Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic
    Davidson, Sarah C. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Gurarie, Eliezer ; LaPoint, Scott ; Mahoney, Peter J. ; Boelman, Natalie T. ; Eitel, Jan U.H. ; Prugh, Laura R. ; Vierling, Lee A. ; Jennewein, Jyoti ; Grier, Emma ; Couriot, Ophélie ; Kelly, Allicia P. ; Meddens, Arjan J.H. ; Oliver, Ruth Y. ; Kays, Roland ; Wikelski, Martin ; Aarvak, Tomas ; Ackerman, Joshua T. ; Alves, José A. ; Bayne, Erin ; Bedrosian, Bryan ; Belant, Jerrold L. ; Berdahl, Andrew M. ; Berlin, Alicia M. ; Berteaux, Dominique ; Bêty, Joël ; Boiko, Dmitrijs ; Booms, Travis L. ; Borg, Bridget L. ; Boutin, Stan ; Boyd, Sean ; Brides, Kane ; Brown, Stephen ; Bulyuk, Victor N. ; Burnham, Kurt K. ; Cabot, David ; Casazza, Michael ; Christie, Katherine ; Craig, Erica H. ; Davis, Shanti E. ; Davison, Tracy ; Demma, Dominic ; DeSorbo, Christopher R. ; Dixon, Andrew ; Domenech, Robert ; Eichhorn, Götz ; Elliott, Kyle ; Evenson, Joseph R. ; Exo, Klaus Michael ; Ferguson, Steven H. ; Fiedler, Wolfgang ; Fisk, Aaron ; Fort, Jérôme ; Franke, Alastair ; Fuller, Mark R. ; Garthe, Stefan ; Gauthier, Gilles ; Gilchrist, Grant ; Glazov, Petr ; Gray, Carrie E. ; Grémillet, David ; Griffin, Larry ; Hallworth, Michael T. ; Harrison, Autumn Lynn ; Hennin, Holly L. ; Hipfner, Mark ; Hodson, James ; Johnson, James A. ; Joly, Kyle ; Jones, Kimberly ; Katzner, Todd E. ; Kidd, Jeff W. ; Knight, Elly C. ; Kochert, Michael N. ; Kölzsch, Andrea ; Kruckenberg, Helmut ; Lagassé, Benjamin J. ; Lai, Sandra ; Lamarre, Jean François ; Lanctot, Richard B. ; Larter, Nicholas C. ; Latham, A.D.M. ; Latty, Christopher J. ; Lawler, James P. ; Léandri-Breton, Don Jean ; Lee, Hansoo ; Lewis, Stephen B. ; Love, Oliver P. ; Madsen, Jesper ; Maftei, Mark ; Mallory, Mark L. ; Mangipane, Buck ; Markovets, Mikhail Y. ; Marra, Peter P. ; McGuire, Rebecca ; McIntyre, Carol L. ; McKinnon, Emily A. ; Miller, Tricia A. ; Moonen, Sander ; Mu, Tong ; Müskens, Gerhard J.D.M. ; Ng, Janet ; Nicholson, Kerry L. ; Øien, Ingar Jostein ; Overton, Cory ; Owen, Patricia A. ; Patterson, Allison ; Petersen, Aevar ; Pokrovsky, Ivan ; Powell, Luke L. ; Prieto, Rui ; Quillfeldt, Petra ; Rausch, Jennie ; Russell, Kelsey ; Saalfeld, Sarah T. ; Schekkerman, Hans ; Schmutz, Joel A. ; Schwemmer, Philipp ; Seip, Dale R. ; Shreading, Adam ; Silva, Mónica A. ; Smith, Brian W. ; Smith, Fletcher ; Smith, Jeff P. ; Snell, Katherine R.S. ; Sokolov, Aleksandr ; Sokolov, Vasiliy ; Solovyeva, Diana V. ; Sorum, Mathew S. ; Tertitski, Grigori ; Therrien, J.F. ; Thorup, Kasper ; Tibbitts, Lee ; Tulp, Ingrid ; Uher-Koch, Brian D. ; Bemmelen, Rob S.A. van; Wilgenburg, Steven Van; Duyke, Andrew L. Von; Watson, Jesse L. ; Watts, Bryan D. ; Williams, Judy A. ; Wilson, Matthew T. ; Wright, James R. ; Yates, Michael A. ; Yurkowski, David J. ; Žydelis, Ramūnas ; Hebblewhite, Mark - \ 2020
    Science 370 (2020)6517. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 712 - 715.

