Reassessing the variability in atmospheric H2 using the two-way nested TM5 model
Pieterse, G. ; Krol, M.C. ; Batenburg, A.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, C.A. ; Popa, M.E. ; O'Doherty, S. ; Grant, A. ; Steele, L.P. ; Krummel, P.B. ; Langenfelds, R.L. ; Wang, H.J. ; Vermeulen, A.T. ; Schmidt, M. ; Yver, C. ; Jordan, A. ; Engel, A. ; Fisher, R.E. ; Lowry, D. ; Nisbet, E.G. ; Reimann, S. ; Vollmer, M.K. ; Steinbacher, M. ; Hammer, S. ; Forster, G. ; Sturges, W.T. ; Rockmann, T. - \ 2013
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 (2013)9. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 3764 - 3780.
dry deposition parameterization - stable isotopic composition - general-circulation model - global hydrogen economy - molecular-hydrogen - trace gases - environmental-impact - dissolved hydrogen - seasonal-variation - data assimilation
This work reassesses the global atmospheric budget of H2 with the TM5 model. The recent adjustment of the calibration scale for H2 translates into a change in the tropospheric burden. Furthermore, the ECMWF Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) used in this study show slower vertical transport than the operational data used before. Consequently, more H2 is removed by deposition. The deposition parametrization is updated because significant deposition fluxes for snow, water, and vegetation surfaces were calculated in our previous study. Timescales of 1-2h are asserted for the transport of H2 through the canopies of densely vegetated regions. The global scale variability of H2 and [DH2] is well represented by the updated model. H2 is slightly overestimated in the Southern Hemisphere because too little H2 is removed by dry deposition to rainforests and savannahs. The variability in H2 over Europe is further investigated using a high-resolution model subdomain. It is shown that discrepancies between the model and the observations are mainly caused by the finite model resolution. The tropospheric burden is estimated at 165 +/- 8TgH2. The removal rates of H2 by deposition and photochemical oxidation are estimated at 53 +/- 4 and 23 +/- 2TgH2/yr, resulting in a tropospheric lifetime of 2.2 +/- 0.2year.
Atmospheric CH4 in the first decade of the 21st century: Inverse modeling analysis using SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and NOAA surface measurements
Bergamaschi, P. ; Houweling, S. ; Segers, A. ; Krol, M.C. ; Frankenberg, C. ; Scheepmaker, R.A. ; Dlugokencky, E. ; Wofsy, S.C. ; Kort, E.A. ; Sweeney, C. ; Schuck, T. ; Brenninkmeijer, C. ; Chen, H. ; Beck, V. ; Gerbig, C. - \ 2013
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 (2013)13. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 7350 - 7369.
growth-rate - methane emissions - carbon-dioxide - northern-hemisphere - data assimilation - transport model - variability - chemistry - climate - troposphere
The causes of renewed growth in the atmospheric CH4 burden since 2007 are still poorly understood and subject of intensive scientific discussion. We present a reanalysis of global CH4 emissions during the 2000s, based on the TM5-4DVAR inverse modeling system. The model is optimized using high-accuracy surface observations from NOAA ESRL's global air sampling network for 2000-2010 combined with retrievals of column-averaged CH4 mole fractions from SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (starting 2003). Using climatological OH fields, derived global total emissions for 2007-2010 are 16-20 Tg CH4/yr higher compared to 2003-2005. Most of the inferred emission increase was located in the tropics (9-14 Tg CH4/yr) and mid- latitudes of the northern hemisphere (6-8 Tg CH4/yr), while no significant trend was derived for Arctic latitudes. The atmospheric increase can be attributed mainly to increased anthropogenic emissions, but the derived trend is significantly smaller than estimated in the EDGARv4.2 emission inventory. Superimposed on the increasing trend in anthropogenic CH4 emissions are significant inter-annual variations (IAV) of emissions from wetlands (up to +/- 10 Tg CH4/yr), and biomass burning (up to +/- 7 Tg CH4/yr). Sensitivity experiments, which investigated the impact of the SCIAMACHY observations (versus inversions using only surface observations), of the OH fields used, and of a priori emission inventories, resulted in differences in the detailed latitudinal attribution of CH4 emissions, but the IAV and trends aggregated over larger latitude bands were reasonably robust. All sensitivity experiments show similar performance against independent shipboard and airborne observations used for validation, except over Amazonia where satellite retrievals improved agreement with observations in the free troposphere.
