Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
    MacNeil, Aaron ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, Samantha ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, Shiham ; Khadeeja, Ali ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; García Barcia, Laura ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcey ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, Jed ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabough, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, Mabel ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Quamar, Sjamsul ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
    Nature 583 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 801 - 806.

    Decades of overexploitation have devastated shark populations, leaving considerable doubt as to their ecological status1,2. Yet much of what is known about sharks has been inferred from catch records in industrial fisheries, whereas far less information is available about sharks that live in coastal habitats3. Here we address this knowledge gap using data from more than 15,000 standardized baited remote underwater video stations that were deployed on 371 reefs in 58 nations to estimate the conservation status of reef sharks globally. Our results reveal the profound impact that fishing has had on reef shark populations: we observed no sharks on almost 20% of the surveyed reefs. Reef sharks were almost completely absent from reefs in several nations, and shark depletion was strongly related to socio-economic conditions such as the size and proximity of the nearest market, poor governance and the density of the human population. However, opportunities for the conservation of reef sharks remain: shark sanctuaries, closed areas, catch limits and an absence of gillnets and longlines were associated with a substantially higher relative abundance of reef sharks. These results reveal several policy pathways for the restoration and management of reef shark populations, from direct top-down management of fishing to indirect improvement of governance conditions. Reef shark populations will only have a high chance of recovery by engaging key socio-economic aspects of tropical fisheries.

    OESO, internationaal platform voor kennisuitwisseling
    Poppe, Krijn - \ 2019

    Krijn Poppe, onderzoeker bij Wageningen Economic Research, en Jonathan Brooks, hoofd van de divisie voedselmarkten en internationale handel bij de OESO, vertellen hoe zij aankijken tegen kennisuitwisseling tussen de OESO en Nederland.

    Birds, mammals drove camouflage adaptations of stick, leaf insects
    Simon, S. - \ 2019
    Toward sustainable environmental quality : Priority research questions for Europe
    Brink, Paul J. Van den; Boxall, Alistair B.A. ; Maltby, Lorraine ; Brooks, Bryan W. ; Rudd, Murray A. ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Spurgeon, David ; Verougstraete, Violaine ; Ajao, Charmaine ; Ankley, Gerald T. ; Apitz, Sabine E. ; Arnold, Kathryn ; Brodin, Tomas ; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel ; Chapman, Jennifer ; Corrales, Jone ; Coutellec, Marie Agnès ; Fernandes, Teresa F. ; Fick, Jerker ; Ford, Alex T. ; Giménez Papiol, Gemma ; Groh, Ksenia J. ; Hutchinson, Thomas H. ; Kruger, Hank ; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K. ; Loutseti, Stefania ; Marshall, Stuart ; Muir, Derek ; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E. ; Paul, Kai B. ; Rico, Andreu ; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael ; Römbke, Jörg ; Rydberg, Tomas ; Segner, Helmut ; Smit, Mathijs ; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Vighi, Marco ; Werner, Inge ; Zimmer, Elke I. ; Wensem, Joke van - \ 2018
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 37 (2018)9. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2281 - 2295.
    Chemical management - Environmental risk assessment - Global megatrends - Key questions exercise - Sustainability

    The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals have been established to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals will require a healthy and productive environment. An understanding of the impacts of chemicals which can negatively impact environmental health is therefore essential to the delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, current research on and regulation of chemicals in the environment tend to take a simplistic view and do not account for the complexity of the real world, which inhibits the way we manage chemicals. There is therefore an urgent need for a step change in the way we study and communicate the impacts and control of chemicals in the natural environment. To do this requires the major research questions to be identified so that resources are focused on questions that really matter. We present the findings of a horizon-scanning exercise to identify research priorities of the European environmental science community around chemicals in the environment. Using the key questions approach, we identified 22 questions of priority. These questions covered overarching questions about which chemicals we should be most concerned about and where, impacts of global megatrends, protection goals, and sustainability of chemicals; the development and parameterization of assessment and management frameworks; and mechanisms to maximize the impact of the research. The research questions identified provide a first-step in the path forward for the research, regulatory, and business communities to better assess and manage chemicals in the natural environment.

