Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Feedbacks from Filter Feeders: Review on the Role of Mussels in Cycling and Storage of Nutrients in Oligo- Meso- and Eutrophic Cultivation Areas
Jansen, Henrice Maria ; Strand, Øivind ; Broekhoven, Wouter Van; Strohmeier, Tore ; Verdegem, Marc C. ; Smaal, Aad C. - \ 2019
In: Goods and Services of Marine Bivalves / Smaal, Aad C., Ferreira, Joao G., Grant, Jon, Petersen, Jens K., Strand, Øivind, Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783319967752 - p. 143 - 177.
Cultured and wild bivalve stocks provide ecosystem services through regulation of nutrient dynamics; both by regeneration of nutrients that become available again for phytoplankton production (positive feedback), and by extraction
of nutrients through filtration and storage in tissue (negative feedback). Consequently, bivalves may fulfil a role in water quality management. The magnitude of regulating services by filter feeding bivalves varies between coastal ecosystems. This review uses the blue mussel as a model species and evaluates how cultured mussel stocks regulate nutrient dynamics in oligo- meso- and eutrophic ecosystems. We thereby examine (i) the eco-physiological response of mussels, and (ii) the positive and negative feedback mechanisms between mussel stocks and the surrounding ecosystem. Mussel culture in nutrient-poor areas (deep Norwegian fjords) are compared with cultures in other coastal systems with medium- to rich nutrient conditions. It was found that despite differences in eco-physiological rates under nutrient-poor conditions (higher clearance, lower egestion, similar excretion and tissue storage rates), the proportion of nutrients regenerated was similar between (deep) nutrient-poor
and (shallow) nutrient-rich areas. Of the filtered nutrients, 40–50% is regenerated
and thus made available again for phytoplankton growth, and 10–50% of the
filtered nutrients is stored in tissue and could be removed from the system by harvest. A priori, we inferred that as a consequence of low background nutrient levels, mussels would potentially have a larger effect on ecosystem functioning in nutrient-poor systems and/or seasons. However, this review showed that due to the physical characteristics (volume, water residence time) and low mussel densities in nutrient-poor Norwegian fjord systems, the effects were lower for these sites, while estimates were more profound in shallow nutrient-rich areas with more intensive aquaculture activities, especially in terms of the negative feedback mechanisms (filtration intensity).
Analyse van provinciale natuurbeleidsstrategieën : Realiseren van het natuurnetwerk en vergroten van maatschappelijke betrokkenheid bij natuur
Wit, Esther de; Doren, Didi van; Bouwma, Irene ; Broekhoven, Saskia van; Kamphorst, Dana ; Kuindersma, Wiebren - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 49) - 20
Research into chances of survival of flatfish and rays: Which measures increase the chances of survival?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen Marine Research - 4 p.
Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: Welke maatregelen vergroten de overlevingskans?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen Marine Research - 4 p.
animal welfare - wild animals - fish - fisheries - animal health
Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: Waarom onderzoek met leefbakken en niet met het terugzetten van gemerkte vis in zee?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Marine Research - 4 p.
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Het gebruik van leefbakken is hiervoor de beste methode. Waarom is dat zo?
Naar een kennisagenda voor vermaatschappelijking van natuur : achtergrondstudie
Bredenoord, Hendrien ; Broekhoven, Saskia van; Dirkx, Joep ; Doren, Didi van; Folkert, Rob ; Kunseler, Eva ; Vugteveen, Pim ; Westerink, Judith - \ 2018
Den Haag : PBL Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 57
Research into chances of survival of flatfish and rays: what are the chances of survival in pulse fishing?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 3 p.
How many undersized fish actually survive the process of being discarded? This question is relevant because of the European landing obligation, which obliges fishers to land undersized fish that are subject to a quota. Wageningen Marine Research, together with the fishing industry, has investigated the chances of survival of flatfish and rays in pulse fishing. Which conclusions about the chances of survival can be drawn from the research?
Research into the chances of survival of flatfish and rays: how is it done?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
How many undersized fish actually survive the process of being discarded? This question is relevant because of the European landing obligation, which obliges fishers to land undersized fish that are subject to a quota. Wageningen Marine Research, together with the fishing industry, has investigated the chances of survival of flatfish and rays in pulse fishing. How is research into the chances of survival of fish conducted?
Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: wat zijn de overlevingskansen in de pulsvisserij?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 3 p.
animal welfare - wild animals - seals - animal health
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Welke conclusies kunnen uit het onderzoek worden getrokken over de overlevingskansen?
Onderzoek overlevingskansen platvis en rog: Hoe gaat dit in zijn werk?
Steins, N.A. ; Schram, E. ; Molenaar, P. ; Broekhoven, W. van - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 2 p.
Hoeveel van de ondermaatse vis overleeft het terugzetten in zee eigenlijk? Deze vraag is relevant vanwege de Europese aanlandplicht, die vissers verplicht om ondermaatse gequoteerde vis mee naar de wal te nemen. Wageningen Marine Research heeft samen met de visserijsector de overlevingskansen van platvis en rog in de pulsvisserij onderzocht. Hoe gaat het onderzoek naar de overlevingskansen van vis in zijn werk?
Degradation and excretion of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol by an edible insect, the Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.)
Broekhoven, S. van; Mota Gutierrez, J. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Nijs, W.C.M. de; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2017
World Mycotoxin Journal 10 (2017)2. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 163 - 169.
degradation - deoxynivalenol - edible insect - excretion

