Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    An analysis of community perceptions of mosquito-borne disease control and prevention in Sint Eustatius, Caribbean Netherlands
    Leslie, Teresa E. ; Carson, Marianne ; Coeverden, Els van; Klein, Kirsten De; Braks, Marieta ; Krumeich, Anja - \ 2017
    Global Health Action 10 (2017)1. - ISSN 1654-9880
    Chikungunya - community participation - Dengue - prevention - Zika

    BACKGROUND: In the Caribbean, mosquito-borne diseases are a public health threat. In Sint Eustatius, dengue, Chikungunya and Zika are now endemic. To control and prevent mosquito-borne diseases, the Sint Eustatius Public Health Department relies on the community to assist with the control of Aedes aegypti mosquito. Unfortunately, community based interventions are not always simple, as community perceptions and responses shape actions and influence behavioural responses Objective: The aim of this study was to determine how the Sint Eustatius population perceives the Aedes aegypti mosquito, mosquito-borne diseases and prevention and control measures and hypothesized that increased knowledge of the virus, vector, control and prevention should result in a lower AQ1 prevalence and incidence of mosquito-borne diseases.

    METHODS: This study was conducted in Sint Eustatius island in the Eastern Caribbean. We combined qualitative and quantitative designs. We conducted interviews and focus groups discussions among community member and health professional in 2013 and 2015. We also conducted cross-sectional survey to assess local knowledge on the vector, virus, and control and prevention.

    RESULTS: The population is knowledgeable;

    DISCUSSION: In the context of Sint Eustatius, when controlling the Aedes population it may be a strategic option to focus on the household level rather than the community and build collaborations with households by supporting them when they actively practice mosquito 25 control. To further increase the level of knowledge on the significance of mosquito-borne diseases, it may also be an option to contextualize the issue of the virus, vector, prevention and control into a broader context.

    CONCLUSION: As evidenced by the increasing number of mosquito-borne diseases on the island, it appears that knowledge amongst the lay community may not be transferred into 30 action. This may be attributed to the perception of the Sint Eustatius populations that mosquitoes and the viruses they carry are not a high priority in comparison to other health concerns.

    Environmental surveillance during an outbreak of tularaemia in hares, the Netherlands, 2015
    Janse, Ingmar ; Maas, M. ; Rijks, J.M. ; Koene, M. ; Plaats, R.Q. van der; Engelsma, M. ; Tas, P.W.L. ; Braks, M. ; Stroo, A. ; Notermans, D.W. ; Vries, M.C. de; Reubsaet, F.A.G. ; Fanoy, E. ; Swaan, C.M. ; Kik, M.J. ; Ijzer, J. ; Jaarsma, R.I. ; Wieren, S. van; Roda Husman, A.M. de; Passel, M. van; Roest, H. ; Giessen, J. van der - \ 2017
    Eurosurveillance 22 (2017)35. - ISSN 1025-496X
    Tularaemia, a disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a re-emerging zoonosis in the Netherlands. After sporadic human and hare cases occurred in the period 2011 to 2014, a cluster of F. tularensis-infected hares was recognised in a region in the north of the Netherlands from February to May 2015. No human cases were identified, including after active case finding. Presence of F. tularensis was investigated in potential reservoirs and transmission routes, including common voles, arthropod vectors and surface waters. F. tularensis was not detected in common voles, mosquito larvae or adults, tabanids or ticks. However, the bacterium was detected in water and sediment samples collected in a limited geographical area where infected hares had also been found. These results demonstrate that water monitoring could provide valuable information regarding F. tularensis spread and persistence, and should be used in addition to disease surveillance in wildlife.
    The role of large herbivores in Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. dynamics
    Wieren, S.E. van; Hofmeester, T.R. - \ 2016
    In: Ecology and prevention of Lyme borreliosis / Braks, Marieta A.H., van Wieren, Sipke E., Takken, Willem, Sprong, Hein, Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases ) - ISBN 9789086862931 - p. 75 - 90.
    Large herbivores are the most important reproduction hosts for Ixodes ricinus, and, as such, play a major role in maintaining tick populations. As one individual deer can already feed many females during the tick season, we propose that the relationship between deer density and tick density can best be described by a step function rather than a linear function. At high densities, herbivores may negatively affect tick numbers through their effects on vegetation structure and composition by creating and maintaining a short and open herb layer, reducing the shrub layer and decreasing the thickness of the litter layer. These effects may also have a negative effect on rodent densities. Domestic herbivores as added grazers will likely not have a major added effect on tick numbers but at high density they may have, both through their effects on the vegetation and because they may negatively affect the habitat use of the wild ungulates through competitive interactions. Large herbivores are mainly incompetent, in the sense of not-transmitting the parasite Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. to ticks, but to what extent this will affect the density of infected nymphs in a system is dependent of the host community as a whole and cannot be predicted from the density of the large herbivores alone.