Notitie Q4 - WP - Kleine mantelmeeuw
Leopold, M.F. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. - \ 2009
Texel : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C096/09) - 12
mariene constructies - windmolens - nadelige gevolgen - laridae - zeevogels - milieueffectrapportage - marine structures - windmills - adverse effects - laridae - sea birds - environmental impact reporting
Initiatiefnemer E-Connection Project BV heeft bij RWS Directie Noordzee, het Bevoegd Gezag (BG), een vergunningaanvraag ingediend voor de bouw en exploitatie van een offshore windpark, op een locatie die wordt aangeduid als Q4-WP. Deze locatie ligt niet in één van de uitsluitingsgebieden, zoals clearways en zandwingebieden en was daarmee een locatie waar een dergelijke ontwikkeling wellicht mogelijk zou zijn; wel diende een mer-procedure doorlopen te worden en vervolgens, omdat significante effecten op ondermeer natuur en milieu niet konden worden uitgesloten, een Passende Beoordeling (PB).
New directions : watching over tropospheric hydroxyl (OH)
Lelieveld, J. ; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.M. ; Joeckel, P. ; Isaksen, I.S.A. ; Krol, M.C. ; Mak, J.E. ; Dlugokencky, E. ; Montzka, S.A. ; Novelli, P.C. ; Peters, W. ; Tans, P.P. - \ 2006
Atmospheric Environment 40 (2006)29. - ISSN 1352-2310 - p. 5741 - 5743.
Effect of brood size and hatching sequence on prefledging mortality of Sandwich terns: why lay two eggs?
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. - \ 2006
Journal of Ornithology 147 (2006)4. - ISSN 2193-7192 - p. 520 - 530.
black-headed gulls - sterna-hirundo - roseate terns - common terns - reproductive success - parental quality - chick survival - reduction - asynchrony - dougallii
The mortality of Sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis chicks held in enclosures was studied in colonies on Griend, in the Dutch Wadden Sea, from 1992 to 1999, and on Hirsholm, in the Danish Kattegat, in 1997. Survival of chicks until fledging was 73% for chicks hatching from first-laid eggs or single-egg clutches and 59¿64% for partially hatched two-egg clutches, whereas 6% of second hatchlings survived until fledging. Less than 2% of all two-chick broods actually fledged two chicks. Because 18% of the two-egg clutches only hatched one egg, 7% of fledglings of two-egg clutches originated from a second-laid egg. In nests where both eggs hatched, the number of chicks was usually reduced soon after hatching. Within five days of hatching more than 50% of the second hatchlings died of starvation or were preyed upon. It seems that overproduction commonly occurs in Sandwich terns and that investment in a surplus egg mainly serves as an insurance mechanism. On Griend and Hirsholm, chick productivity of two-egg clutches was somewhat higher than for one-egg clutches. Undernourishment was an important cause of death, either directly by starvation or by selective predation of chicks in poor condition. This, in combination with earlier, studies suggests that Sandwich tern parents on Griend are exposed to severe food stress.
Modelling the distribution of waders in the Westerschelde; what is the predictive power of abiotic variables?
Ens, B.J. ; Brinkman, A.G. ; Dijkman, E.M. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Kersten, M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Twisk, F. - \ 2005
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1193) - 140
getijden - voedingsgedrag - milieufactoren - vogels - wetlands - nederland - waadvogels - westerschelde - tides - feeding behaviour - environmental factors - birds - wetlands - netherlands - waders - western scheldt
Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau
Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Klaassen, M. ; Kersten, M. - \ 2002
Ibis 144 (2002)4. - ISSN 0019-1019 - p. 602 - 613.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - stern - zeevogels - Afrika - Guinee-Bissau
We studied the feeding ecology of little tTerns Sterna albifrons, sandwich terns S. sandvicensis and royal terns S. maxima in the Archipélago dos Bijagós (11°40'N, 15°45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95 of all prey taken by these terns were roundfish, ranging in weight from 0.3 to 40 g. Birds usually fed alone, but sometimes they were observed feeding in mixed-species flocks consisting of 15-200 individuals. Capture rate (n fish per hour foraging) in these flocks was higher than that of solitary birds. However, smaller fish were caught by birds foraging in flocks, so food intake rate (g/h) did not differ between solitary and flock-feeding birds. The relationships between foraging behaviour of the three tern species and abiotic factors, such as time, tide and water clarity, have been investigated. Capture rate of royal terns increased with water clarity. For little terns and sandwich terns, food intake rate was lower in the most turbid waters compared to clearer waters. There was very little foraging activity during high tide. For little terns and royal terns, food intake rate was about twice as high during receding and low tides as during an incoming tide. Food intake rate averaged 8 g/h in little terns, 60 g/h in sandwich terns and 45 g/h in royal terns. With a rough model, we estimate the maximum rate of daily energy expenditure of terns wintering in the tropics at 3 x BMR (defined as energy expenditure of inactive bird at thermoneutrality in a post-absorptive state during the resting phase of the daily cycle). From an energetic viewpoint, wintering sandwich terns in Guinea-Bissau seem to have an easy living.