    The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection of more than 200 standardized terrestrial and marine animal tracking studies from 1991 to the present. The AAMA supports public data discovery, preserves fundamental baseline data for the future, and facilitates efficient, collaborative data analysis. With AAMA-based case studies, we document climatic influences on the migration phenology of eagles, geographic differences in the adaptive response of caribou reproductive phenology to climate change, and species-specific changes in terrestrial mammal movement rates in response to increasing temperature.

    Tree mode of death and mortality risk factors across Amazon forests
    Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Chao, Kuo Jung ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Higuchi, Niro ; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanne ; Lloyd, Jon ; Liu, Haiyan ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Marimon, Beatriz ; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Poorter, Lourens ; Silveira, Marcos ; Torre, Emilio Vilanova ; Dávila, Esteban Alvarez ; Aguila Pasquel, Jhon del; Almeida, Everton ; Loayza, Patricia Alvarez ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luiz E.O.C. ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baisie, Michel ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely ; Blanc, Lilian ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, René ; Brown, Foster ; Burban, Benoit ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Moscoso, Victor Chama ; Chave, Jerome ; Comiskey, James ; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo ; Costa, Antonio Lola da; Cardozo, Nallaret Davila ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Erwin, Terry ; Llampazo, Gerardo Flores ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Herrera, Rafael ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice ; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Isau ; Jimenez-Rojas, Eliana ; Killeen, Timothy ; Laurance, Susan ; Laurance, William ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Ladvocat, Karina Liana Lisboa Melgaço ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Meir, Patrick ; Mendoza, Casimiro ; Morandi, Paulo ; Neill, David ; Nogueira Lima, Adriano José ; Vargas, Percy Nuñez ; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Camacho, Nadir Pallqui ; Pardo, Guido ; Peacock, Julie ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John ; Pitman, Nigel ; Prieto, Adriana ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Quesada, Carlos ; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma ; Almeida Reis, Simone Matias de; Rejou-Machain, Maxime ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Bayona, Lily Rodriguez ; Rudas, Agustín ; Salomão, Rafael ; Serrano, Julio ; Espejo, Javier Silva ; Silva, Natalino ; Singh, James ; Stahl, Clement ; Stropp, Juliana ; Swamy, Varun ; Talbot, Joey ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John ; Thomas, Raquel ; Toledo, Marisol ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Heijden, Geertje van der; Meer, Peter van der; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Vos, Vincent ; Zagt, Roderick ; Zuidema, Pieter ; Galbraith, David - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    The carbon sink capacity of tropical forests is substantially affected by tree mortality. However, the main drivers of tropical tree death remain largely unknown. Here we present a pan-Amazonian assessment of how and why trees die, analysing over 120,000 trees representing > 3800 species from 189 long-term RAINFOR forest plots. While tree mortality rates vary greatly Amazon-wide, on average trees are as likely to die standing as they are broken or uprooted—modes of death with different ecological consequences. Species-level growth rate is the single most important predictor of tree death in Amazonia, with faster-growing species being at higher risk. Within species, however, the slowest-growing trees are at greatest risk while the effect of tree size varies across the basin. In the driest Amazonian region species-level bioclimatic distributional patterns also predict the risk of death, suggesting that these forests are experiencing climatic conditions beyond their adaptative limits. These results provide not only a holistic pan-Amazonian picture of tree death but large-scale evidence for the overarching importance of the growth–survival trade-off in driving tropical tree mortality.

