Local narratives of change as an entry point for building urban climate resilience
Marschütz, Benedikt ; Bremer, Scott ; Runhaar, Hens ; Hegger, Dries ; Mees, Heleen ; Vervoort, Joost ; Wardekker, Arjan - \ 2020
Climate Risk Management 28 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0963
Citizen engagement - Climate resilience - Flooding - Narrative analysis
Cities face increasing risks due to climate change, and many cities are actively working towards increasing their climate resilience. Climate change-induced risks and interventions to reduce these risks do not only impact urban risk management systems and infrastructures, but also people's daily lives. In order to build public support for climate adaptation and resilience-building and stimulate collaboration between authorities and citizens, it is necessary that adaptation and resilience-building are locally meaningful. Thus, interventions should be rooted in citizens’ concerns and aspirations for their city. Urban policymakers and researchers have started the search for better citizen participation in adaptation. However, tools to connect the relatively strategic and long-term notions of adaptation to a gradually changing climate held by planners and scientists with how citizens experience today's climate and weather remain elusive. This paper investigates the use of ‘narratives of change’ as an approach to elicit perceptions of past, present and future weather, water, and climate, and how these relate to citizens’ desired futures. We tested this by eliciting and comparing narratives of change from authorities and from citizens in the Dutch city of Dordrecht. Our analysis of the process showed that historical events, embedded in local memory and identity, have a surprisingly strong impact on how climate change is perceived and acted upon today. This contributes to an awareness and sense of urgency of some climate risks (e.g. flood risks). However, it also shifts attention away from other risks (e.g. intensified heat stress). The analysis highlighted commonalities, like shared concerns about climate change and desires to collaborate, but also differences in how climate change, impacts, and action are conceptualized. There are possibilities for collaboration and mutual learning, as well as areas of potential disagreement and conflict. We conclude that narratives are a useful tool to better connect the governance of climate adaptation with peoples’ daily experience of climate risks and climate resilience, thereby potentially increasing public support for and participation in resilience-building.
|Characterization of farmer’s cheese with LC-MS/(MS) for authenticity purposes
Gerritsen, H.W. ; Lamers, R.A.N. ; Alewijn, M. ; Blokland, M.H. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Barbu, Ioana - \ 2019
|Authentication of farmer’s cheese by LC-MS fingerprints and multivariate data analysis for identification of potential discriminant biomarkers
Barbu, Ioana ; Lamers, R.A.N. ; Gerritsen, H.W. ; Alewijn, M. ; Blokland, M.H. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. - \ 2019
Biodiversity outcomes of payment for ecosystem services : lessons from páramo grasslands
Bremer, Leah L. ; Farley, Kathleen A. ; DeMaagd, Nathan ; Suárez, Esteban ; Cárate Tandalla, Daisy ; Vasco Tapia, Sebastián ; Mena Vásconez, Patricio - \ 2019
Biodiversity and Conservation 28 (2019)4. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 885 - 908.
Andes - Ecosystem services - Ecuador - Fire - Land-use change - Species richness
As payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs grow around the world, so have concerns over whether a focus on ecosystem services will also protect biodiversity. Biodiverse Ecuadorian páramo grasslands have become a hotspot for PES in an effort to protect water supplies, sequester carbon, conserve biodiversity, and improve rural livelihoods. However, the outcomes of PES-incentivized land management, particularly burn exclusion, on plant communities and their associated ecosystem services remain poorly understood. To address this science-policy gap, we evaluated plant richness and number and cover of the ten major páramo growth forms in two study areas with chronosequences of burn exclusion. Both species richness and number of growth forms was highest in sites with intermediate times-since-last burn and the cover of tussock grasses—critical to protecting soils and maintaining hydrologic function—recovered within 3–6 years after fire at both study areas, suggesting that PES programs targeting hydrologic services do not need to exclude burning to ensure adequate vegetation cover over the long-term. However, shrub growth forms were slower to recover, indicating that conserving the plant composition characteristic of less disturbed páramos requires some protection from burning. Findings provide broad lessons for PES programs focused on both biodiversity and ecosystem services and point to the importance of clearly defining PES ecological goals since land-use prescriptions may differ depending on the management objective.