    The role of host diversity in Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. dynamics
    Hofmeester, T.R. - \ 2016
    In: Ecology and prevention of Lyme borreliosis / Braks, Marieta A.H., van Wieren, Sipke E., Takken, Willem, Sprong, Hein, Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases ) - ISBN 9789086862931 - p. 173 - 186.
    There has been substantial debate about the influence of vertebrate host diversity on Lyme borreliosis risk. In North America, studies investigating Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and the Black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) have shown that on a large spatial scale there seems to be a negative correlation between host species diversity and Lyme borreliosis risk. However, studies on this relationship in Europe are lacking. I discuss the work done in North America and translate the findings and assumptions of these studies to the European situation, where the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is the most important vector of B. burgdorferi s.l. The European situation is fundamentally different compared to the North American situation due to the high diversity of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, which are transmitted by different groups of vertebrate species. Disease risk in Europe is hypothesised to increase with vertebrate diversity due to an increase in B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies diversity. However, it seems that the majority of genospecies in Europe is transmitted by two functional groups of host species, rodents and thrushes, which are present in most vertebrate assemblages. Therefore, it seems plausible that a dilution effect can also occur in Europe. This might result in high risk in urban areas where a few dominant species are very abundant, among which the most important reservoir hosts for B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.
    The role of large herbivores in tick-reducing intervention schemes
    Wieren, S.E. van - \ 2016
    In: Ecology and prevention of Lyme borreliosis / Braks, Marieta A.H., van Wieren, Sipke E., Takken, Willem, Sprong, Hein, Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases ) - ISBN 9789086862931 - p. 243 - 252.
    Of all the stages of the tick Ixodes ricinus, adults are the stage with the lowest numbers in any tick population. The majority of the adult ticks feed on large ungulates like deer, who are generally also in low numbers compared to other important tick hosts like rodents. To reduce tick populations, lowering wild ungulate densities to close to zero or using acaricide applications on them are not really feasible options for large areas in many situations. Since large reductions of wild ungulates in any system will likely conflict with other management objectives, fencing to exclude wild ungulates can be applied in relatively small areas. Many semi-natural systems are being grazed by domestic herbivores. When these herbivores are treated with an acaricide during the tick season for a number of years, tick numbers can be substantially reduced. Short-term applications with treated domestic animals like sheep in small areas are also possible.
    Sheep mopping
    Wieren, S.E. van - \ 2016
    In: Ecology and prevention of Lyme borreliosis / Braks, Marieta A.H., van Wieren, Sipke E., Takken, Willem, Sprong, Hein, Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases ) - ISBN 9789086862931 - p. 253 - 264.
    Effectiviness and environmental hazards of acaricides applied to large mammals for tick control
    Wieren, S.E. van; Braks, Marieta A.H. ; Lahr, J. - \ 2016
    In: Ecology and prevention of Lyme borreliosis / Braks, Marieta A.H., van Wieren, Sipke E., Takken, Willem, Sprong, Hein, Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases ) - ISBN 9789086862931 - p. 265 - 278.
    Ticks are important vectors of a large number of pathogenic organisms. In the Netherlands, Ixodes ricinus is the most abundant tick species and the main vector for several Borrelia species that may cause Lyme borreliosis. Many chemicals have been developed for tick control. In this chapter, a few commonly used acaricides are discussed with the main aim to assess whether they could be both effective and environmentally safe enough for tick control in the field through application on large mammals. This method is currently still at the experimental stage and only limitedly applied. The focus was on amitraz, permethrin, flumethrin, deltamethrin and ivermectin. After a qualitative comparison of the pros and cons, it was concluded that the pyrethroids flumethrin and deltamethrin are potentially the most useful, despite their high toxicity to various other animals in the environment. Both compounds act as contact-acaricides and are not easily leached in the environment. Environmental hazards can therefore be minimised if they are applied correctly and thoughtful, and contamination of the aquatic environment is avoided. Nevertheless, all synthetic acaricides have a number of serious downsides and, when considering using them in field situations, the benefits always need to be weighed against all costs involved. More environmentally-friendly alternatives are being developed of which vaccines against ticks seem most promising.
