdar Kashkooli, Arman ; Krol, Alexander R. van der; Rabe, Patrick ; Dickschat, Jeroen S. ; Bouwmeester, Harro - \ 2019
Metabolic Engineering 54 (2019). - ISSN 1096-7176 - p. 12 - 23.
Combinatorial metabolic engineering - Dihydroparthenolide - Double bond reductase - Feverfew - Sesquiterpene lactone - Sweet wormwood

The therapeutic properties of complex terpenes often depend on the stereochemistry of their functional groups. However, stereospecific chemical synthesis of terpenes is challenging. To overcome this challenge, metabolic engineering can be employed using enzymes with suitable stereospecific catalytic activity. Here we used a combinatorial metabolic engineering approach to explore the stereospecific modification activity of the Artemisia annua artemisinic aldehyde ∆11(13) double bond reductase2 (AaDBR2) on products of the feverfew sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway (GAS, GAO, COS and PTS). This allowed us to produce dihydrocostunolide and dihydroparthenolide. For dihydroparthenolide we demonstrate that the preferred order of biosynthesis of dihydroparthenolide is by reduction of the exocyclic methylene of parthenolide, rather than through C4-C5 epoxidation of dihydrocostunolide. Moreover, we demonstrate a promiscuous activity of feverfew CYP71CB1 on dihydrocostunolide and dihydroparthenolide for the production of 3β-hydroxy-dihydrocostunolide and 3β-hydroxy-dihydroparthenolide, respectively. Combined, these results offer new opportunities for engineering novel sesquiterpene lactones with potentially improved medicinal value.

Involvement of sweet pepper CaLOX2 in jasmonate-dependent induced defence against Western flower thrips
Sarde, Sandeep J. ; Bouwmeester, Klaas ; Venegas-Molina, Jhon ; David, Anja ; Boland, Wilhelm ; Dicke, Marcel - \ 2019
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology 61 (2019)10. - ISSN 1672-9072 - p. 1085 - 1098.

Insect herbivory can seriously hinder plant performance and reduce crop yield. Thrips are minute cell-content-feeding insects that are important vectors of viral plant pathogens, and are serious crop pests. We investigated the role of a sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lipoxygenase gene, CaLOX2, in the defense of pepper plants against Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). This was done through a combination of in-silico, transcriptional, behavioral and chemical analyses. Our data show that CaLOX2 is involved in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and mediates plant resistance. Expression of the JA-related marker genes, CaLOX2 and CaPIN II, was induced by thrips feeding. Silencing of CaLOX2 in pepper plants through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) resulted in low levels of CaLOX2 transcripts, as well as significant reduction in the accumulation of JA, and its derivatives, upon thrips feeding compared to control plants. CaLOX2-silenced pepper plants exhibited enhanced susceptibility to thrips. This indicates that CaLOX2 mediates JA-dependent signaling, resulting in defense against thrips. Furthermore, exogenous application of JA to pepper plants increased plant resistance to thrips, constrained thrips population development and made plants less attractive to thrips. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach shows that an intact lipoxygenase pathway mediates various components of sweet pepper defense against F. occidentalis.