    Different bottom trawl fisheries have a differential impact on the status of the North Sea seafloor habitats
    Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Hiddink, J.G. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Hintzen, N.T. ; Eigaard, O.R. ; Valanko, S. ; Bastardie, F. ; Bolam, S.G. ; Boulcott, P. ; Egekvist, J. ; Garcia, C. ; Hoey, G. van; Jonsson, P. ; Laffargue, P. ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Piet, G.J. ; Sköld, M. ; Kooten, T. van - \ 2020
    ICES Journal of Marine Science 77 (2020)5. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1772 - 1786.
    Beam trawl - Dredge - Footprint - Method comparison - Otter trawl - Recovery - Seafloor habitats - Seine - Soft sediment - Trawling impact

    Fisheries using bottom trawls are the most widespread source of anthropogenic physical disturbance to seafloor habitats. To mitigate such disturbances, the development of fisheries-, conservation-, and ecosystem-based management strategies requires the assessment of the impact of bottom trawling on the state of benthic biota. We explore a quantitative and mechanistic framework to assess trawling impact. Pressure and impact indicators that provide a continuous pressure–response curve are estimated at a spatial resolution of 1 χ 1 min latitude and longitude (~2 km2) using three methods: L1 estimates the proportion of the community with a life span exceeding the time interval between trawling events; L2 estimates the decrease in median longevity in response to trawling; and population dynamic (PD) estimates the decrease in biomass in response to trawling and the recovery time. Although impact scores are correlated, PD has the best performance over a broad range of trawling intensities. Using the framework in a trawling impact assessment of ten métiers in the North Sea shows that muddy habitats are impacted the most and coarse habitats are impacted the least. Otter trawling for crustaceans has the highest impact, followed by otter trawling for demersal fish and beam trawling for flatfish and flyshooting. Beam trawling for brown shrimps, otter trawling for industrial fish, and dredging for molluscs have the lowest impact. Trawling is highly aggregated in core fishing grounds where the status of the seafloor is low but the catch per unit of effort (CPUE) per unit of impact is high, in contrast to peripheral grounds, where CPUE per unit of impact is low.

    Potato-Infecting Ralstonia solanacearum Strains in Iran Expand Knowledge on the Global Diversity of Brown Rot Ecotype of the Pathogen
    Sedighian, Nasim ; Mohsen Taghavi, S. ; Hamzehzarghani, Habiballah ; Wolf, J.M. van der; Wicker, Emmanuel ; Osdaghi, Ebrahim - \ 2020
    Phytopathology 110 (2020)10. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 1647 - 1656.
    Bacterial wilt and brown rot disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) is one of the major constraints of potato (Solanum tuberosum) production around the globe. During 2017-2018 an extensive field survey was conducted in six potato-growing provinces of Iran to monitor the status of bacterial wilt disease. Pathogenicity and host range assays using 59 bacterial strains isolated in Iran showed that they were pathogenic on eggplant, red nightshade, pepper, potato and tomato, while nonpathogenic on common bean, cowpea, cucumber, sunflower, zinnia and zucchini. PCR-based diagnosis revealed that the strains belong to the phylotype IIB/sequevar 1 (IIB/I) lineage of the RSSC. Furthermore, a five-gene multilocus sequence analysis and typing (i.e. egl, fliC, gyrB, mutS, rplB) confirmed the phylogenetically near-homogeneous nature of the strains within IIB/I lineage. Four sequence types were identified among 58 IIB/1 strains isolated in Iran. Phylogenetically near-homogeneous nature of the strains in Iran raise questions about the mode of inoculum entry of the bacterial wilt pathogen into the country (one-time introduction vs. multiple introductions), while the geographic origin of the Iranian R. solanacearum strains remains undetermined. Furthermore, sequence typing showed that there were shared alleles (haplotypes) and sequence types among the strains isolated in geographically distant areas in Iran, suggesting intra-national transmission of the pathogen in the country.
    Awareness of urban climate adaptation strategies –an international overview
    Lenzholzer, Sanda ; Carsjens, Gerrit Jan ; Brown, Robert D. ; Tavares, Silvia ; Vanos, Jennifer ; Kim, You Joung ; Lee, Kanghyun - \ 2020
    Urban Climate 34 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0955
    Adaptation - Awareness - International study - Societal actors - Urban climate