Bridging legal requirements and analytical methods : a review of monitoring opportunities of animal proteins in feed
Raamsdonk, Leo W.D. van; Prins, Theo W. ; Meijer, Nathan ; Scholtens, Ingrid M.J. ; Bremer, Monique G.E.G. ; Jong, Jacob de - \ 2019
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 36 (2019)1. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 46 - 73.
biological relationships - European legislation - monitoring methods - prion diseases
Availability and safety of food ranks among the basic requirements for human beings. The importance of the food producing sector, inclusive of feed manufacturing, demands a high level of regulation and control. This paper will present and discuss the relationships in the triangle of legislation, the background of hazards with a biological nature, and opportunities for monitoring methods, most notable for prion-based diseases as primary issue. The European Union legislation for prevention of prion-based diseases since 2000 is presented and discussed. The definitions and circumscriptions of groups of species will be analysed in the view biological classification and evolutionary relationships. The state of the art of monitoring methods is presented and discussed. Methods based on visual markers (microscopy), DNA-based methods (PCR), protein-based methods (ELISA, mass spectroscopy, proteomics), near infrared oriented methods and combinations thereof are being evaluated. It is argued that the use in legislation of non-homogeneous groups of species in a biological sense will hamper the optimal design of monitoring methods. Proper definitions are considered to act as bridges between legal demands and suitable analytical methods for effective monitoring. Definitions including specified groups of species instead of single species are more effective for monitoring in a range of cases. Besides the desire of precise circumscription of animal groups targeted by legislation, processed products need well defined definitions as well. Most notable examples are blood versus blood products, and hydrolysis of several types of material. The WISE principle for harmonising the design of legislation and of analytical methods is discussed. This principle includes the elements Witful (reasonable legal principles), Indicative (clear limits between prohibition and authorisation), Societal demands (public health, environment, economy), and Enforceable (presence of suited monitoring methods) in order to promote a balanced effort for reaching the desired level of safety in the food production chain.
|Characterization of hydrolysed proteins in feed
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Prins, T.W. - \ 2018
Rapid antibody selection using surface plasmon resonance for high-speed and sensitive hazelnut lateral flow prototypes
Ross, Georgina M.S. ; Bremer, Maria G.E.G. ; Wichers, Jan H. ; Amerongen, Aart Van; Nielen, Michel W.F. - \ 2018
Biosensors 8 (2018)4. - ISSN 2079-6374
Antibody selection - Carbon nanoparticles - Food allergen - High-speed lateral flow immunoassay - Smartphone detection - Surface plasmon resonance
Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFIAs) allow for rapid, low-cost, screening of many biomolecules such as food allergens. Despite being classified as rapid tests, many LFIAs take 10–20 min to complete. For a really high-speed LFIA, it is necessary to assess antibody association kinetics. By using a label-free optical technique such as Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), it is possible to screen crude monoclonal antibody (mAb) preparations for their association rates against a target. Herein, we describe an SPR-based method for screening and selecting crude anti-hazelnut antibodies based on their relative association rates, cross reactivity and sandwich pairing capabilities, for subsequent application in a rapid ligand binding assay. Thanks to the SPR selection process, only the fast mAb (F-50-6B12) and the slow (S-50-5H9) mAb needed purification for labelling with carbon nanoparticles to exploit high-speed LFIA prototypes. The kinetics observed in SPR were reflected in LFIA, with the test line appearing within 30 s, almost two times faster when F-50-6B12 was used, compared with S-50-5H9. Additionally, the LFIAs have demonstrated their future applicability to real life samples by detecting hazelnut in the sub-ppm range in a cookie matrix. Finally, these LFIAs not only provide a qualitative result when read visually, but also generate semi-quantitative data when exploiting freely downloadable smartphone apps.
Consumer-friendly food allergen detection : moving towards smartphone-based immunoassays
Ross, Georgina M.S. ; Bremer, Monique G.E.G. ; Nielen, Michel W.F. - \ 2018
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 410 (2018)22. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 5353 - 5371.