Distinct roles for strigolactones in cyst nematode parasitism of Arabidopsis roots
Escudero Martinez, Carmen M. ; Guarneri, Nina ; Overmars, Hein ; Schaik, Casper van; Bouwmeester, Harro ; Ruyter-spira, Carolien ; Goverse, Aska - \ 2019
European Journal of Plant Pathology 154 (2019)1. - ISSN 0929-1873 - p. 129 - 140.
Phytohormones play an essential role in different stages of plant-nematode interactions. Strigolactones (SLs) are a novel class of plant hormones which play an important role in plant development. Furthermore, certain soil-inhabiting organisms exploit this plant molecule as allelochemical. However, whether SLs play a role in plant parasitism by nematodes is as yet unknown. This prompted us to investigate the potential role of SLs in different stages of the nematode life cycle using the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii and Arabidopsis as a model system. We analyzed the effect of SLs on cyst nematode hatching, host attraction and invasion, and the establishment of a feeding relation upon infection of the SL deficient mutant max4-1 and the SL signaling mutant max2-1. In addition, infection assays were performed under phosphate shortage to enhance SL production and in the presence of the synthetic SL analog GR24. From this study, we can conclude that SLs do not contribute to cyst nematode hatching at the levels tested but that they do play a role in host attraction and subsequent invasion in a MAX2 dependent manner. Furthermore, we observed that increased levels of exogenous and endogenous SLs change the root invasion zone. Upon root infection, cyst nematode development was enhanced in both the max2-1 and max4-1 mutants due to the formation of enlarged feeding cells. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of SLs during cyst nematode parasitism of plant roots.
Tissue specific expression and genomic organization of bitter sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae)
Bogdanovic, Milica ; Cankar, K. ; Todorovic, Sladana ; Dragicevic, Milan ; Simonovic, Ana ; Houwelingen, A.M.M.L. van; Schijlen, E.G.W.M. ; Schipper, A. ; Gagneul, David ; Hendriks, Theo ; Quillet, Marie-Christine ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Bosch, H.J. ; Beekwilder, M.J. - \ 2019
Industrial Crops and Products 129 (2019). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 253 - 260.
Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) produces bitter sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Some enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway towards these compounds have been characterized. However, the genomic organization and tissue specificity of their biosynthesis is largely unknown. Concentrations of two sesquiterpene lactones and expression of genes involved in the first dedicated biosynthetic step were measured in different chicory tissues. BAC clones containing different genes encoding germacrene A synthase were sequenced, and revealed several tightly linked paralogs. Promoters of genes encoding two germacrene A synthases were fused to GFP and expressed in plants regenerated from transformed chicory hairy root cultures. Highest expression was observed in the epidermis of
leaves and external root tissue. This work opens the possibility to select for chicory germplasm diversified in STL content, and to study their role in chicory in defence and physiology.
An analysis of characterized plant sesquiterpene synthases
Durairaj, Janani ; Girolamo, Alice Di; Bouwmeester, Harro J. ; Ridder, Dick de; Beekwilder, Jules ; Dijk, Aalt D.J. van - \ 2019
Phytochemistry 158 (2019). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 157 - 165.
Database - Enzyme - Product specificity - Sesquiterpene - Sesquiterpene synthase - Terpene synthase

Plants exhibit a vast array of sesquiterpenes, C15 hydrocarbons which often function as herbivore-repellents or pollinator-attractants. These in turn are produced by a diverse range of sesquiterpene synthases. A comprehensive analysis of these enzymes in terms of product specificity has been hampered by the lack of a centralized resource of sufficient functionally annotated sequence data. To address this, we have gathered 262 plant sesquiterpene synthase sequences with experimentally characterized products. The annotated enzyme sequences allowed for an analysis of terpene synthase motifs, leading to the extension of one motif and recognition of a variant of another. In addition, putative terpene synthase sequences were obtained from various resources and compared with the annotated sesquiterpene synthases. This analysis indicated regions of terpene synthase sequence space which so far are unexplored experimentally. Finally, we present a case describing mutational studies on residues altering product specificity, for which we analyzed conservation in our database. This demonstrates an application of our database in choosing likely-functional residues for mutagenesis studies aimed at understanding or changing sesquiterpene synthase product specificity.

Phytophthora infestans small phospholipase D-like proteins elicit plant cell death and promote virulence
Meijer, Harold J.G. ; Schoina, Charikleia ; Wang, Shutong ; Bouwmeester, Klaas ; Hua, Chenlei ; Govers, Francine - \ 2019
Molecular Plant Pathology 20 (2019)2. - ISSN 1464-6722 - p. 180 - 193.
calcium - late blight disease - oomycete - phospholipases - phospholipids - signal peptide