Insects could provide an alternative and more sustainable source of animal protein compared to conventional livestock. Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) can be grown on diets composed of organic by-products. However, these diets could be contaminated with mycotoxins. Thus far, little is known about possible retention, sequestration, excretion or detoxification of mycotoxins by edible insects. T. molitor larvae were grown on wheat flour naturally contaminated with mycotoxins among which deoxynivalenol (DON) was predominant (4.9 mg/kg), wheat flour spiked with 8 mg/kg pure DON, and uncontaminated wheat flour. Larval survival and weight gain on the three diets were compared. Survival was high for larvae on all dietary treatments (>98%) and no difference in weight gain was observed when comparing larvae grown on uncontaminated control diet with larvae grown on contaminated diets (P=0.091). Presence of mycotoxins in larvae and larval faeces was analysed using LC-MS/MS. No DON or DON-derivatives were detected in T. molitor after harvest of the larvae, pointing to degradation by the larvae. Excretion of DON in larval faeces was ca. 14% of the amount of DON ingested for larvae grown on naturally contaminated diet and ca. 41% for larvae grown on DON-spiked diet. These are promising results with respect to food safety of mealworms or derived products grown on mycotoxin-contaminated feed. However, enzymatic degradation of DON in T. molitor, as well as possible toxicity of the resulting metabolites, remain to be further investigated.

Meelwormen kweken op restjes is veilig
Broekhoven, Sarah van - \ 2017

Meelwormen die groeien op plantaardige reststromen zijn waarschijnlijk veilig om te eten. Mycotoxinen, gifstoffen uit schimmels die in voedselresten kunnen zitten, hopen zich niet op in de insecten. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van het Laboratorium voor Entomologie en het Rikilt.

Het provinciaal natuurbeleid ingekaderd : Achtergronddocument lerende evaluatie van het Natuurpact
Fontein, R.J. ; Broekhoven, Saskia van; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Blaeij, A.T. de; Arnouts, R. - \ 2017
PBL (Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving) (PBL publicaties 2667) - 94 p.
Bij de ontwikkeling en uitvoering van hun natuurbeleid hebben de provincies te maken met beleids- en wettelijke kaders die voor alle provincies gelden. Het gaat hier om Europese kaders, rijkskaders en gemeenschappelijke afspraken tussen de twaalf provincies onderling en tussen de provincies en het Rijk. Deze kaders vormen de randvoorwaarden waarbinnen de provincies hun natuurbeleidsstrategieën vormgeven en ze beïnvloeden de effectiviteit van die strategieën. Kaders kunnen het provinciaal natuurbeleid en de uitvoering daarvan zowel belemmeren als vooruit helpen. Dit rapport doet verslag van een onderzoek naar de effecten van de belangrijkste beleids- en wettelijke kaders op de provinciale natuurbeleidsstrategieën en naar de impact van deze kaders op de effectiviteit in termen van de drie ambities van het Natuurpact: biodiversiteit, maatschappelijke betrokkenheid en de verbinding tussen natuur en economie. De kaders die in dit rapport centraal staan, zijn: staatssteunregels en gelijkberechtiging, de Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijn (VHR) en de Wet natuurbescherming, de financiële afspraken tussen Rijk en provincies, het Programma Aanpak Stikstof (PAS), de waterveiligheidskaders in de uiterwaarden en de Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW). Deze kaders zijn geselecteerd omdat ze naar verwachting een belangrijke invloed hebben op de effectiviteit van de provinciale natuurbeleidsstrategieën. Dit rapport is een achtergrondrapport bij de eerste rapportage van de lerende evaluatie van het Natuurpact (PBL 2017). Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) heeft het onderzoek voor deze lerende evaluatie uitgevoerd samen met Wageningen University & Research (WUR). Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd in de periode eind 2015 tot en met juni 2016. Ontwikkelingen van na deze datum zijn niet meegenomen. In het onderzoek is gebruikgemaakt van een uitgebreide documentenanalyse. Hiernaast zijn interviews gehouden met beleidsmedewerkers van Rijk en provincies en met enkele experts. Daarnaast is een workshop ‘handelingsperspectieven’ – waarbij beleidsmedewerkers van provincies en Rijk en medewerkers van maatschappelijke organisaties aanwezig waren – benut om de analyse aan te scherpen.
Solidarity in water management
Keessen, A.M. ; Vink, M.J. ; Wiering, M. ; Boezeman, D. ; Ernst, W.W.P. ; Mees, H. ; Broekhoven, Saskia van; Eerd, Marjolein C.J. van - \ 2016
Ecology and Society 21 (2016)4. - ISSN 1708-3087
adaptation - climate change - collective action - governance - solidarity - water management
Adaptation to climate change can be an inclusive and collective, rather than an individual effort. The choice for collective arrangements is tied to a call for solidarity. We distinguish between one-sided (assisting community members in need) and two-sided solidarity (furthering a common interest) and between voluntary and compulsory solidarity. We assess the strength of solidarity as a basis for adaptation measures in six Dutch water management case studies. Traditionally, Dutch water management is characterized by compulsory two-sided solidarity at the water board level. Since the French times, the state is involved through compulsory national solidarity contributions to avoid societal disruption by major floods. In so far as this furthers a common interest, the contributions qualify as two-sided solidarity, but if it is considered assistance to flood-prone areas, they also qualify as one-sided solidarity. Although the Delta Programme explicitly continues on this path, our case studies show that solidarity continues to play an important role in Dutch water management in the process of adapting to a changing climate, but that an undifferentiated call for solidarity will likely result in debates over who should pay what and why. Such discussions can lead to cancellation or postponement of adaptation measures, which are not considered to be in the common interest or result in an increased reliance on local solidarity.
Influence of processing and in vitro digestion on the allergic cross-reactivity of three mealworm species
Broekhoven, Sarah Van; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna ; Jong, N.W. De; Wichers, H.J. - \ 2016
Food Chemistry 196 (2016). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1075 - 1083.
Crustaceans - Food allergy - Food processing - House dust mite - Ige cross-reactivity - In vitro digestion - Mealworms