Citizen science - Consumer - Food allergen - Immunoassay - Multiplex - Smartphone
In this critical review, we provide a comprehensive overview of immunochemical food allergen assays and detectors in the context of their user-friendliness, through their connection to smartphones. Smartphone-based analysis is centered around citizen science, putting analysis into the hands of the consumer. Food allergies represent a significant worldwide health concern and consumers should be able to analyze their foods, whenever and wherever they are, for allergen presence. Owing to the need for a scientific background, traditional laboratory-based detection methods are generally unsuitable for the consumer. Therefore, it is important to develop simple, safe, and rapid assays that can be linked with smartphones as detectors to improve user accessibility. Smartphones make excellent detection systems because of their cameras, embedded flash functions, portability, connectivity, and affordability. Therefore, this review has summarized traditional laboratory-based methods for food allergen detection such as enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and surface plasmon resonance, and the potential to modernize these methods by interfacing them with a smartphone readout system, based on the aforementioned smartphone characteristics. This is the first review focusing on smartphone-based food-allergen detection methods designed with the intention of being consumer-friendly. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Analyse Natura 2000-doelensystematiek op basis van beheerplannen van de Natura 2000-gebieden : Achtergronddocument bij het rapport Advies over de Natura 2000 doelensystematiek en Natura 2000-doelen
Vreeswijk, T. van; Schmidt, A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Bremer, L. van den - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2779B) - 39
n dit rapport worden de resultaten van de analyse van de Natura 2000-doelensystematiek in de be heerplannen beschreven. Onder Natura 2000-doelensystematiek wordt hier verstaan de wijze waarop de Natura 2000-doelen op landelijk en gebiedsniveau zijn geformuleerd. Hiervoor is een toetsingskader opgesteld aan de hand van de voorwaarden die er zijn gesteld aan het formuleren en uitwerken van de doelstellingen op Europees en nationaal niveau. Er wordt geconcludeerd dat de implementatie van de Natura 2000-doelensystematiek in de beheerplannen, ofwel de nadere uitwerking van de Natura 2000-doelen in de beheerplannen, niet aan alle toetsingscriteria voldoet. In dit rapport worden op basis van de resultaten alleen aanbevelingen gedaan voor verbeteringen van de Checklist beheerplannen. In het hoofdrapport (Schmidt et al., 2016) wordt nader ingegaan op mogelijke oorzaken en gevolgen. Voor een vervolg wordt aanbevolen de resultaten terug te koppelen aan de voortouwnemers en opstellers van de beheerplannen, om meer inzicht te krijgen in de toepasbaarheid van de Natura 2000-doelensystematiek in de praktijk.
Authenticity and the Contradictions of the “Ecotourism Script” : Global Marketing and Local Politics in Ghana
Büscher, Bram ; Bremer, Renée van den; Fletcher, Robert ; Koot, Stasja - \ 2017
Critical Arts 31 (2017)4. - ISSN 0256-0046 - p. 37 - 52.
authenticity - development - ecotourism - Ghana - marketing - politics
Tourism in Ghana has been developing rapidly over the last decade. By marketing over a dozen “community ecotourism” sites, particularly around monkey and forest sanctuaries, Ghana hopes to attract travellers to spend money in the country and so aid local development and protect natural resources. This paper analyses this trend, outlining several contradictions in the country’s national branding of “authenticity” in ecotourism and how this takes local shape in the case of the Tafi-Atome monkey sanctuary in Eastern Ghana. We propose that actors on different levels in Ghana appear to market and brand ecotourism according to a “script” that directs and influences local ecotourism practices in ways that obscure these contradictions and thereby enable continuation of and belief in the script. We conclude that this “ecotourism script” is central to the promotion and implementation of ecotourism in general, and needed to maintain the belief that the activity is an important conservation and development panacea.
Changes in proteins, physical stability and structure in directly heated UHT milk during storage at different temperatures
Malmgren, Bozena ; Ardö, Ylva ; Langton, Maud ; Altskär, Annika ; Bremer, Maria G.E.G. ; Dejmek, Petr ; Paulsson, Marie - \ 2017
International Dairy Journal 71 (2017). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 60 - 75.
Changes occurring in directly heated UHT milk were studied during storage at 5, 22, 30 and 40 °C. Industrially produced UHT milk samples were analysed for changes in enzymatic activity, protein modification, destabilisation of casein micelles and relocation of milk proteins in relation to sedimentation and gel formation. Sedimentation occurred at all temperatures, and the protein composition of the sediments reflected the composition of its liquid phase; however, there was no α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin or κ-casein present in sediments. Tendrils composed of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein were seen on casein micelles after UHT treatment and grew in length prior to gelation. High degrees of lactosylation of proteins and peptides were clearly correlated with the absence of gelation and long tendrils. Gelled samples showed complete hydrolysis of intact β-casein, and limited lactosylation of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein.
|A public-private cooperation for the development of a poultry detection method in feed
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Margry, R.J.C.F. ; Veen, M.R. van der; Scholtens-Toma, I.M.J. ; Prins, T.W. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. - \ 2016
Financial burden of allergen free food preparation in the catering business
Hoogeveen, A.R. ; Fels, Ine van der; Bonanno, A. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. - \ 2016
Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 8 (2016)2. - ISSN 1757-8361 - p. 301 - 308.
