Sampling adult populations of anopheles mosquitoes
Tangena, Julie Anne A. ; Hiscox, Alexandra ; Brey, Paul T. - \ 2019
In: Malaria Control and Elimination New York : Humana Press Inc. (Methods in Molecular Biology ) - ISBN 9781493995493 - p. 233 - 285.
Animal landing catch - Animal-baited net trap - Anopheles - Biogents Suna trap - CDC miniature light trap - Exit-entry trap - Human landing catch - Human-baited net trap - Mosquito traps - Peripheral net collection - Pyrethrum collection - Resting shelter
For the control and elimination of malaria, information on the local vector dynamics is essential. This information provides guidance on appropriate and timely deployment of vector control tools and their subsequent success. The data on the dynamics of local mosquito populations can be collected using many different Anopheles sampling methods. Dependent on the objectives, resources, time, and local environment, different traps and methods can be chosen. This chapter describes the sampling of adult populations, focusing on the important preparatory stages and some of the widely used sampling methods. The trapping methods discussed in this chapter are the human landing catch, human-baited net trap, animal landing catch, animal-baited net trap, CDC miniature light trap, Biogents Suna trap, peripheral net collection, pyrethrum collection, exit/entry trap, and resting shelter. For optimal deployment in the field, a step-by-step description of the sampling methods is given.
New records and updated checklist of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Lao People's Democratic Republic, with special emphasis on adult and larval surveillance in Khammuane Province
Motoki, Maysa T. ; Vongphayloth, Khamsing ; Rueda, Leopoldo M. ; Miot, Elliott F. ; Hiscox, Alexandra ; Hertz, Jeffrey C. ; Brey, Paul T. - \ 2019
Journal of Vector Ecology 44 (2019)1. - ISSN 1081-1710 - p. 76 - 88.
Culicidae - DNA barcode - Khammuane Province - Lao PDR - mosquito species list - mosquito surveillance
A list of mosquitoes from the Nakai Nam Theun National Protected Area along the Nam Theun, Nam Mon, Nam Noy, and Nam On rivers, Nakai District, Khammuane Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is presented. Fifty-four mosquito taxa were identified, including 15 new records in the Lao PDR. A fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, barcode region, was generated for 34 specimens, and together with four specimens already published, it represented 23 species in eight genera. In addition, an updated checklist of 170 mosquito taxa from Lao PDR is provided based on field collections from Khammuane Province, the literature, and specimens deposited in the Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History (SI-NMNH), Washington, DC, U.S.A. This paper provides additional information about the biodiversity of mosquito fauna in Lao PDR.
Armigeres subalbatus colonization of damaged pit latrines : A nuisance and potential health risk to residents of resettlement villages in Laos
Hiscox, A. ; Hirooka, R. ; Vongphayloth, K. ; Hill, N. ; Lindsay, S.W. ; Grandadam, M. ; Brey, P.T. - \ 2016
Medical and Veterinary Entomology 30 (2016)1. - ISSN 0269-283X - p. 95 - 100.
Armigeres - Flavivirus - Laos - Latrine - Nuisance biting - 016-3917
During the resettlement of 6500 persons living around the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in Laos, more than 1200 pour-flush latrines were constructed. To assess the role of these latrines as productive larval habitats for mosquitoes, entomological investigations using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, visual inspection and emergence trapping were carried out in over 300 latrines during the rainy seasons of 2008-2010. Armigeres subalbatus (Diptera: Culicidae) were nine times more likely to be found in latrines (mean catch: 3.09) than in adjacent bedrooms (mean catch: 0.37) [odds ratio (OR) 9.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.74-15.11] and mosquitoes were active in and around 59% of latrines at dusk. Armigeres subalbatus was strongly associated with latrines with damaged or improperly sealed septic tank covers (OR 5.44, 95% CI 2.02-14.67; P <0.001). Armigeres subalbatus is a nuisance biter and a putative vector of Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses. Dengue virus serotype 3 was identified from a single pool of non-blood-fed female A. subalbatus using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Maintaining a good seal around septic tanks by covering them with a layer of soil is a simple intervention to block mosquito exit/entry and contribute to vector control in resettlement villages. The scale-up of this simple, cheap intervention would have global impact in preventing the colonization of septic tanks by nuisance biting and disease-transmitting mosquitoes.
