Soil information in support of policy making and awareness raising
Bouma, J. ; Broll, G. ; Crane, T.A. ; Dewitte, O. ; Gardi, C. ; Schulte, R.P.O. ; Towers, W. - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)5. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 552 - 558.
knowledge - insights - systems
Soils play an important role in defining sustainable land-use options when facing major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss. Facing these problems, the 2006 EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (TSSP), provides an important focal point for soil research and awareness raising. Unfortunately, the TSSP has not yet been followed up with a legally binding Framework Directive mainly because of political barriers. Two approaches are discussed to overcome these barriers: First, we explore innovative ways to present soils and raise soil awareness. Soil information in terms of atlases, associated databases and interpretations, focusing on major environmental problems, is presented by the EU Joint Research Center (JRC) for Africa and South America using modern digital techniques and, particularly, a user-oriented approach. This contrasts with the traditional approach that is more soil-centred. Soil science has not yet effectively tapped the genuine and basic affinity of mankind with their soils. Therefore, more attention to local knowledge and management of soils is needed. Creating more awareness, by sharing experiences with various citizen groups, is also an effective mechanism to mobilize the political arena as is demonstrated by some German examples. Second, we show specific real-world examples as to the possible positive and innovative impact of the TSSP. An example is presented of Functional Soil Planning, based on maximizing soil functions at national and international level by customizing soil management at local level, balancing ‘supply’ and ‘demand’ by defining tradeoffs between conflicting functions. Finally, a case study for Scotland is presented dealing with EU policies for so-called: ‘Less Favoured Areas (LFA)’. The EU Court of Auditors required unified rules for the EU, while Scotland already had defined: ‘Areas of Natural Handicap’, as a basis for LFAs, emphasizing biophysical criteria. The ensuing discussions with the EU agencies illustrated the significance of the subsidiarity and proportionality principles, demonstrating that EU-wide rules and indicators could be fine-tuned and improved by considering local conditions. In both approaches, soil information is both key to the policies whilst at the same time the policies themselves provide excellent vehicles for awareness raising; a win-win situation.
Scientific and technical contribution to the development of an overall health strategy in the area of GMO's
Queri, M. ; Kleter, G.A. ; Malinggreau, J.P. ; Broll, H. ; Eede, G. van den - \ 2008
Ispra : European Commission,JRC, IHCP (EUR 23542 EN) - ISBN 9789279102738 - 56
Validation of the performance of a GMO multiplex screening assay based on microarray detection
Leimanis, S. ; Hamels, S. ; Naze, F. ; Mbongolo, G. ; Sneyers, M. ; Hochegger, R. ; Broll, H. ; Roth, L. ; Dallmann, K. ; Micsinai, A. ; Dijk, J.P. van; Kok, E.J. - \ 2008
European Food Research and Technology 227 (2008)6. - ISSN 1438-2377 - p. 1621 - 1632.
zea-mays - pcr - quantification - system - maize - dna
A new screening method for the detection and identification of GMO, based on the use of multiplex PCR followed by microarray, has been developed and is presented. The technology is based on the identification of quite ubiquitous GMO genetic target elements first amplified by PCR, followed by direct hybridisation of the amplicons on a predefined microarray (DualChip® GMO, Eppendorf, Germany). The validation was performed within the framework of a European project (Co-Extra, contract no 007158) and in collaboration with 12 laboratories specialised in GMO detection. The present study reports the strategy and the results of an ISO complying validation of the method carried out through an inter-laboratory study. Sets of blind samples were provided consisting of DNA reference materials covering all the elements detectable by specific probes present on the array. The GMO concentrations varied from 1% down to 0.045%. In addition, a mixture of two GMO events (0.1% RRS diluted in 100% TOPAS19/2) was incorporated in the study to test the robustness of the assay in extreme conditions. Data were processed according to ISO 5725 standard. The method was evaluated with predefined performance criteria with respect to the EC CRL method acceptance criteria. The overall method performance met the acceptance criteria; in particular, the results showed that the method is suitable for the detection of the different target elements at 0.1% concentration of GMO with a 95% accuracy rate. This collaborative trial showed that the method can be considered as fit for the purpose of screening with respect to its intra- and inter-laboratory accuracy. The results demonstrated the validity of combining multiplex PCR with array detection as provided by the DualChip® GMO (Eppendorf, Germany) for the screening of GMO. The results showed that the technology is robust, practical and suitable as a screening tool
Pedological Characterisation of Sites Along a Transect from a Primary Cadmium/ Lead/ Zinc Smelting Works
Filzek, P.D.B. ; Spurgeon, D.J. ; Broll, G.E. ; Svendsen, C. ; Hankard, P.K. ; Kammenga, J.E. ; Donker, M.H. ; Weeks, J.M. - \ 2004
Ecotoxicology 13 (2004). - ISSN 0963-9292 - p. 725 - 737.
heavy-metals - earthworm populations - folsomia-candida - porcellio-scaber - organic-matter - zinc - cadmium - copper - lead - ph
A pedological characterisation of seven sites along a transect from a smelter at Avonmouth, UK, was undertaken. Site locations comprised a mixture of both grassland (5 sites) and oak tree dominated (2 sites) areas. Geographically, sites were either low lying or on adjacent elevated ground. Across the transect, a severe gradient of metal concentrations was found with highest values for organic soil horizons from close to the factory. Comparisons with quality standards indicate that these metal levels are likely to be a major ecological stressor. In addition to the strong metal gradient, a number of other between site differences were also observed. These were firstly water regime, which at the low lying sites close to the smelter showed influence by both, groundwater and stagnant water, while at more distant sites indicated susceptibility to stagnant water only, and secondly soil pH, which showed large between site variations, although no consistent trend along the transect. Humus forms at sites more than 1.5 km from the smelter were characteristic for the soil conditions and land-use present, while those at sites within 1.5 kin, showed disturbed profiles. Indeed, the humus types present at these locations suggest that the activity of soil invertebrates may be inhibited. This is almost certainly due primarily to the high concentrations of metals that were present in mineral soil and organic horizons at the sites. However, the potential influences of water regime and pH could also be relevant factors influencing the results of any further studies conducted at these study sites.
|Mycorrhizal selectivity of three timber tree species in the tropical rainforest of South Cameroon
Schmitt, C.B. ; Broll, G.E. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Onguene, N.A. - \ 2001
In: Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Okologie : 31 jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Okologie, Basel, 2001 - p. 176 - 176.
|Mycorrhizal selectivity of three timber tree species in the tropical rain forest of South Cameroon
Schmitt, C.B. ; Broll, G.E. ; Kuyper, T.W. ; Onguene, N.A. - \ 2001
Mitteillungen der Deutschen Bodenkundlichen Gesellschaft 96 (2001). - ISSN 0343-107X - p. 371 - 372.
|Fast molecular weight determination of plant cell wall oligosaccharides using off-line high performance anion exchange chromatography - electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.
Bröll, L. ; Thomas-Oates, J. ; Haverkamp, J. ; Huisman, M. ; Schols, H. ; Voragen, A.G.J. - \ 1997
Eurocarb (1997). - p. B5 - B5.