Food allergens - Partial budgeting analysis - Willingness to pay
This study aimed to quantify costs and benefits of allergen free food (food not containing ingredients that fall under the European labelling regime) production at a catering business under two scenarios. In scenario 1 the caterer provides information to the consumer regarding the presence of allergens in the meals served, uses allergen free ingredients in preparation of allergen free meals, but does not avoid cross contamination during food preparation. Scenario 2 expands upon scenario 1 as to also include the prevention of cross contamination during preparation of allergen free foods. A stochastic partial budgeting analysis was performed to simulate the costs and benefits in both scenarios, relative to the current situation of providing neither information regarding the presence of allergens nor serving allergen free meals. Costs values were based upon the adaptations necessary to comply with the two scenarios for an on premise catering location. Fixed and variable cost items were identified via literature review, critical inspection of the catering establishment, and expert opinion. Benefit items were identified and quantified via a questionnaire about willingness to pay and willingness to buy at a catering location, according to each scenario. Given the price increase of meals in accordance to the estimated willingness to pay, and using mean values of the distributions of the costs and benefit items, an investment payback time of 8.1 and 7.7 months was estimated for scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. However, with median values of the distributions, both scenarios were not profitable, since monthly net profits were estimated at € -413 and € -636 for scenarios 1 and 2, respectively. If additional costs are not passed on to the consumer, no scenario is profitable. Catering companies can use the methodology and results in their decision making process on serving allergen free foods.
Immunochemical detection methods for gluten in food products: where do we go from here?
Bruins Slot, I.D. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Bremer, Maria G.E.G. ; R.J., Hamer - \ 2016
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 56 (2016)15. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 2455 - 2466.
Accurate and reliable quantification methods for gluten in food are necessary to ensure proper product labelling and thus safeguard the gluten sensitive consumer against exposure. Immunochemical detection is the method of choice, as it is sensitive, rapid and relatively easy to use. Although a wide range of detection kits are commercially available, there are still many difficulties in gluten detection that have not yet been overcome. This review gives an overview of the currently commercially available immunochemical detection methods, and discusses the problems that still exist in gluten detection in food. The largest problems are encountered in the extraction of gluten from food matrices, the choice of epitopes targeted by the detection method, and the use of a standardized reference material. By comparing the available techniques with the unmet needs in gluten detection, the possible benefit of a new multiplex immunoassay is investigated. This detection method would allow for the detection and quantification of multiple harmful gluten peptides at once and would, therefore, be a logical advancement in gluten detection in food.
Standard Data Form Natura 2000 : bepaling van de belangrijkste drukfactoren in Natura 2000-gebieden
Schippers, P. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Bremer, L. van den - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 56) - 30
natura 2000 - natuurgebieden - habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - natuurbeheer - natura 2000 - natural areas - habitats directive - birds directive - environmental impact - human impact - nature management
Dit rapport betreft de documentatie van de gevolgde werkwijze van hoofdstuk 4.3 van het Standard Data
Form. Het rapport beschrijft de methodiek die gevolgd is om per Natura 2000-gebied de belangrijkste
drukfactoren uit de voorgeschreven lijst van de EC (de EC-indeling) te bepalen. Hierbij is de informatie over
de drukfactoren die een negatief effect hebben op de staat van instandhouding van soorten en habitattypen
uit de landelijke rapportages toegepast. Om de binnen de EC-systematiek geconstateerde problemen op te
lossen, is er gezocht naar een nieuwe Nederlandse indeling in drukfactoren, waarbij duidelijk onderscheid
wordt gemaakt tussen de oorzaken van drukfactoren (menselijke activiteiten en natuurlijke processen) en de
effecten (bv. versnippering, vermesting en verdroging). Door de landelijke EC-indeling te vertalen naar de
NL-indeling (en vice versa) is de informatie ook geschikter voor praktisch gebruik
Evaluating the performance of gluten ELISA test kits : The numbers do not tell the tale
Bruins Slot, I.D. ; Bremer, Maria G.E.G. ; Fels, Ine van der; Hamer, R.J. - \ 2015
Cereal Chemistry 92 (2015)5. - ISSN 0009-0352 - p. 513 - 521.