    Ecology and prevention of Lyme borreliosis
    Braks, Marieta A.H. ; Wieren, Sipke E. van; Takken, Willem ; Sprong, Hein - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases volume 4) - ISBN 9789086862931 - 462
    How can nature be protected and biodiversity be preserved while the threats of zoonotic diseases are minimised? Expanding nature areas and creating ecological networks across Europe is not only beneficial for wildlife, but also for the pathogens they carry. A prominent case is Lyme borreliosis, which has risen from relative obscurity to become a major public health problem in Europe. The Dutch research program 'Shooting the messenger' took a 'One Health' approach aiming at the development of sustainable measures for the prevention of Lyme borreliosis. An interdisciplinary network of researchers, public health experts, and nature managers gained and shared knowledge in the ecological processes of ticks, Lyme spirochaetes and their vertebrate hosts as well as in the human epidemiology of tick bites and Lyme borreliosis. These new insights, together with new intervention methods and strategies, are described in this book.
    No evidence for the persistence of Schmallenberg virus in overwintering mosquitoes
    Scholte, E.J. ; Mars, M.H. ; Braks, M. ; Hartog, W. den; Ibanez-Justicia, A. ; Koopmans, M. ; Koenraadt, C.J.M. ; Vries, A. de; Reusken, C. - \ 2014
    Medical and Veterinary Entomology 28 (2014)1. - ISSN 0269-283X - p. 110 - 115.
    culex-pipiens diptera - simbu-group - culicoides-brevitarsis - genus orthobunyavirus - buttonwillow virus - ingwavuma virus - oropouche virus - sathuperi-virus - shamonda-virus - akabane virus
    In 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel member of the Simbu serogroup, genus Orthobunyavirus, was identified as the causative agent of a disease in ruminants in Europe. Based on the current knowledge on arthropods involved in the transmission of Simbu group viruses, a role of both midges and mosquitoes in the SBV transmission cycle cannot be excluded beforehand. The persistence of SBV in mosquitoes overwintering at SBV-affected farms in the Netherlands was investigated. No evidence for the presence of SBV in 868 hibernating mosquitoes (Culex, Anopheles, and Culiseta spp., collected from January to March 2012) was found. This suggests that mosquitoes do not play an important role, if any, in the persistence of SBV during the winter months in northwestern Europe.
    Hoe een modelleur een mug vangt - het nut van wiskundige modellen voor het bestuderen en bestrijden van vector-overgedragen ziekten
    Braks, M.A.H. ; Fischer, E.A.J. ; Hartemink, N. - \ 2011
    Entomologische Berichten 71 (2011)5. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 136 - 142.
    culicidae - epidemiologie - vectoren, ziekten - epidemiology - disease vectors
    Vector-overgedragen ziekten zijn infectieziekten die worden overgedragen door vectoren, meestal anthropoden, zoals muggen, knutten en teken. De laatste jaren is de aandacht voor deze ziekten toegenomen. Aanleidingen hiervoor zijn bijvoorbeeld de uitbraak van het West-Nijlvirus in Noord-Amerika, de recente blauwtong-epidemie in Nederland en omringende landen en de uitbraak van chikungunya in Italië.
    In het dode land van Braks en Bleker (interview met Frank Berendse, Dirk Strijker en Geert de Snoo)
    Marijnissen, H. ; Berendse, F. ; Strijker, D. ; Snoo, G.R. de - \ 2011
    Trouw (2011). - p. 8 - 9.
    Influenza Virus
    Koch, G. ; Fouchier, R.A.M. ; Koopmans, M. ; Fabri, T. - \ 2008
    In: Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006 / Valkenburgh, S., Oosterom, R., Stenvers, O., Aalten, M., Braks, M., Schimmer, B., van de Giessen, A., van Pelt, W., Nederland : RIVM (RIVM - Rapport 330152001) - ISBN 9789069601847 - p. 78 - 83.
    Antibiotic resistance
    Mevius, D.J. ; Pelt, W. van - \ 2007
    In: Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006 / Valkenburgh, s., van Oosterom, R., Stenvers, O., Aalten, M., Braks, M., Schimmer, B., van de Giessen, A., van Pelt, W., Langelaar, M., Nederland : RIVM (RIVM rapport 330152001) - ISBN 9789069601847 - p. 42 - 44.
    Rabies
    Koopmans, M. ; Kramps, J.A. ; Riel, A. van; Valkenburgh, S. ; Aalten, M. - \ 2007
    In: Zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006 / Valkenburgh, S, van Oosterom, R., Stenvers, O., Aalten, M., Braks, M., Schimmer, B., van de Giessen, A., van Pelt, W., Langelaar, M., Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 330152001) - ISBN 9789069601847 - p. 96 - 98.
    Prions
    Zijderveld, F.G. van - \ 2007
    In: Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, animals and Feed in the Netherlands 2003-2006 / Valkenburgh, S, van Oosterom, R., Aalten, M., Braks, M., Schimmer, B., Giessen, A., van Pelt, W., Langelaar, M., Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM rapport 330152001) - ISBN 9789069601847 - p. 90 - 96.