    Problems caused by urban climate phenomena such as urban heat island intensification, nuisance winds, or the lack of ventilation, are a growing concern with urban population growth and aging infrastructure. While many possible solutions are known, effective adaptation strategies have been insufficiently implemented to ameliorate urban climate problems. Reasons for this ‘implementation gap’ such as the level of awareness about implementable solutions have received little attention in the literature. An important question thus remains unanswered: what do different urban actors (citizens; politicians; urban planners and designers; and urban climate experts) who shape the urban environment and thus its climate, know about urban climate adaptation measures? We conducted a pilot study using semi-structured interviews with specialists in the field of urban sustainability related to urban planning and climate in ten countries worldwide. Interview results indicated that awareness of adaptation measures differs between countries, but even more so between different actor groups. Citizens and politicians are less aware than urban planners or designers and urban climate experts. Awareness raising should involve media campaigns, further education and display of good practice. Politicians should work on better laws and their enforcement and urban climate experts on good knowledge communication.

    Multiphasic nonlinear mixed growth models for laying hens
    Klein, S.A.S. van der; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Zuidhof, M.J. - \ 2020
    Poultry Science 99 (2020)11. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 5615 - 5624.
    gain - growth - laying hen - modeling

    Appropriate evaluation of BW and gain during rearing is required for optimal extended laying performance in laying hens. The objective of this study was to compare monophasic, diphasic, and triphasic Gompertz and logistic models describing BW and gain in individually fed free-run laying hens and to study the variation between individuals in shape parameters. Fifteen Lohmann Brown Lite hens were fed ad libitum from week 0 to 43 with a precision feeding system, measuring feed intake and BW individually in a group housed setting. Random variables related to mature weight and timing of maximum gain during the pubertal growth phase were introduced into the multiphasic model for BW with the best fit. For both the weight-age and gain-age functions, the diphasic and triphasic Gompertz and logistic model models fitted the data better than the monophasic models. The Gompertz model was able to identify the ages at the highest gain at similar time points for both BW and gain, whereas the logistic models failed to do so. The derivative of the multiphasic Gompertz models for the gain-age relationship identified age at the highest gain at similar ages as compared with the logistic models for gain. The mixed models predicted that the individual mature BW ranged from 1.83 kg to 2.10 kg and the variability in the timing of the highest rate of gain during the pubertal growth spurt ranged from 15.26 wk to 19.79 wk. Including random terms associated with the mature BW and the second inflection point of the diphasic Gompertz growth model allowed for identification of variability in the growth curve shape between individuals, which can be a tool to study the relationship between the individual growth curve shape and performance parameters.

    Comparative transcriptome analysis of human skeletal muscle in response to cold acclimation and exercise training in human volunteers
    Nascimento, Emmani B.M. ; Hangelbroek, Roland W.J. ; Hooiveld, Guido J.E.J. ; Hoeks, Joris ; Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D. van; Hesselink, Matthijs H.C. ; Schrauwen, Patrick ; Kersten, Sander - \ 2020
    BMC Medical Genomics 13 (2020). - ISSN 1755-8794
    Cold acclimation - Exercise training - Insulin sensitivity - Skeletal muscle - Type 2 diabetes

