|Beoordelen van de natuurkwaliteit in het Natuurnetwerk
Sanders, M.E. ; Schippers, P. ; Meeuwsen, H.A.M. - \ 2018
De Levende Natuur 119 (2018)1. - ISSN 0024-1520
Om vragen over succes van natuurbeheer en –beleid te kunnen beantwoorden hebben terreinbeheerders en provincies een uniforme werkwijze voor het beoordelen van kwaliteit van de zogenaamde SNL-beheertypen gemaakt. Bij toepassen van de werkwijze bleek echter dat de natuurkwaliteit in sterke mate wordt bepaald door de gekozen gebiedsgrootte. In dit artikel wordt daarom een alternatieve methode voorgesteld.
Samengesteld en gefinancierd door de twaalf provinciale Landschappen. Deze keer berichten van Het Drentse Landschap en Utrechts Landschap.
Lithium ionen als nieuw middel tegen Varroa?
Blacquiere, T. - \ 2018
Lithium ionen als nieuw middel tegen Varroa?
Om maar meteen met de deur in huis te vallen: NOG NIET! Maar de publicatie van de universiteit van Hohenheim geeft wel aanleiding tot de bijna gulzig te noemen reacties van imkers overal, maar er zijn nog wat stappen te nemen.
Verdoes, Nico - \ 2016
erwijl fosfaat wereldwijd schaarser wordt, komt Ne- derland er in om. Deze be- langrijke stof voor
Wat kan er al wel?
Wat maakt fosfaat afscheiden zo lastig?
Kunnen bacteriën iets betekenen?
Dit klinkt in de verse verste niet naar een oplossing.
Nijpels noemt de voedselindustrie al als gedroomde afnemer.
Hoe realistisch is het plan-Nijpels?
Wanneer is er op zijn vroegst een profijtelijke oplossing?
Nijpels pleit voor centrale verwer- king. Is decentraal niet handiger? Het scheelt transportkosten.
Waar moeten die centrales staan?
Wat is het verhaal achter de kwali- teitsborging die Nijpels voorstelt?
Welke factoren kunnen het succes van centrale scheidingsfabrieken ondermijnen?
Is het slim om in te zetten op hoog- waardige toepassingen?
Is mest het bruine goud?
|Deelname aan debat rond voor- en nadelen van gentech. NTR programma “Met de kennis van nu”, kenniscafé samen met Martijn van Calmthout, Frans Brom en Hidde Boersma
Lotz, Bert - \ 2015
Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats : An opinionated review
Brom, R. Van den; Engelen, E. van; Roest, H.I.J. ; Hoek, W. van der; Vellema, P. - \ 2015
Veterinary Microbiology 181 (2015)1-2. - ISSN 0378-1135 - p. 119 - 129.
Coxiella burnetii - Goat - Q fever - Sheep - Zoonosis
Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.
A Probably Minor Role for Land-Applied Goat Manure in the Transmission of Coxiella burnetii to Humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q Fever Outbreak
Brom, R. Van den; Roest, H.I.J. ; Bruin, Arnout de; Dercksen, D. ; Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A. ; Hoek, Wim van der; Dinkla, A. ; Vellema, Jelmer ; Vellema, P. - \ 2015
PLoS ONE 10 (2015)3. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 16 p.
In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella burnetii. The aims of this study were 1) to clarify the role of C. burnetii contaminated manure from dairy goat farms in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans, 2) to assess the impact of manure storage on temperature profiles in dunghills, and 3) to calculate the decimal reduction time of the Nine Mile RSA 493 reference strain of C. burnetii under experimental conditions in different matrices. For these purposes, records on distribution of manure from case and control herds were mapped and a potential relation to incidences of human Q fever was investigated. Additionally, temperatures in two dunghills were measured and related to heat resistance of C. burnetii. Results of negative binomial regression showed no significant association between the incidence of human Q fever cases and the source of manure. Temperature measurements in the core and shell of dunghills on two farms were above 40°C for at least ten consecutive days which would result in a strong reduction of C. burnetii over time. Our findings indicate that there is no relationship between incidence of human Q fever and land applied manure from dairy goat farms with an abortion wave caused by C. burnetii. Temperature measurements in dunghills on two farms with C. burnetii shedding dairy goat herds further support the very limited role of goat manure as a transmission route during the Dutch human Q fever outbreak. It is very likely that the composting process within a dunghill will result in a clear reduction in the number of viable C. burnetii.