    An overview of the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer during the West African monsoon season : Results from the 2016 observational campaign
    Kalthoff, Norbert ; Lohou, Fabienne ; Brooks, Barbara ; Jegede, Gbenga ; Adler, Bianca ; Babić, Karmen ; DIone, Cheikh ; Ajao, Adewale ; Amekudzi, Leonard K. ; Aryee, Jeffrey N.A. ; Ayoola, Muritala ; Bessardon, Geoffrey ; Danuor, Sylvester K. ; Handwerker, Jan ; Kohler, Martin ; Lothon, Marie ; Pedruzo-Bagazgoitia, Xabier ; Smith, Victoria ; Sunmonu, Lukman ; Wieser, Andreas ; Fink, Andreas H. ; Knippertz, Peter - \ 2018
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 18 (2018)4. - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 2913 - 2928.
    A ground-based field campaign was conducted in southern West Africa from mid-June to the end of July 2016 within the framework of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project. It aimed to provide a high-quality comprehensive data set for process studies, in particular of interactions between low-level clouds (LLCs) and boundary-layer conditions. In this region missing observations are still a major issue. During the campaign, extensive remote sensing and in situ measurements were conducted at three supersites: Kumasi (Ghana), Savè (Benin) and Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Daily radiosoundings were performed at 06:00 UTC, and 15 intensive observation periods (IOPs) were performed during which additional radiosondes were launched, and remotely piloted aerial systems were operated. Extended stratiform LLCs form frequently in southern West Africa during the nighttime and persist long into the following day. They affect the radiation budget and hence the evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer and regional climate. The relevant parameters and processes governing the formation and dissolution of the LLCs are still not fully understood. This paper gives an overview of the diurnal cycles of the energy-balance components, near-surface temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction as well as of the conditions (LLCs, low-level jet) in the boundary layer at the supersites and relates them to synoptic-scale conditions (monsoon layer, harmattan layer, African easterly jet, tropospheric stratification) in the DACCIWA operational area. The characteristics of LLCs vary considerably from day to day, including a few almost cloud-free nights. During cloudy nights we found large differences in the LLCs' formation and dissolution times as well as in the cloud-base height. The differences exist at individual sites and also between the sites. The synoptic conditions are characterized by a monsoon layer with south-westerly winds, on average about 1.9 km deep, and easterly winds above; the depth and strength of the monsoon flow show great day-to-day variability. Within the monsoon layer, a nocturnal low-level jet forms in approximately the same layer as the LLC. Its strength and duration is highly variable from night to night. This unique data set will allow us to test some new hypotheses about the processes involved in the development of LLCs and their interaction with the boundary layer and can also be used for model evaluation.
    Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional elements in fisheries policy and management
    Stephenson, Robert L. ; Benson, Ashleen J. ; Brooks, Kate ; Charles, Anthony ; Degnbol, Poul ; Dichmont, Catherine M. ; Kraan, Marloes ; Pascoe, Sean ; Paul, Stacey D. ; Rindorf, Anna ; Wiber, Melanie - \ 2017
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)7. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1981 - 1989.
    ecosystem approach - fisheries sustainability - integrated management - integrating social and economic aspects - social-ecological system
    While international agreements and legislation call for incorporation of four pillars of sustainability, the social (including cultural), economic and institutional aspects (the ‘human dimension’) have been relatively neglected to date. Three key impediments have been identified: a relative lack of explicit social, economic and institutional objectives; a general lack of process (frameworks, governance) for routine integration of all four pillars of sustainability; and a bias towards biological considerations. Practical integration requires a ‘systems’ approach with explicit consideration of strategic and operational aspects of management; multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary evaluations; practical objectives for the four pillars of sustainability; appropriate participation; and a governance system that is able to integrate these diverse considerations in management. We challenge all involved in fisheries to immediately take five practical steps toward integrating ecological, economic, social and institutional aspects: (1) Adopt the perspective of the fishery as a ‘system’ with interacting natural, human and management elements; (2) Be aware of both strategic and operational aspects of fisheries assessment and management; (3) Articulate overarching objectives that incorporate all four pillars of sustainability; (4) Encourage appropriate (and diverse) disciplinary participation in all aspects of research, evaluation and management; and (5) Encourage development of (or emulate) participatory governance.
    Chobe district integrated land use plan
    Sluis, Theo van der; Cassidy, Lin ; Brooks, Chris ; Wolski, Piotr ; VanderPost, Cornelis ; Wit, Piet ; Henkens, Rene ; Eupen, Michiel van; Mosepele, K. ; Maruapula, O. ; Veenendaal, Elmar - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2813) - 181
    land use - sustainability - tourism - ecosystems - savannas - botswana - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - toerisme - ecosystemen - savannen - botswana
    Supplementary data Chobe district land use plan
    Sluis, T. van der; Cassidy, L. ; Brooks, C. ; Wolski, P. ; Vanderpost, C. ; Wit, P. de; Henkes, R. ; Eupen, M. van; Mosepele, K. ; Maruapula, O. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen Environmental Research
    Implications and application of the Raats superclass of soils equations
    Heinen, Marius ; Bakker, Gerben - \ 2016
    Vadose Zone Journal 15 (2016)8. - ISSN 1539-1663 - 12 p.