Variation in growth in sandwich tern chicks Sterna sandvicensis and the consequences for pre- and post-fledging mortality
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. - \ 2002
Ibis 144 (2002)4. - ISSN 0019-1019 - p. 567 - 576.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - stern - zeevogels - Waddenzee - Griend
Fitness consequences of variation in body mass growth and body condition were studied in a sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis colony on Griend, Dutch Wadden Sea, during 1990-2000. Body mass increment during the linear growth phase predicted nestling survival probabilities accurately. Chicks growing less than 8 g per day had low survival probabilities until fledging, but within a range of 8-11 g per day growth only small effects on chick survival were observed. Effects of slow growth on survival becameobvious after about 10 days after hatching. Slow growing chicks reached a much lower fledging mass, whereas slow growth had only small effects on structural size at fledging. Body condition of the chicks was highly variable and had strong effects on survival until fledging. However, body condition during the nestling stage did not influence post-fledging survival. Body condition at fledging had no effects on post-fledging survival and did not affect final mass or body size. It is argued that low fledging mass can be overcome soon after fledging, as parents take their fledglings closer to the foraging areas, thereby avoiding high rates of kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls Larus ridibundus.
Foraging decisions of sandwich terns in the presence of kleptoparasitising gulls
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. - \ 2002
The Auk : a quarterly journal of ornithology 119 (2002)2. - ISSN 0004-8038 - p. 473 - 486.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - stern - zeevogels - Waddenzee - Griend
|Living with gulls: the consequences for sandwich terns of breeding in association with black-headed gulls
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Geschiere, C.E. - \ 2001
Waterbirds 24 (2001)1. - ISSN 1524-4695 - p. 68 - 82.
fauna - ecologie - fauna - ornithologie - watervogels
We studied the feeding ecology of Sandwich Terns (Sterna sandvicensis) in the presence of kleptoparasitising Blackheaded Gulls (Larus, ridbundus) on the isle of Griend, The Netherlands, between 1992 and 1998. About 30 of all of the food the patents transported to the colony was lost, mainly through intervention by Blackheaded Gulls. Tile gulls mainly took the larger fish, but showed no preference for the energetically more profitable herring. Apparently, the gulls selected for prey length visibilityof the prey, rather than for energy content of the fish. The proportion of food robbed by the gulls increased with the age of the tern chicks and was in parallel to the increase in pre!; length Sandwich Tern parents brought to the colon). Kleptoparasitism showed a clear pattern with time of the day, tide and wind speed. During the first few hours of the day almost no kleptoparasitism occurred, while robbery was high around 09.00h and at dusk. This bimodal pattern in kleptoparasitism might be related to the foraging activities of the gulls. A tidal effect on food loss was less pronounced. although kleptoparasitism was significantly higher during high tide, when foraging activity of gulls for other foods was low and the number of potential pirates in thetern colony was high. Wind strength had a significant negative effect on the amount of. food transported to tile colony, while kleptoparasitism increased. Therefore, wind speed severely affected energy intake of th; tem chicks and had strong negative effects on chick growth. During the first two weeks post-hatching, kleptoparasitism was relatively low and had only small effects on chick growth, even under. unfavourable weather conditions. From then on, the negative effects of kleptoparasitism on growth because considerable. Check growth was severely affected by strong winds. Sandwich Terns show several behavioral strategies in order to reduce the rate of food loss by the gulls and to minimize the effects on chick growth and survival.
|Colonies d'oiseux côtiers au Sénégal: recommandations pour la protection, gestion et les recherches
Ndiaye, A. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Schepers, F.J. - \ 2000
In: Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998 / Keijl, G.O., Brenninkmeijer, A., Schepers, F.J., Brasseur, R.E., Ndiaye, A., Stienen, E.W.M., Veen, J., Zeist : WIWO (Rapp. WIWO / Rapp. IBN-DLO 68 / 99/6) - p. 49 - 58.