    Background: Cold acclimation and exercise training were previously shown to increase peripheral insulin sensitivity in human volunteers with type 2 diabetes. Although cold is a potent activator of brown adipose tissue, the increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity by cold is largely mediated by events occurring in skeletal muscle and at least partly involves GLUT4 translocation, as is also observed for exercise training. Methods: To investigate if cold acclimation and exercise training overlap in the molecular adaptive response in skeletal muscle, we performed transcriptomics analysis on vastus lateralis muscle collected from human subjects before and after 10 days of cold acclimation, as well as before and after a 12-week exercise training intervention. Results: Cold acclimation altered the expression of 756 genes (422 up, 334 down, P < 0.01), while exercise training altered the expression of 665 genes (444 up, 221 down, P < 0.01). Principal Component Analysis, Venn diagram, similarity analysis and Rank-rank Hypergeometric Overlap all indicated significant overlap between cold acclimation and exercise training in upregulated genes, but not in downregulated genes. Overlapping gene regulation was especially evident for genes and pathways associated with extracellular matrix remodeling. Interestingly, the genes most highly induced by cold acclimation were involved in contraction and in signal transduction between nerve and muscle cells, while no significant changes were observed in genes and pathways related to insulin signaling or glucose metabolism. Conclusions: Overall, our results indicate that cold acclimation and exercise training have overlapping effects on gene expression in human skeletal muscle, but strikingly these overlapping genes are designated to pathways related to tissue remodeling rather than metabolic pathways.