The Human-Baited Double Net Trap: An Alternative to Human Landing Catches for Collecting Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes in Lao PDR
Tangena, J.A. ; Thammavong, P. ; Hiscox, A.F. ; Lindsay, P.T. ; Brey, P.T. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)9. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 13 p.
Estimating the exposure of individuals to mosquito-borne diseases is a key measure used to evaluate the success of vector control operations. The gold standard is to use human landing catches where mosquitoes are collected off the exposed limbs of human collectors. This is however an unsatisfactory method since it potentially exposes individuals to a range of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study several sampling methods were compared to find a method that is representative of the human-biting rate outdoors, but which does not expose collectors to mosquito-borne infections. The sampling efficiency of four odour-baited traps were compared outdoors in rural Lao PDR; the human-baited double net (HDN) trap, CDC light trap, BG sentinel trap and Suna trap. Subsequently the HDN, the best performing trap, was compared directly with human landing catches (HLC), the ‘gold standard’, for estimating human-biting rates. HDNs collected 11–44 times more mosquitoes than the other traps, with the exception of the HLC. The HDN collected similar numbers of Anopheles (Rate Ratio, RR = 1.16, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI = 0.61–2.20) and Culex mosquitoes (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.74–2.17) as HLC, but under-estimated the numbers of Aedes albopictus (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.27–0.77). Simpson’s index of diversity was 0.845 (95% CI 0.836–0.854) for the HDN trap and 0.778 (95% CI 0.769–0.787) for HLC, indicating that the HDN collected a greater diversity of mosquito species than HLC. Both HLC and HDN can distinguish between low and high biting rates and are crude ways to measure human-biting rate. The HDN is a simple and cheap method to estimate the human-biting rate outdoors without exposing collectors to mosquito bites.
Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos
Hiscox, A.F. ; Kaye, A. ; Vongphayloth, K. ; Banks, I. ; Piffer, M. ; Khammanithong, P. ; Sananikhom, P. ; Kaul, S. ; Hill, N. ; Lindsay, S.W. ; Brey, P.T. - \ 2013
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 88 (2013)6. - ISSN 0002-9637 - p. 1070 - 1078.
dengue vector control - diptera-culicidae - singapore-city - mosquitos - l. - insecticide - thailand - vietnam - skuse - surveillance
We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires.
Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR
Hiscox, A.F. ; Khammanithong, P. ; Kaul, S. ; Sananikhom, P. ; Luthi, R. ; Hill, N. ; Brey, P.T. ; Lindsay, S.W. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)5. - ISSN 1932-6203
japanese encephalitis - satellite villages - malaria vectors - reduce exposure - breeding sites - rural town - sri-lanka - gambia - interventions - patterns
Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vector incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.26, 95% CI 1.38–3.70, P = 0.001; Anopheline IRR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30–4.23, P = 0.005). Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.29–4.17, P = 0.005).Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.26–0.73, P = 0.002; Anopheline IRR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.10–0.51, P
The Environmental Transformation of the Modern Order
Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2003
In: Modernity and Technology / Misa, T.J., Brey, P., Feenberg, A., Cambridge, MA : The MIT Press - ISBN 9780262134217 - p. 303 - 326.
|Environment, technology and global modernity
Mol, A.P.J. - \ 1999
In: Technology and modernity : the empirical turn : proceedings of the International Research Seminar, Enschede, The Netherlands, 18 - 20 November 1999 / P. Brey, A. Feenberg, T. Mias, A. Rip. - Enschede : University of Twente, 1999 - p. 106 - 134.