    The report 'Zoonoses and Zoonotic Agents in Humans, Food, Animals and Feed in The Netherlands 2003 - 2006' is based on data that is reported annually to the European Commission, in accordance with the Directive 2003/99/EC on the monitoring of zoonoses and zoonotic agents. They are supplemented with data from Dutch surveillance, monitoring and control programmes and relevant research projects concerning zoonoses and zoonotic agents by the different institutions that have contributed to the preparation of this report. The report also includes information on recent research on the antibiotic resistance of micro-organisms derived from human and animal material. Specific documentation and reports regarding the described programmes and research projects are available from the authors mentioned in the editorial list. The extended dataset on antimicrobial resistance and trends in the Netherlands has been published recently as a report: Maran 2003, 2004 and 2005.
    Innate preference for host-odor blends modulates degree of anthropophagy of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (Diptera: Culicidae)
    Dekker, T. ; Takken, W. ; Braks, M.A.H. - \ 2001
    Journal of Medical Entomology 38 (2001)6. - ISSN 0022-2585 - p. 868 - 871.
    In field studies, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto obtains most blood meals from humans, whereas Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald bites predominantly bovids. We investigated whether host odors modulate the host preference of these mosquito species. In a dual-choice olfactometer, mosquitoes were given a choice between clean air and putative host-specific odor blends. An. gambiae chose ‘human odor’ over clean air and clean air over ‘cow odor.’ Although Anopheles quadriannulatus did not choose cow odor over clean air, it chose clean air over human odor. Cheese odor, which attracted An. gambiae, did not result in higher trap catch of An. quadriannulatus. We conclude that the degree of anthropophagy of An. gambiae s.l. has an innate olfactory basis.
    Olfactory receptors on the antennae of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to ammonia and other sweat-borne components
    Meijerink, J. ; Braks, M.A.H. ; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2001
    Journal of Insect Physiology 47 (2001). - ISSN 0022-1910 - p. 455 - 464.
    The response of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to two components of human sweat, ammonia and L-lactic acid, in an olfactometer
    Braks, M.A.H. ; Meijerink, J. ; Takken, W. - \ 2001
    Physiological Entomology 26 (2001). - ISSN 0307-6962 - p. 142 - 148.
    In an olfactometer study on the response of the anthropophilic malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera, Culicidae) to human sweat it was found that freshly collected sweat, mostly of eccrine origin, was attractive, but that incubated sweat was significantly more attractive than fresh sweat. The behavioural response to l-lactic acid and ammonia, the main constituents of sweat, was investigated. l-lactic acid was attractive at one concentration only (11.11 mm) and removal of the l-lactic acid from the sweat by enzymatic decomposition did not affect the attractiveness of sweat. Ammonia caused attraction over a range of 0.113.4 m on glass slides and at 0.848.40 mol/min in an air stream. It is concluded that: human sweat contains kairomones for host-seeking An. gambiae; ammonia is an important kairomone for this mosquito; and that l-lactic acid is not a prerequisite in the attraction of An. gambiae to sweat.
    Comparision of carbon dioxide-baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in Tanzania
    Mboera, L.E.G. ; Knols, B.G.J. ; Braks, M.A.H. ; Takken, W. - \ 2000
    Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14 (2000). - ISSN 0269-283X - p. 257 - 263.
    For collecting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) the outdoor catching efficiency of four types of trapping devices baited with carbon dioxide (CO2, 300 ml/min) was evaluated and compared in two areas of Tanzania. The types of traps employed were: the CDC miniature trap with the incandescent light bulb switched on or off; electric nets (ENT) and a Counterflow Geometry (CFG) trap. In Njage, south-east Tanzania, Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto was the most abundant of the seven mosquito species obtained, comprising of 74.3 f the total number caught (n = 2171). In Muheza, north-east Tanzania, Culex quinquefasciatus Say was the predominant species (90.9€among 1080 caught. At both localities the CFG trap was superior to the CDC trap with light-on or light-off for sampling both An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Efficiency of the CFG trap and ENT were similar for sampling these species of mosquitoes (P > 0.05). However, ENT was superior to the CDC trap with light-off for collecting both species. Significantly more (P < 0.05) Cx. quinquefasciatus were obtained by the CDC trap with light-off than with light-on, especially outdoors. It is concluded that both ENT and the CFG are effective tools for sampling populations of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus outdoors.
    Identification of olfactory stimulants for Anopheles gambiae from human sweat samples
    Meijerink, J. ; Braks, M.A.H. ; Brack, A.A. ; Adam, W. ; Dekker, T. ; Posthumus, M.A. ; Beek, T.A. van; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2000
    Journal of Chemical Ecology 26 (2000). - ISSN 0098-0331 - p. 1367 - 1382.
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