    Microplastics in brown trout Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 from an Irish riverine system
    O'Connor, J.D. ; Murphy, S. ; Lally, H.T. ; O'Connor, L. ; Nash, R. ; O'Sullivan, J. ; Bruen, M. ; Heerey, L. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Cullagh, A. ; Cullagh, D. ; Mahon, A.M. - \ 2020
    Environmental Pollution 267 (2020). - ISSN 0269-7491
    Rivers play an important role in the overall transport of microplastic pollution (1 μm to 5 mm), with fluvial dynamics expected to influence biotic interactions, particularly for fish. So far, there have been few assessments of microplastics in freshwater salmonids. The prevalence (i.e. percentage occurrence) and burden (i.e. abundance per fish) of microplastics were assessed in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) and stomach contents (SCs) of 58 brown trout Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758 sampled at six sites along the River Slaney catchment in south-east Ireland. Sites were divided into two classifications (high and low exposure) based on proximity to microplastic pollution sources, comprising three sites each. Analysis of biological traits (e.g. fish length) and diet was performed on the same fish to determine possible factors explaining microplastic burden. Microplastics were found in 72% of fish having been recovered from 66% of GITs (1.88 ± 1.53 MPs fish⁻1) and 28% of SCs (1.31 ± 0.48 MPs fish⁻1). Fibres were the dominant particle type recovered from GITs (67%) and SCs (57%) followed by fragments. No difference in median microplastic burden was observed between fish collected in high and low exposure sites. Microplastic burden was unrelated to fish fork length, while microplastic size distribution (100 ≤ 350 μm, 350 μm to ≤ 5 mm) was unrelated to S. trutta age class estimates. Furthermore, microplastic burden was not explained by dietary intake. Though further research is necessary, this study showed the presence of microplastics in wild S. trutta collected from an Irish riverine system, which could have further implications for top-level consumers that feed on the species, including humans. Further analysis is required to determine possible trophic linkages for the species, with respect to microplastics, and to assess the suitability of S. trutta for monitoring microplastics in river systems.
    2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales
    Kuhn, Jens H. ; Adkins, Scott ; Alioto, Daniela ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Anthony, Simon J. ; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana ; Ayllón, María A. ; Bahl, Justin ; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne ; Ballinger, Matthew J. ; Bartonička, Tomáš ; Basler, Christopher ; Bavari, Sina ; Beer, Martin ; Bente, Dennis A. ; Bergeron, Éric ; Bird, Brian H. ; Blair, Carol ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Bradfute, Steven B. ; Breyta, Rachel ; Briese, Thomas ; Brown, Paul A. ; Buchholz, Ursula J. ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Burt, Felicity ; Buzkan, Nihal ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Cao, Mengji ; Casas, Inmaculada ; Chamberlain, John ; Chandran, Kartik ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Chen, Biao ; Chiumenti, Michela ; Choi, Ryong ; Clegg, J.C.S. ; Crozier, Ian ; Graça, John V. da; Bó, Elena Dal; Dávila, Alberto M.R. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Swart, Rik L. de; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Paola, Nicholas Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Drebot, Michael A. ; Drexler, Jan Felix ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dufkova, Lucie ; Dundon, William G. ; Duprex, W.P. ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Ergünay, Koray ; Fernandes, Jorlan ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Formenty, Pierre B.H. ; Forth, Leonie F. ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Gāo, George Fú ; García, María Laura ; García-Sastre, Adolfo ; Garrison, Aura R. ; Gbakima, Aiah ; Goldstein, Tracey ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Griffiths, Anthony ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Günther, Stephan ; Guterres, Alexandro ; Hall, Roy A. ; Hammond, John ; Hassan, Mohamed ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hepojoki, Satu ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hewson, Roger ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Hongo, Seiji ; Höper, Dirk ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hughes, Holly R. ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jambai, Amara ; Jardim, Rodrigo ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Gilda B. ; Junglen, Sandra ; Karadağ, Serpil ; Keller, Karen E. ; Klempa, Boris ; Klingström, Jonas ; Kobinger, Gary ; Kondō, Hideki ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kurath, Gael ; Kuzmin, Ivan V. ; Laenen, Lies ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Langevin, Stanley L. ; Lee, Benhur ; Lemos, Elba R.S. ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Dexin ; Lǐ, Jiànróng ; Liang, Mifang ; Liú, Wénwén ; Liú, Yàn ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Maes, Piet ; Marciel de Souza, William ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Marshall, Sergio H. ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Marzano, Shin Yi L. ; Massart, Sébastien ; McCauley, John W. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Minafra, Angelantonio ; Minutolo, Maria ; Mirazimi, Ali ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Naidu, Rayapati ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Navarro, José A. ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Neumann, Gabriele ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Nunes, Márcio R.T. ; Nylund, Are ; Økland, Arnfinn L. ; Oliveira, Renata C. ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pallas, Vicente ; Pályi, Bernadett ; Papa, Anna ; Parrish, Colin R. ; Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Payne, Susan ; Pérez, Daniel R. ; Pfaff, Florian ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; ul Rahman, Aziz ; Ramos-González, Pedro L. ; Resende, Renato O. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Robles Luna, Gabriel ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Runstadler, Jonathan A. ; Ruzek, Daniel ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Salát, Jiří ; Sall, Amadou Alpha ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sarpkaya, Kamil ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shabbir, Muhammad Z. ; Shí, Xiǎohóng ; Shí, Zhènglì ; Shirako, Yukio ; Simmonds, Peter ; Širmarová, Jana ; Sironi, Manuela ; Smither, Sophie ; Smura, Teemu ; Song, Jin Won ; Spann, Kirsten M. ; Spengler, Jessica R. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Straková, Petra ; Takada, Ayato ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Thornburg, Natalie J. ; Tomonaga, Keizō ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Turina, Massimo ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis ; Ulrich, Rainer G. ; Vaira, Anna Maria ; Hoogen, Bernadette van den; Varsani, Arvind ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Wahl, Victoria ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, Hui ; Wang, Jianwei ; Wang, Xifeng ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wells, Heather ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Williams, John V. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Yang, Xin ; Yáng, Xīnglóu ; Yu, Xuejie ; Yutin, Natalya ; Zerbini, Murilo ; Zhang, Tong ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Zhou, Guohui ; Zhou, Xueping - \ 2020
    Archives of Virology 165 (2020). - ISSN 0304-8608 - p. 3023 - 3072.