    According to the Richards equation, the capacity of a soil to hold and conduct water is determined by the water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics. Many mathematical relationships have been proposed in the literature to describe these characteristics. Raats introduced a general functional relationship with only four parameters that included as special cases four pre-1990 models found in the literature, including the well-known relationships by Mualem-van Genuchten and Brooks and Corey. The aims of this study were (i) to discuss this general functional relationship and its four special cases, (ii) to present expressions for the differential moisture capacity, water diffusivity, and matric flux potential corresponding to the general functional relationship and its special cases, (iii) to discuss methods for determining the parameter elasticity and sensitivity, and (iv) to apply the Raats model to experimental data. Soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity data for 11 soils were used to optimize the values of the four major parameters in the Raats model. In none of the cases did the optimized coefficients indicate that the Raats model approached one of the four submodels that it includes.

    Practical steps toward integrating economic, social and institutional objectives and indicators in fisheries management
    Stephenson, R.G. ; Benson, Ashleen ; Brooks, K. ; Kraan, M.L. - \ 2016
    - 1 p.
    Identifying groundwater recharge connections in the Moscow (USA) sub-basin using isotopic tracers and a soil moisture routing model
    Candel, J.H.J. ; Brooks, Erin ; Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo ; Grader, George ; Dijksma, R. - \ 2016
    Hydrogeology Journal 24 (2016)7. - ISSN 1431-2174 - p. 1739 - 1751.
    Globally, aquifers are suffering from large abstractions resulting in groundwater level declines. These declines can be caused by excessive abstraction for drinking water, irrigation purposes or industrial use. Basaltic aquifers also face these conflicts. A large flood basalt area (1.1 × 105 km2) can be found in the Northwest of the USA. This Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) consists of a thick series of basalt flows of Miocene age. The two major hydrogeological units (Wanapum and Grand Ronde formations) are widely used for water abstraction. The mean decline over recent decades has been 0.6 m year−1. At present day, abstraction wells are drying up, and base flow of rivers is reduced. At the eastern part of CRBG, the Moscow sub-basin on the Idaho/Washington State border can be found. Although a thick poorly permeable clay layer exists on top of the basalt aquifer, groundwater level dynamics suggest that groundwater recharge occurs at certain locations. A set of wells and springs has been monitored bi-weekly for 9 months for δ18O and δ2H. Large isotopic fluctuations and d-excess values close to the meteoric water line in some wells are indicating that recharge occurs at the granite/basalt interface through lateral flow paths in and below the clay. A soil moisture routing (SMR) model showed that most recharge occurs on the granitic mountains. The basaltic aquifer receives recharge from these sedimentary zones around the granite/basalt interface. The identification of these types of areas is of major importance for future managed-aquifer recharge solutions to solve problems of groundwater depletion.
    Identifying groundwater recharge pathways in the Moscow sub-basin
    Candel, J.H.J. ; Brooks, E.S. ; Verhoeff, Eric ; Dobre, Mariana ; Sanchez-Murillo, Ricardo ; Grader, Jr., George W. ; Dijksma, R. - \ 2016