The successful invasion of host tissue by (hemi-)biotrophic plant pathogens is dependent on modifications of the host plasma membrane to facilitate the two-way transfer of proteins and other compounds. Haustorium formation and the establishment of extrahaustorial membranes are probably dependent on a variety of enzymes that modify membranes in a coordinated fashion. Phospholipases, enzymes that hydrolyse phospholipids, have been implicated as virulence factors in several pathogens. The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that causes potato late blight. It possesses different classes of phospholipase D (PLD) proteins, including small PLD-like proteins with and without signal peptide (sPLD-likes and PLD-likes, respectively). Here, we studied the role of sPLD-like-1, sPLD-like-12 and PLD-like-1 in the infection process. They are expressed in expanding lesions on potato leaves and during in vitro growth, with the highest transcript levels in germinating cysts. When expressed in planta in the presence of the silencing suppressor P19, all three elicited a local cell death response that was visible at the microscopic level as autofluorescence and strongly boosted in the presence of calcium. Moreover, inoculation of leaves expressing the small PLD-like genes resulted in increased lesion growth and greater numbers of sporangia, but this was abolished when mutated PLD-like genes were expressed with non-functional PLD catalytic motifs. These results show that the three small PLD-likes are catalytically active and suggest that their enzymatic activity is required for the promotion of virulence, possibly by executing membrane modifications to support the growth of P. infestans in the host.

The interaction of strigolactones with abscisic acid during the drought response in rice
Haider, Imran ; Andreo-Jimenez, Beatriz ; Bruno, Mark ; Bimbo, Andrea ; Floková, Kristýna ; Abuauf, Haneen ; Ntui, Valentine Otang ; Guo, Xiujie ; Charnikhova, Tatsiana ; Al-Babili, Salim ; Bouwmeester, Harro J. ; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien - \ 2018
Journal of Experimental Botany 69 (2018)9. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 2403 - 2414.
Abscisic acid - Biosynthesis - Drought - DWARF27 - Rice - Strigolactones

Both strigolactones (SLs) and abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetically originate from carotenoids. Considering their common origin, the interaction of these two hormones at the biosynthetic and/or regulatory level may be anticipated. Here we show that, in rice, drought simultaneously induces SL production in the root, and ABA production and the expression of SL biosynthetic genes in the shoot. Under control conditions, the ABA concentration was higher in shoots of the SL biosynthetic rice mutants dwarf10 (d10) and d17 than in wild-type plants, while a similar trend was observed for the SL perception mutant d3. These differences were enhanced under drought. However, drought did not result in an increase in leaf ABA content in the rice mutant line d27, carrying a mutation in the gene encoding the first committed enzyme in SL biosynthesis, to the same extent as in the other SL mutants and the wild type. Accordingly, d10, d17, and d3 lines were more drought tolerant than wild-type plants, whereas d27 displayed decreased tolerance. Finally, overexpression of OsD27 in rice resulted in increased levels of ABA when compared with wild-type plants. We conclude that the SL and ABA pathways are connected with each other through D27, which plays a crucial role in determining ABA and SL content in rice.

Genetic variation in Sorghum bicolor strigolactones and their role in resistance against Striga hermonthica
Mohemed, Nasreldin ; Charnikhova, Tatsiana ; Fradin, Emilie F. ; Rienstra, Juriaan ; Babiker, Abdelgabar G.T. ; Bouwmeester, Harro J. - \ 2018
Journal of Experimental Botany 69 (2018)9. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 2415 - 2430.
Germination stimulant - Parasitic weed - Resistance - Sorghum - Striga - Strigolactones

Sorghum is an important food, feed, and industrial crop worldwide. Parasitic weeds of the genus Striga constitute a major constraint to sorghum production, particularly in the drier parts of the world. In this study we analysed the Striga germination stimulants, strigolactones, in the root exudates of 36 sorghum genotypes and assessed Striga germination and infection. Low germination-stimulating activity and low Striga infection correlated with the exudation of low amounts of 5-deoxystrigol and high amounts of orobanchol, whereas susceptibility to Striga and high germination- stimulating activity correlated with high concentrations of 5-deoxystrigol and low concentrations of orobanchol. Marker analysis suggested that similar genetics to those previously described for the resistant sorghum variety SRN39 and the susceptible variety Shanqui Red underlie these differences. This study shows that the strigolactone profile in the root exudate of sorghum has a large impact on the level of Striga infection. High concentrations of 5-deoxystrigol result in high infection, while high concentrations of orobanchol result in low infection. This knowledge should help to optimize the use of low germination stimulant-based resistance to Striga by the selection of sorghum genotypes with strigolactone profiles that favour normal growth and development, but reduce the risk of Striga infection.

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