    In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

    Watering techniques and zero-valent iron biochar pH effects on As and Cd concentrations in rice rhizosphere soils, tissues and yield
    Islam, Md Shafiqul ; Chen, Yali ; Weng, Liping ; Ma, Jie ; Khan, Zulqarnain Haider ; Liao, Zhongbin ; Magid, Abdoul Salam Issiaka Abdoul ; Li, Yongtao - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Sciences 100 (2020). - ISSN 1001-0742 - p. 144 - 157.
    Brown rice As - Brown rice Cd - Grain yield - Paddy soils - Water management - Zero-valent iron biochar

    Zero-valent iron amended biochar (ZVIB) has been proposed as a promising material in immobilizing heavy metals in paddy fields. In this study, the impacts of pH of ZVIB (pH 6.3 and pH 9.7) and watering management techniques (watering amount in the order of CON (control, 5/72)>3/72>1–3/72>3/100>1/72, with 5/72, for example, representing irrigation given to 5 cm above soil surface in 72 hr regular interval) on As and Cd bioavailability for rice and its grain yield (YieldBR) were investigated in a pot experiment. Brown rice As (AsBR) content was irrelative to the watering treatments, while significantly decreased (>50%) with the addition of both ZVIB materials. The diminutions of brown rice Cd (CdBR) content as well as the YieldBR were highly dependent on both the soil amendment materials’ pH and watering amount. Among all the watering treatments, 3/72 treatment (15% less irrigation water than the CON) with ZVIB 6.3 amendment was the optimum fit for simultaneous reduction of AsBR (50%) and CdBR contents (19%) as well as for significant increment (12%) of the YieldBR. Although high pH (9.7) ZVIB application could also efficiently decrease As and Cd contents in brown rice, it might risk grain yield lost if appropriate (e.g. 3/72 in our study) watering management technique was not chosen. Therefore, ZVIB would be an environmentally friendly option as an amendment material with proper selection of watering management technique to utilize As and Cd co-contaminated arable soils safely for paddy cultivation.

    Linking the morphology and ecology of subtidal soft-bottom marine benthic habitats: A novel multiscale approach. Brown Bank 2017 - Biological and geomorphological data
    Mestdagh, Sebastiaan ; Amiri-Simkooei, Alireza ; Reijden, Karin J. van der; Koop, Leo ; O'Flynn, Sarah ; Snellen, Mirjam ; Sluis, Christiaan Van; Govers, Laura L. ; Simons, Dick G. ; Herman, Peter M.J. ; Olff, Han ; Ysebaert, Tom - \ 2020
    Utrecht University
    Macrobenthos - Multibeam sonar - Sand waves - Sandbanks - Seafloor morphology
    22 stations on and around the Brown Bank were selected to study local ecological variation and to link ecological with geomorphological data. Macrobenthos was collected with a box corer and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level, in three replicates per station. Sediment characteristics (grain size, TOC, chlorophyll α etc.) were measured for each replicate. Geomorphological data (bathymetry, backscatter, BPI etc.) were derived from multibeam echosounding at each station.
    Author Correction: Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
    MacNeil, M.A. ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, C.S. ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, M.S. ; Ali, Khadeeja ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; Barcia, Laura García ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcy ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, J.J. ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabaugh, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Sjamsul Quamar, L.M. ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
    Nature 585 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. E11 - E11.

