Implementation of PROMETHEUS 4‐step approach for evidence use in EFSA scientific assessments: benefits, issues, needs and solutions
Aiassa, Elisa ; Martino, Laura ; Barizzone, Fulvio ; Ciccolallo, Laura ; Garcia, Ana ; Georgiadis, Marios ; Guajardo, Irene Muñoz ; Tomcikova, Daniela ; Alexander, Jan ; Calistri, Paolo ; Gundert‐remy, Ursula ; Hart, Andrew David ; Hoogenboom, Ron Laurentius ; Messean, Antoine ; Naska, Androniki ; Navarro, Maria Navajas ; Noerrung, Birgit ; Ockleford, Colin ; Wallace, Robert John ; Younes, Maged ; Abuntori, Blaize ; Alvarez, Fernando ; Aryeetey, Monica ; Baldinelli, Francesca ; Barrucci, Federica ; Bau, Andrea ; Binaglia, Marco ; Broglia, Alessandro ; Castoldi, Anna Federica ; Christoph, Eugen ; Sesmaisons‐Lecarré, Agnes De; Georgiadis, Nikolaos ; Gervelmeyer, Andrea ; Istace, Frederique ; López‐Gálvez, Gloria ; Manini, Paola ; Maurici, Daniela ; Merten, Caroline ; Messens, Winy ; Mosbach‐Schulz, Olaf ; Putzu, Claudio ; Bordajandi, Luisa Ramos ; Smeraldi, Camilla ; Tiramani, Manuela ; Martínez, Silvia Valtueña ; Sybren, Vos ; Hardy, Anthony Richard ; Hugas, Marta ; Kleiner, Juliane ; Seze, Guilhem De - \ 2018
EFSA Supporting Publications 15 (2018)4. - ISSN 2397-8325
In 2014, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) started the PROMETHEUS (PROmoting METHods for Evidence Use in Scientific assessments) project to improve further and increase the consistency of the methods it uses in its scientific assessments. The project defined a set of principles for the scientific assessment process and a 4‐step approach (plan/carry out/verify/report) for their fulfilment, which was tested in ten case studies, one from each EFSA panel. The present report describes the benefits, issues, needs and solutions related to the implementation of the 4‐step approach in EFSA, identified in a dedicated workshop in October 2017. The key benefits of the approach, which was deemed applicable to all types of EFSA scientific assessment including assessments of regulated products, are: 1) increased ‘scientific value’ of EFSA outputs, i.e. the extent of impartiality, methodological rigour, transparency and engagement; 2) guarantee of fitness‐for‐purpose, as it implies tailoring the methods to the specificities of each assessment; 3) efficiency gain, since preparing a protocol for the assessment upfront helps more streamlined processes throughout the implementation phase; 4) innovation, as the approach promotes the pioneering practice of ‘planning before doing’ (well established in primary research) for broad scientific assessments in regulatory science; and 5) increased harmonisation and consistency of EFSA assessments. The 4‐step approach was also considered an effective system for detecting additional methodological and/or expertise needs and a useful basis for further defining a quality management system for EFSA's scientific processes. The identified issues and solutions related to the implementation of the approach are: a) lack of engagement and need for effective communication on benefits and added value; b) need for further advances especially in the field of problem formulation/protocol development, evidence appraisal and evidence integration; c) need for specialised expertise in the previous aspects; and specific needs for d) assessments of regulated products and e) outsourced projects.
Comparative analysis of Solanum stoloniferum responses to probing by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae
Alvarez, A.E. ; Broglia, V.G. ; Amato, A.M.A. D'; Wouters, D. ; Vossen, E. ; Garzo, E. ; Tjallingii, W.F. ; Dicke, M. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2013
Insect Science 20 (2013)2. - ISSN 1672-9609 - p. 207 - 227.
manduca-sexta lepidoptera - host nicotiana-attenuata - phloem-feeding insects - resistance gene mi - plant defense - arabidopsis-thaliana - brevicoryne-brassicae - molecular-interactions - salivary secretions - microarray analysis
Plants protect themselves against aphid attacks by species-specific defense mechanisms. Previously, we have shown that Solanum stoloniferum Schlechtd has resistance factors to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae) at the epidermal/mesophyll level that are not effective against Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae). Here, we compare the nymphal mortality, the pre-reproductive development time, and the probing behavior of M. persicae and M. euphorbiae on S. stoloniferum and Solanum tuberosum L. Furthermore, we analyze the changes in gene expression in S. stoloniferum 96 hours post infestation by either aphid species. Although the M. euphorbiae probing behavior shows that aphids encounter more probing constrains on phloem activitieslonger probing and salivation time on S. stoloniferum than on S. tuberosum, the aphids succeeded in reaching a sustained ingestion of phloem sap on both plants. Probing by M. persicae on S. stoloniferum plants resulted in limited feeding only. Survival of M. euphorbiae and M. persicae was affected on young leaves, but not on senescent leaves of S. stoloniferum. Infestation by M. euphorbiae changed the expression of more genes than M. persicae did. At the systemic level both aphids elicited a weak response. Infestation of S. stoloniferum plants with a large number of M. persicae induced morphological changes in the leaves, leading to the development of pustules that were caused by disrupted vascular parenchyma and surrounding tissue. In contrast, an infestation by M. euphorbiae had no morphological effects. Both plant species can be regarded as good host for M. euphorbiae, whereas only S. tuberosum is a good host for M. persicae and S. stoloniferum is not. Infestation of S. stoloniferum by M. persicae or M. euphorbiae changed the expression of a set of plant genes specific for each of the aphids as well as a set of common genes.
‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara
Volpato, G. ; Nardo, A. Di; Rossi, D. ; Lamin Saleh, S. ; Broglia, A. - \ 2013
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 9 (2013). - ISSN 1746-4269
ethnoveterinary medicine - equine amnionitis - fetal loss - mare - abortions
Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation.
|Response of Solanum stoloniferum to infestation by the green peach aphid: Induced resistance and gene expression
Alvarez, A.E. ; Broglia, V. ; Alberti D'Amato, A.M. ; Tjallingii, W.F. ; Dicke, M. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2009
IOBC/WPRS Bulletin 44 (2009). - p. 136 - 136.
|Procurement of traditional remedies and transmission of medical knowledge among Sahrawi people displaced in southwestern Algerian refugee camps
Volpato, G. ; Ahmadi Emhamed, A. ; Mohamed Lamin Saleh, S. ; Broglia, A. ; Lello, S. di - \ 2007
In: Traveling Plants and Cultures : The Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacy of Human Migrations / Pieroni, A, Vandebroek, I, Oxford : Berghahn (Studies in Environmental Anthropology and Ethnobiology 7) - ISBN 9781845453732 - p. 245 - 269.
Response of Solanum stoloniferum to infestation by the green peach aphid: induced resistance and gene expression
Alvarez, A.E. ; Broglia, V. ; Alberti D'Amato, A.M. ; Tjallingii, W.F. ; Dicke, M. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2006
In: Abstracts Breeding for inducible resistance against pests and diseases, IOBC Meeting, Heraklio, Crete, Greece, 27-29 April 2006 IOBC Meeting, Heraklio, Crete, Greece : - p. 21 - 21.