    Continual groundwater decline over the last 80 years in the Moscow-Pullman basin is motivating communities to explore a wide range of strategies ranging from reservoir development to direct injection to aquifers to ensure a sustainable regional water supply. Historic pumping records indicate the shallow Wanapum aquifer in the Moscow region does receive recharge however it is less certain that the deeper Grand Ronde aquifer is receiving any significant recharge. Moreover there is not a clear consensus in the region of the location of the major aquifer recharge flow paths. In this study we used both distributed hydrologic modeling based on detailed soil mapping and stable isotope tracers to explore and evaluate potential groundwater recharge pathways in the Moscow sub-basin. Modelling results indicate that subsurface water flow off the forested granitics in eastern margin of the sub-basin is likely a significant source of recharge. Biweekly water samples taken from 22 wells and 2 springs and high frequency streamflow and precipitation samples collected over a two year period throughout the Moscow sub-basin were analyzed for stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Frequency analysis of these stable isotope data suggest the some wells are receiving recharge. Furthermore many of these wells exist on the eastern margin of the sub-basin lending further support to the hypothesis that this region should be considered to be a critical ground recharge zone.
    Quo Vadimus : Integrating fishers' knowledge research in science and management
    Stephenson, Robert L. ; Paul, Stacy ; Pastoors, M.A. ; Kraan, M.L. ; Holm, Petter ; Wiber, M. ; Mackinson, S. ; Dankel, D.J. ; Brooks, K. ; Benson, Ashleen - \ 2016
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)6. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1459 - 1465.
    collaborative research - cooperative research - fishers' knowledge research - integrating fishers' knowledge - local knowledge - participatory research - stakeholder involvement
    Fishers' knowledge research (FKR) aims to enhance the use of experiential knowledge of fish harvesters in fisheries research, assessment, and management. Fishery participants are able to provide unique knowledge, and that knowledge forms an important part of “best available information” for fisheries science and management. Fishers' knowledge includes, but is much greater than, basic biological fishery information. It includes ecological, economic, social, and institutional knowledge, as well as experience and critical analysis of experiential knowledge. We suggest that FKR, which may in the past have been defined quite narrowly, be defined more broadly to include both fishery observations and fishers “experiential knowledge” provided across a spectrum of arrangements of fisher participation. FKR is part of the new and different information required in evolving “ecosystem-based” and “integrated” management approaches. FKR is a necessary element in the integration of ecological, economic, social, and institutional considerations of future management. Fishers' knowledge may be added to traditional assessment with appropriate analysis and explicit recognition of the intended use of the information, but fishers' knowledge is best implemented in a participatory process designed to receive and use it. Co-generation of knowledge in appropriately designed processes facilitates development and use of fishers' knowledge and facilitates the participation of fishers in assessment and management, and is suggested as best practice in improved fisheries governance.
    Projecting Global Biodiversity Indicators under Future Development Scenarios
    Visconti, Piero ; Bakkenes, Michel ; Baisero, Daniele ; Brooks, Thomas ; Butchart, Stuart H.M. ; Joppa, Lucas ; Alkemade, Rob ; Marco, Moreno Di; Santini, Luca ; Hoffmann, Michael ; Maiorano, Luigi ; Pressey, Robert L. ; Arponen, Anni ; Boitani, Luigi ; Reside, April E. ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Rondinini, Carlo - \ 2016
    Conservation Letters 9 (2016)1. - ISSN 1755-263X - p. 5 - 13.
    Biodiversity indicators - Biodiversity scenarios - Carnivores - Climate change - Extinction risk - Geometric Mean Abundance - Land-use change - Red List Index - Ungulates