Detection of Coxiella burnetii in the bulk tank milk from a farm with vaccinated goats, by using a specific PCR technique
Brom, R. van der; Engelen, E. van; Vos, J. ; Luttikholt, S.J. ; Moll, L. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Heijden, H.M.J.F. van der; Vellema, P. - \ 2013
Small Ruminant Research 110 (2013)2-3. - ISSN 0921-4488 - p. 150 - 154.
pregnant goats - abortion - ewes
Q fever is a zoonotic disease, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Between 2007 and 2010, Q fever has been a major public health concern in the Netherlands, with almost 3500 human cases reported and dairy goats considered to be the most probable source. At the end of 2009, the Dutch government decided to cull all pregnant dairy sheep and dairy goats based on bulk tank milk C. burnetii positive farms, aiming to preventing shedding and to reducing environmental contamination. On bulk tank milk C. burnetii PCR positive farms, a life-time breeding ban was implemented for all remaining non-pregnant small ruminants. This study describes test results on a bulk tank milk C. burnetii PCR positive dairy goat farm on which all goats had been vaccinated against Q fever with an inactivated phase one vaccine since 2008. All pregnant dairy goats of this farm were culled in 2010, after which bulk tank milk was negative in the C. burnetii PCR. One year later, however, this farm became bulk tank milk C. burnetii PCR positive again. From all lactating animals on the farm (n = 350), individual milk samples were collected and tested using a commercial real-time PCR assay. Individual milk samples from five dairy goats appeared to be C. burnetii PCR positive. These positive goats had been born on the farm between 2002 and 2006. At postmortem examination, out of 33 mostly tissue samples per animal, only milk and mammary tissue samples were C. burnetii PCR positive. Moreover, immunohistochemical examination did not reveal the source of C. burnetii. After culling of these C. burnetii PCR milk positive animals, the bulk tank milk remained negative in C. burnetii PCR until the end of the observation period. The results indicate that vaccination of Q fever infected dairy goat farms does not completely prevent intermittent shedding of C. burnetii in probably previously infected goats. Further research is needed to investigate how and where C. burnetii multiplies in such intermittently shedding animals.
Letter: Search for possible additional reservoirs for human Q fever, the Netherlands
Roest, H.I.J. ; Solt, C.B. van; Tilburg, J.J.H.C. ; Klaassen, C.H. ; Hovius, E.K. ; Roest, F.T.F. ; Vellema, P. ; Brom, R. van der; Zijderveld, F.G. van - \ 2013
Emerging Infectious Diseases 19 (2013)5. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 834 - 835.
coxiella-burnetii - epidemic - genotype - outbreak
Moral Convictions and Culling Animals: A Survey in the Netherlands
Cohen, N.E. ; Brom, F.W.A. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2012
Anthrozoos 25 (2012)3. - ISSN 0892-7936 - p. 353 - 367.
mouth-disease - attitudes - welfare - foot - epidemic - ethics - issues - crisis
In this paper the results are presented of a national survey in the Netherlands. The aim was to identify and describe the convictions about animals that people have in Dutch society and the role of these in judgments on the culling of healthy animals during an animal disease epidemic. A total of 1,999 responses was received and two groups of respondents were distinguished: A profile (50% of the respondents) and B profile (28%). The A profile respondents considered humans to be superior to animals, whereas the B profile respondents considered both to be equal. Both groups were of the opinion that animals have value, that people have a duty to care for and protect all animals, and that all animals have a right to life. These convictions were based on a number of values, such as animal life, the ability of animals to feel pain and emotions (sentience), and the importance of animal species in the ecosystem. The results of a case study suggest that convictions play a role in judgment. More A respondents agreed with the culling of healthy animals during an animal disease epidemic. More B respondents partly (dis)agreed or disagreed with this. Most respondents (A: 81%, B: 61%) agreed with culling to protect human life. The most important argument against culling was the value of animal life. The A respondents rated all arguments against culling significantly lower than did the B respondents.
Editorial: Diagnostics for Schmallenberg Virus
Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2012
Veterinary Record 171 (2012). - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 294 - 295.
akabane virus - infection - cattle
SCHMALLENBERG virus (SBV) was discovered in November 2011 in Germany and named after the village where the first definitive sample was derived from dairy cattle (Hoffmann and others 2012). Clinical disease associated with SBV infection was first reported from the Netherlands: retrospectively, the infection was proven to be related to severe diarrhoea and milk drop in dairy cattle observed in August 2011 (Muskens and others 2012), and, a few weeks later, SBV infection was shown to be associated with malformations in lambs born in December 2011 (Van den Brom and others 2012).
|Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection
Brom, R. van der; Luttikholt, S.J. ; Lievaart-Peterson, K. ; Peperkamp, N.H.M.T. ; Mars, M.H. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Vellema, P. - \ 2012
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 137 (2012)2. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 106 - 111.
schapenhouderij - lammeren - lammerenziekten - misvormingen - veterinaire praktijk - schmallenbergvirus - virusziekten - orthobunyavirus - sheep farming - lambs - lamb diseases - malformations - veterinary practice - schmallenberg virus - viral diseases - orthobunyavirus - cache valley virus - akabane virus - bluetongue virus - small ruminants - newborn lambs - sheep - arthrogryposis - disease - pathology - fever
Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight farms that had submitted lambs for post-mortem examination. This Schmallenberg virus was first reported in Germany and seems to be related to the Shamonda, Aino, and Akabane viruses, all of which belong to the Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. These preliminary findings suggest that the Schmallenberg virus is the most likely cause of this epizootic of ovine congenital malformations, which is the first such outbreak reported in Europe
Molecular epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii from ruminants in Q fever outbreak, the Netherlands.
Roest, H.I.J. ; Ruuls, R.C. ; Tilburg, J.H.H.C. ; Nabuurs-Fransen, M.H. ; Klaassen, C.H.W. ; Vellema, P. ; Brom, R. Van den; Dercksen, D. ; Wouda, W. ; Spierenburg, M. ; Spek, A.N. Van der; Buijs, R. ; Willemsen, P.T.J. - \ 2011
Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (2011)4. - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 668 - 675.
goats - history
Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. One of the largest reported outbreaks of Q fever in humans occurred in the Netherlands starting in 2007; epidemiologic investigations identified small ruminants as the source. To determine the genetic background of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants responsible for the human Q fever outbreak, we genotyped 126 C. burnetii–positive samples from ruminants by using a 10-loci multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analyses panel and compared them with internationally known genotypes. One unique genotype predominated in dairy goat herds and 1 sheep herd in the human Q fever outbreak area in the south of the Netherlands. On the basis of 4 loci, this genotype is similar to a human genotype from the Netherlands. This finding strengthens the probability that this genotype of C. burnetii is responsible for the human Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands
|Q-koorts in Nederland: stand van zaken, resultaten van veterinair onderzoek en verwachtingen voor de komende jaren.
Roest, H.I.J. ; Hogerwerf, L. ; Brom, R. Van den; Oomen, T. ; Steenbergen, J.E. Van; Nielen, M. - \ 2011
Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 136 (2011)5. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 340 - 343.
q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - herkauwers - zoönosen - ziekteoverdracht - diergeneeskunde - geitenhouderij - schapenhouderij - vaccinatie - q fever - coxiella burnetii - ruminants - zoonoses - disease transmission - veterinary science - goat keeping - sheep farming - vaccination
Overzicht van de stand van zaken humaan en veterinair anno 2011, enkele resultaten van onderzoek worden samengevat en er wordt een vooruitblik gegeven voor de komende jaren.
Reduction of Coxiella burnetii prevalence by vaccination of goats and sheep, the Netherlands
Hogerweg, R. ; Brom, R. Van den; Roest, H.I.J. ; Bouma, A. ; Vellema, P. ; Pieterse, M. ; Dercksen, D. ; Nielen, M. - \ 2011
Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (2011). - ISSN 1080-6040 - p. 379 - 386.
q-fever - pregnant goats - outbreak
Recently, the number of human Q fever cases in the Netherlands increased dramatically. In response to this increase, dairy goats and dairy sheep were vaccinated against Coxiella burnetii. All pregnant dairy goats and dairy sheep in herds positive for Q fever were culled. We identified the effect of vaccination on bacterial shedding by small ruminants. On the day of culling, samples of uterine fluid, vaginal mucus, and milk were obtained from 957 pregnant animals in 13 herds. Prevalence and bacterial load were reduced in vaccinated animals compared with unvaccinated animals. These effects were most pronounced in animals during their first pregnancy. Results indicate that vaccination may reduce bacterial load in the environment and human exposure to C. burnetii.