|Oiseux côtiers nichants en 1998; discussion et conclusions
Keijl, G.O. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Schepers, F.J. - \ 2000
In: Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998 / Keijl, G.O., Brenninkmeijer, A., Schepers, F.J., Brasseur, R.E., Ndiaye, A., Stienen, E.W.M., Veen, J., Zeist : WIWO (Rapp. WIWO / Rapp. IBN-DLO 68 / 99/6) - p. 40 - 48.
|Recherches sur la nourriture
Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Stienen, E.W.M. - \ 2000
In: Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998 / Keijl, G.O., Brenninkmeijer, A., Schepers, F.J., Brasseur, R.E., Ndiaye, A., Stienen, E.W.M., Veen, J., Zeist : WIWO (Rapp. WIWO / Rapp. IBN-DLO 68 / 99/6) - p. 37 - 40.
|Taille des pontes, variables des oeufs et biométrie des poussins
Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Keijl, G.O. - \ 2000
In: Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998 / Keijl, G.O., Brenninkmeijer, A., Schepers, F.J., Brasseur, R.E., Ndiaye, A., Stienen, E.W.M., Veen, J., Zeist : WIWO (Rapp. WIWO / Rapp. IBN-DLO 68 / 99/6) - p. 32 - 36.
|Oiseaux nicheurs sur les côtes du Parc National du Delta du Sine-Saloum et du Parc National Langue de Barbarie, Sénégal, 1998
Keijl, G.O. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Schepers, F.J. ; Brasseur, R.E. ; Ndiaye, A. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Veen, J. - \ 2000
Unknown Publisher - 76 p.
|Reflections of a specialist: patterns in food provisioning and foraging conditions in sandwich tern Sterna sandvicensis
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Beers, P.W.M. van; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Habraken, J.M.P.M. ; Raaijmakers, M.H.J.E. ; Tienen, P.G.M. van - \ 2000
Ardea 88 (2000)1. - ISSN 0373-2266 - p. 33 - 49.
Highly specialised piscivorous seabirds, like Sandwich Terns Sterna sandvicensis, have limited capacity to switch to alternative prey species when the availability of a particular prey species is low. Therefore, variations in the diet of such species are likely to reflect fluctuations in food availability. We studied food provisioning of Sandwich Tern chicks on Griend in 1992-98. About 75% of the fish brought to the colony were eaten by the chicks. The rest was lost, mainly to robbing Black-headed Gulls Larus ridibundus. Parents met the increasing energy demands of the growing chicks by adjusting prey size, rather than increasing the rate of prey transport to the chicks. Distinct patterns in food transport rate, diet composition and prey size were associated with weather conditions and diurnal or tidal rhythms. Food transport to the colony was severely curtailed by strong winds, but was also relatively low at low wind speeds. Wind speed also had a large impact on prey size and diet composition, with a decreasing proportion of Clupeidae brought to the chicks as foraging conditions became worse. Distinct diurnal rhythms in food transport coincided with diel vertical migration patterns in Clupeidae and Ammodytidae. Clupeidae were mostly brought to the colony early in the morning and late in the evening, while the transport of Ammodytidae was highest around noon. Tidal patterns in food delivery rate were probably related to tide-specific foraging areas used by the terns. A fish monitoring programme showed considerable variation in food abundance within the foraging area of the terns. Especially Clupeidae had a patchy distribution and most clupeids were caught in the coastal areas around Vlieland. In accordance to the pattern found in the colony, Clupeidae caught in 1996 and 1997 towards fledging of the chicks and just after hatching of the chicks in 1998 were relatively small.
|Keep the chicks moving: how sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitsm by black-headed gulls
Stienen, E.W.M. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. - \ 1999
Animal Behaviour 57 (1999)5. - ISSN 0003-3472 - p. 1135 - 1144.
|Sterfte van de grote stern Sterna sandvicensis in Afrika
Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Stienen, E.A.M. - \ 1999
Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN-rapport 402) - 61 p.
|Visdieven in gevaar III; PCB-concentraties en -patronen in bloed van broedende visdieven van Terneuzen, de Oesterdam en Griend
Brink, N.W. van den; Bosveld, A.T.C. ; Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Meininger, P.L. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Tienen, P.G. van - \ 1998
Wageningen : IBN-DLO (IBN-rapport 406) - 22 p.
|Broedsucces en broedassociatie van velduilen Asio flammeus
Brenninkmeijer, A. ; Stienen, E.W.M. ; Tienen, P.G.M. van - \ 1998
Limosa 71 (1998). - ISSN 0024-3620 - p. 89 - 93.