    To address the ongoing global biodiversity crisis, governments have set strategic objectives and have adopted indicators to monitor progress toward their achievement. Projecting the likely impacts on biodiversity of different policy decisions allows decision makers to understand if and how these targets can be met. We projected trends in two widely used indicators of population abundance Geometric Mean Abundance, equivalent to the Living Planet Index and extinction risk (the Red List Index) under different climate and land-use change scenarios. Testing these on terrestrial carnivore and ungulate species, we found that both indicators decline steadily, and by 2050, under a Business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, geometric mean population abundance declines by 18-35% while extinction risk increases for 8-23% of the species, depending on assumptions about species responses to climate change. BAU will therefore fail Convention on Biological Diversity target 12 of improving the conservation status of known threatened species. An alternative sustainable development scenario reduces both extinction risk and population losses compared with BAU and could lead to population increases. Our approach to model species responses to global changes brings the focus of scenarios directly to the species level, thus taking into account an additional dimension of biodiversity and paving the way for including stronger ecological foundations into future biodiversity scenario assessments.

    Preventieve maatregelen tegen huisvliegen in vleeskuikenstallen
    Mul, M.F. ; Smallegange, R.C. ; Brooks, Mike - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 836) - 28
    De huisvlieg (Musca domestica) speelt een belangrijke rol in de overdracht van Campylobacter spp. naar vleeskuikens en andere landbouwhuisdieren. Door het weren van vliegen uit een vleeskuikenstal met behulp van vliegennetten werd in Denemarken het percentage Campylobacter-positieve koppels van 43,3% (drie jaren zonder vliegennetten) gereduceerd naar 9,9% (vier jaren met vliegennetten). Dit rapport beschrijft een aantal maatregelen en mogelijkheden voor het weren van vliegen uit vleeskuikenstallen.
    Epidemic predictions in an imperfect world : Modelling disease spread with partial data
    Dawson, P.M. ; Werkman, Marleen ; Brooks-Pollock, Ellen ; Tildesley, M.J. - \ 2015
    Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 282 (2015)1808. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 9 p.
    Epidemics - Livestock networks - Partial datav

    ‘Big-data’ epidemic models are being increasingly used to influence government policy to help with control and eradication of infectious diseases. In the case of livestock, detailed movement records have been used to parametrize realistic transmission models. While livestock movement data are readily available in the UK and other countries in the EU, in many countries around theworld, such detailed data are not available. By using a comprehensive database of the UK cattle trade network, we implement various sampling strategies to determine the quantity of network data required to give accurate epidemiological predictions. It is found that by targeting nodes with the highest number of movements, accurate predictions on the size and spatial spread of epidemics can be made. This work has implications for countries such as the USA, where access to data is limited, and developing countries that may lack the resources to collect a full dataset on livestock movements.