Edible insects are currently being evaluated as an alternative and more sustainable protein source for humans. The introduction of new food sources can lead to development of novel allergies. Because in the Western world, insects are unlikely to be consumed raw, it is important to know how processing and in vitro digestion might influence their allergenicity. Three edible mealworm species (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas atratus and Alphitobius diaperinus) subjected to processing and in vitro digestion were analysed for IgE cross-reactivity. Immunoblot and MALDI-MS/MS analyses revealed that IgE from crustaceans or House dust mite (HDM) allergic patients showed cross-reactivity to mealworm tropomyosin or α-amylase, hexamerin 1B precursor and muscle myosin, respectively. Heat processing as well as in vitro digestion did diminish, but not eliminate, HDM or tropomyosin IgE cross-reactivity. Results show that individuals allergic to HDM or crustaceans might be at risk when consuming mealworms, even after heat processing.

Gebakken insect kan allergie uitlokken
Ramaker, Rob ; Broekhoven, S. van - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)9. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
insecten - insecten als voedsel - ongewoon voedsel - voedselallergieën - allergieën - voeding en gezondheid - insects - insects as food - unconventional foods - food allergies - allergies - nutrition and health
Mensen die allergisch zijn voor schaaldieren en huisstofmijt lopen kans ook te reageren op eetbare insecten, zelfs als deze zijn gebakken. Dit vraagt om voorzichtigheid nu het eten van insecten normaler wordt in het westen. Dat concludeert Sarah van Broekhoven in het proefschrift dat ze vandaag verdedigt.
The sensitivity of mealworm Tropomyosin to in vitro digestion is influenced by heat treatment
Broekhoven, S. van; Bastiaan-Net, S. ; Jong, N.W. de; Wichers, H.J. - \ 2015
Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products
Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Broekhoven, Sarah Van; Huis, Arnold Van; Loon, J.J.A. Van - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)12. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 20 p.

A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter-and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

Quality and safety aspects of mealworms as human food
Broekhoven, S. van - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold van Huis; Joop van Loon; Tiny van Boekel. - Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 178
insecten als voedsel - voedselkwaliteit - voedingswaarde - voedselveiligheid - tenebrio molitor - alphitobius diaperinus - insects as food - food quality - nutritive value - food safety - tenebrio molitor - alphitobius diaperinus
Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products
Broekhoven, S. van; Oonincx, D.G.A.B. ; Huis, A. van; Loon, J.J.A. van - \ 2015
Journal of Insect Physiology 73 (2015). - ISSN 0022-1910 - p. 1 - 10.
Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet. Three edible mealworm species Tenebrio molitor L., Zophobas atratus Fab. and Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer were grown on diets composed of organic by-products originating from beer brewing, bread/cookie baking, potato processing and bioethanol production. Experimental diets differed with respect to protein and starch content. Larval growth and survival was monitored. Moreover, effects of dietary composition on feed conversion efficiency and mealworm crude protein and fatty acid profile were assessed. Diet affected mealworm development and feed conversion efficiency such that diets high in yeast-derived protein appear favourable, compared to diets used by commercial breeders, with respect to shortening larval development time, reducing mortality and increasing weight gain. Diet also affected the chemical composition of mealworms. Larval protein content was stable on diets that differed 2–3-fold in protein content, whereas dietary fat did have an effect on larval fat content and fatty acid profile. However, larval fatty acid profile did not necessarily follow the same trend as dietary fatty acid composition. Diets that allowed for fast larval growth and low mortality in this study led to a comparable or less favourable n6/n3 fatty acid ratio compared to control diets used by commercial breeders. In conclusion, the mealworm species used in this study can be grown successfully on diets composed of organic by-products. Diet composition did not influence larval protein content, but did alter larval fat composition to a certain extent.
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