|Een gezonde discussie : morele en epidemiologische bijdragen voor dierziekten beleid
Stassen, E.N. ; Cohen, N.E. ; Bouma, A. ; Kupper, J.F.H. ; Meijboom, F.L.B. ; Brom, F.W.A. ; Stegeman, J.A. - \ 2011
[S.l.] : NWO [etc.] - 87
dierziektepreventie - dierziekten - epidemiologie - ethiek - mens-dier relaties - epidemieën - dierhouderij - animal disease prevention - animal diseases - epidemiology - ethics - human-animal relationships - epidemics - animal husbandry
Considering animals : moral convictions concerning animals and judgement on the culling of healthy animals in animal disease epidemics
Cohen, N.E. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Elsbeth Stassen, co-promotor(en): F.W.A. Brom; J.A. Stegeman. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857952 - 194
dierziekten - epidemieën - uitselecteren - ziektebestrijding - attitudes - dierhouderij - samenleving - nederland - dierethiek - moraal - vonnis - animal diseases - epidemics - culling - disease control - attitudes - animal husbandry - society - netherlands - animal ethics - moral - judgement
Beyond the Prevention of Harm: Animal Disease Policy as a Moral Question
Meijboom, F.L.B. ; Cohen, N.E. ; Stassen, E.N. ; Brom, F.W.A. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (2009)6. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 559 - 571.
risk communication - netherlands - epidemic - strategy
European animal disease policy seems to find its justification in a “harm to other” principle. Limiting the freedom of animal keepers—e.g., by culling their animals—is justified by the aim to prevent harm, i.e., the spreading of the disease. The picture, however, is more complicated. Both during the control of outbreaks and in the prevention of notifiable, animal diseases the government is confronted with conflicting claims of stakeholders who anticipate running a risk to be harmed by each other, and who ask for government intervention. In this paper, we first argue that in a policy that aims to prevent animal diseases, the focus shifts from limiting “harm” to weighing conflicting claims with respect to “risks of harm.” Therefore, we claim that the harm principle is no longer a sufficient justification for governmental intervention in animal disease prevention. A policy that has to deal with and distribute conflicting risks of harm needs additional value assumptions that guide this process of assessment and distribution. We show that currently, policies are based on assumptions that are mainly economic considerations. In order to show the limitations of these considerations, we use the interests and position of keepers of backyard animals as an example. Based on the problems they faced during and after the recent outbreaks, we defend the thesis that in order to develop a sustainable animal disease policy other than economic assumptions need to be taken into account
Fundamental Moral Attitudes to Animals and Their Role in Judgment: An Empirical Model to Describe Fundamental Moral Attitudes to Animals and Their Role in Judgment on the Culling of Healthy Animals During an Animal Disease Epidemic
Cohen, N.E. ; Brom, F.W.A. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (2009)4. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 341 - 359.
mouth-disease - welfare - foot - ethics - issues - crisis
In this paper, we present and defend the theoretical framework of an empirical model to describe people’s fundamental moral attitudes (FMAs) to animals, the stratification of FMAs in society and the role of FMAs in judgment on the culling of healthy animals in an animal disease epidemic. We used philosophical animal ethics theories to understand the moral basis of FMA convictions. Moreover, these theories provide us with a moral language for communication between animal ethics, FMAs, and public debates. We defend that FMA is a two-layered concept. The first layer consists of deeply felt convictions about animals. The second layer consists of convictions derived from the first layer to serve as arguments in a debate on animal issues. In a debate, the latter convictions are variable, depending on the animal issue in a specific context, time, and place. This variability facilitates finding common ground in an animal issue between actors with opposing convictions
|Robustness as a breeding goal and its relation with health, welfare and integrity
Ellen, E.D. ; Star, L. ; Uitdehaag, K.A. ; Brom, F.W.A. - \ 2009
In: Breeding for Robustness in Cattle / Jan Philipsson Marija Klopcic, Reinhard Reents, Sheffield : 5M Enterprises Ltd (Eaap 126) - ISBN 9789086860845 - p. 45 - 54.
Animal-based welfare monitoring : final report. Part 1. Scientific and technological state-of-the-art. Part 2. Impact of animal-based welfare assessment
Bokma-Bakker, M.H. ; Munnichs, G. ; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Visser, E.K. ; Schepers, F. ; Ursinus, W.W. ; Blokhuis, H.J. ; Gerritzen, M.A. ; Gast, E. ter; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Mil, E.M. van; Reenen, C.G. van; Brom, F.W.A. - \ 2009
The Hague [etc.] : Rathenau Institute [etc.] - 83
veehouderij - dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - monitoring - indicatoren - projecten - europese unie - livestock farming - animal husbandry - animal welfare - monitoring - indicators - projects - european union
The STOA project ‘Impact of Animal Welfare’ investigates the potential for introducing a European system of on-farm assessment of animal welfare using animal-based indicators. Part 1 of the project describes the scientific and technological state-of-the-art with regard to animal-based welfare indicators and monitoring technology. Part 2 studies the socio-economic impact of introducing an animal-based welfare monitoring system on livestock production in EU Member States