    Altered food-cue processing in chronically ill and recovered women with anorexia nervosa
    Sanders, N. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Elburg, A.A. van; Danner, U.N. ; Meer, F. van; Hoek, H.W. ; Adan, R.A.H. - \ 2015
    Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 9 (2015). - ISSN 1662-5153 - 12 p.
    default mode network - high-calorie foods - eating-disorders - functional-anatomy - reward - fmri - stimuli - leptin - energy - cortex
    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental disorder characterized by food restriction and weight loss. This study aimed to test the model posed by Brooks et al. (2012a,b) that women suffering from chronic AN show decreased food-cue processing activity in brain regions associated with energy balance and food reward (bottom-up; BU) and increased activity in brain regions associated with cognitive control (top-down; TD) when compared with long-term recovered AN (REC) and healthy controls (HC). Three groups of women, 15 AN (mean illness duration 7.8 ± 4.1 years), 14 REC (mean duration of recovery 4.7 ± 2.7 years) and 15 HC viewed alternating blocks of food and non-food images preceded by a short instruction during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), after fasting overnight. Functional region of interests (fROIs) were defined in BU (e.g., striatum, hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and cerebellum), TD (e.g., medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate), the insula, and visual processing areas (VPA). Food-cue processing activation was extracted from all fROIs and compared between the groups. In addition, functional connectivity between the fROIs was examined by modular partitioning of the correlation matrix of all fROIs. We could not confirm the hypothesis that BU areas are activated to a lesser extent in AN upon visual processing of food images. Among the BU areas the caudate showed higher activation in both patient groups compared to HC. In accordance with Brooks et al.’s model, we did find evidence for increased TD control in AN and REC. The functional connectivity analysis yielded two clusters in HC and REC, but three clusters in AN. In HC, fROIs across BU, TD, and VPA areas clustered; in AN, one cluster span across BU, TD, and insula; one across BU, TD, and VPA areas; and one was confined to the VPA network. In REC, BU, TD, and VPA or VPA and insula clustered. In conclusion, despite weight recovery, neural processing of food cues is also altered in recovered AN patients.
    Eight challenges in modelling infectious livestock diseases
    Brooks-Pollock, E. ; Jong, M. de; Keeling, M.J. ; Klinkenberg, D. ; Wood, J.L.N. - \ 2015
    Epidemics 10 (2015). - ISSN 1755-4365 - p. 1 - 5.
    mouth-disease - great-britain - bovine tuberculosis - virus transmission - avian influenza - dynamic-model - uk foot - cattle - epidemic - impact
    The transmission of infectious diseases of livestock does not differ in principle from disease transmission in any other animals, apart from that the aim of control is ultimately economic, with the influence of social, political and welfare constraints often poorly defined. Modelling of livestock diseases suffers simultaneously from a wealth and a lack of data. On the one hand, the ability to conduct transmission experiments, detailed within-host studies and track individual animals between geocoded locations make livestock diseases a particularly rich potential source of realistic data for illuminating biological mechanisms of transmission and conducting explicit analyses of contact networks. On the other hand, scarcity of funding, as compared to human diseases, often results in incomplete and partial data for many livestock diseases and regions of the world. In this overview of challenges in livestock disease modelling, we highlight eight areas unique to livestock that, if addressed, would mark major progress in the area.
    Spiritual values
    Wild, R. ; Verschuuren, B. ; Dudley, N. - \ 2014
    In: Applications of Key Biodiversity Areas: End-user consultations / Dudley, N., Boucher, J.L., Cuttelod, A., Brooks, T.M., Langhammer, P.F., Gland : IUCN - ISBN 9782831716886 - p. 99 - 101.
    Publishing for the Protected Area Community: A vision for PARKS from its editorial board
    Amend, T. ; Brooks, T. ; Choudhury, B.C. ; Verschuuren, B. - \ 2014
    PARKS: the International of Protected Areas and Conservation 20 (2014)2. - ISSN 0960-233X - p. 7 - 12.
    In this editorial essay, members of the Editorial Board of PARKS review the status of conservation literature. Three problems are identified: 1) the growing gap between the formal conservation literature and the so-called ‘grey literature’ of project reports, studies and working papers; 2) the effectiveness of the majority of conservation literature in promoting good conservation; and 3) the lack of open access to much of the conservation literature currently available. The article sets out the vision of this journal: PARKS, the International Journal of Protected Areas and Conservation, published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) expert World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). PARKS aims to encourage new writers, including younger researchers, conservation professionals who do not generally write for peer-reviewed publications and people from developing countries, including indigenous and local people, to share their best practices in protected area management. PARKS is published twice a year as an online, open-access and peer reviewed journal and welcomes submissions of papers from all protected area professionals worldwide.
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