A wide variety of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are commercially available for gluten detection in food, including new formats and assays with antibodies against relevant gluten epitopes. Nevertheless, problems persist to accurately determine the gluten content of products. In this study, the performance of a set of 14 ELISA kits for gluten detection, representative of the current ELISA methods available on the market, was evaluated. These tests were used to determine gluten content in a series of relevant food matrices varying in complexity. Our results show that, currently, there is no single ELISA method that can accurately detect and quantify gluten in all different matrices. This includes the current type I method R5 as recommended by Codex Alimentarius. We conclude that further improvements are urgently needed and recommend focusing on competitive formats, improving extraction methods, and the detection of relevant gluten peptides (in order of priority).
Inter-laboratory validation study of two immunochemical methods for detection of processed ruminant proteins
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Margry, R.J.C.F. ; Kaathoven, R.G.C. van; Bremer, M.G.E.G. - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 185 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 333 - 339.
Animal proteins - Feed - Immunoassays - Qualitative detection - Validation
In order to facilitate safe re-introduction of non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) in aqua feed, two immunoassays have been tested in an interlaboratory study for their capability to detect ruminant PAPs processed under European conditions. The sensitivity of the MELISA-TEK assay was improved by applying a specific extraction kit. Six approved blank pork and poultry samples were adulterated to produce 15 samples spiked at 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% with ruminant material, sterilised at either 133 °C or 137 °C. Fourteen participants investigated the 6 blanks and 15 spiked samples, making 21 samples for the final test. For both assays specificity and sensitivity were at 97% or higher. Concordance and accordance were higher than 95% with one exception. The results indicate that both assays provided correct results at 0.5% and higher for the detecting ruminant PAPs (sterilised at 133 °C) in non-ruminant PAPs. Given the 2% upper limit of ruminant PAPs in non-ruminant PAPs for avoiding an increase in BSE incidents, these methods are fit for monitoring non-ruminant PAPs intended for aqua feed.
Part of celiac population still at risk despite current gluten thresholds
Bruins Slot, I.D. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Hamer, R.J. ; Fels, Ine van der - \ 2015
Trends in Food Science and Technology 43 (2015)2. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 219 - 226.
In order to assist celiac disease (CD) patients in making safe food choices, gluten-free food products are labelled as such. The exact meaning of the gluten-free label differs throughout the world. This paper discusses the different thresholds that are currently used to label products gluten-free and compares tolerable gluten levels to the gluten levels CD patients can be exposed to with these thresholds in place. Currently, the most applied gluten threshold to label products gluten-free does not protect the most vulnerable patients. Therefore, we propose to lower the threshold for products with a gluten-free label to 3ppm gluten.
Separation and characterisation of sulphur-free lignin from different agricultural residues
Rossberg, Christine ; Bremer, Martina ; Machill, Susanne ; Koenig, Swetlana ; Kerns, Gerhard ; Boeriu, Carmen ; Windeisen, Elisabeth ; Fischer, Steffen - \ 2015
Industrial Crops and Products 73 (2015). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 81 - 89.
Agricultural residue - Lignin - Pretreatment - Wheat straw
Wheat straw, as one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Europe, was subjected to alkaline pulping, microwave-assisted alkaline pulping and organosolv pulping using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The obtained lignins were characterised by means of Klason-lignin, FT-IR spectroscopy, elementary analysis, thioacidolysis, SEC and different wet chemical methods. The emphasis here was on their structural differences, especially the content of functional groups like total hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl and methoxyl groups.In addition, numerous agricultural residues, for example barley straw, maize straw, sunflower stalks and horse manure, were characterised and subjected to alkaline pulping, which was carried out based on the optimum parameters found for wheat straw: θ=. 160. °C, t=. 30. min and ω(NaOH). =. 3. wt%. The examined raw materials showed different suitability for lignin separation using this pretreatment. The resulting lignins were characterised with the methods described above and were classified into three groups within which lignins show similar characteristics. By this, lignin with interesting structural features could be proposed for further studies.
Proficiency test for allergens in food 2014
Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Alamenou, P. ; Elbers, I.J.W. - \ 2015
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2015.002) - 38
graansoorten - zuigelingenvoedsel - allergenen - voedselallergieën - laboratoriumproeven - tests - cereals - infant foods - allergens - food allergies - laboratory tests - tests
In the autumn of 2014 a proficiency test for allergens in baby cereal was organized by RIKILT, Wageningen UR. This PT-test enabled laboratories to evaluate their competence for the analysis of allergens in baby cereal. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were accepted. The proficiency test was carried out according to ISO/IEC 17043, however this specific test is not part of the accreditation.