    An Amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    Quantifying the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle via a contaminated environment
    Colenutt, Claire ; Brown, Emma ; Nelson, Noel ; Paton, David J. ; Eblé, Phaedra ; Dekker, Aldo ; Gonzales, José L. ; Gubbins, Simon - \ 2020
    mBio 11 (2020)4. - ISSN 2161-2129
    Biosecurity - Environmental microbiology - Foot-and-mouth disease - Foot-and-mouth disease virus - Indirect transmission - Viral decay - Virus survival

    Indirect transmission via a contaminated environment can occur for a number of pathogens, even those typically thought of as being directly transmitted, such as influenza virus, norovirus, bovine tuberculosis, or foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Indirect transmission facilitates spread from multiple sources beyond the infectious host, complicating the epidemiology and control of these diseases. This study carried out a series of transmission experiments to determine the dose-response relationship between environmental contamination and transmission of FMDV in cattle from measurements of viral shedding and rates of environmental contamination and survival. Seven out of ten indirect exposures resulted in successful transmission. The basic reproduction number for environmental transmission of FMDV in this experimental setting was estimated at 1.65, indicating that environmental transmission alone could sustain an outbreak. Importantly, detection of virus in the environment prior to the appearance of clinical signs in infected cattle and successful transmission from these environments highlights there is a risk of environmental transmission even before foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is clinically apparent in cattle. Estimated viral decay rates suggest that FMDV remained viable in this environment for up to 14 days, emphasizing the requirement for stringent biosecurity procedures fol-lowing outbreaks of FMD and the design of control measures that reflect the biology of a pathogen. IMPORTANCE Effective control of a disease relies on comprehensive understanding of how transmission occurs, in order to design and apply effective control measures. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is primarily spread by direct contact between infected and naive individuals, although the high levels of virus shed by infected animals mean that virus can also be spread through contact with contaminated environments. Using a series of transmission experiments, we demonstrate that environmental transmission alone would be sufficient to sustain an outbreak. Key observations include that a risk of transmission exists before clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) are apparent in cattle and that survival of virus in the environment extends the transmission risk period. This study highlights the role a contaminated environment can play in the transmission of FMDV and presents approaches that can also be applied to study the transmission of other pathogens that are able to survive in the environment.

    Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Modulation in Zebrafish by Fucoidan From Okinawa Mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus)
    Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako ; López Nadal, Adrià ; Zaccaria, Edoardo ; Iha, Masahiko ; Kitazawa, Haruki ; Kleerebezem, Michiel ; Brugman, Sylvia - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Nutrition 7 (2020). - ISSN 2296-861X
    fucoidan - immunomodulation - microbiota - seaweed polysaccharides - zebrafish

    Fucoidan represents fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides derived from brown seaweeds, which exerts various biological activities applicable for functional foods and therapeutic agents. The objective of the present study was to investigate in vivo effects of fucoidan extracted from Okinawa mozuku (Cladosiphon okamuranus), common edible seaweed in Japan, on immune responses and microbiota composition in zebrafish. We treated larvae and adult zebrafish with Okinawa mozuku (OM) fucoidan by immersion (100 and 500 μg/mL, 3 days) and by feeding (3 weeks), respectively. The effect of OM fucoidan on immune responses in zebrafish larvae was evaluated by live imaging of neutrophils and macrophages as well as quantitative polymerase chain reaction of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes. Whole microbiota of zebrafish larvae and intestinal microbiota of adult zebrafish treated with OM fucoidan were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq pair-end sequencing of the V3–V4 region of 16S rRNA genes. Fucoidan treatment only slightly affected the composition of the larvae microbiota and the number of neutrophils and macrophages, while pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine gene expression levels were upregulated in the larvae treated with 500 μg/mL OM fucoidan. In contrast, feeding of OM fucoidan clearly altered the intestinal microbiota composition of adult zebrafish, which was characterized by the emergence and predominance of multiple bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated with Rhizobiaceae and Comamonadaceae at the expense of E. coli-related Enterobacteriaceae, the dominant OTUs throughout the studied samples. These changes were accompanied by decreased expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine il1b in the intestines of the adult zebrafish. Our current study provides the first insights into in vivo modulatory effects of fucoidan on microbiota and immune responses of unchallenged zebrafish, which underscores the potential of fucoidan to play a modulatory role in the diet–microbiota–host interplay.

    Bladderworts, the smallest known suction feeders, generate inertia-dominated flows to capture prey
    Müller, Ulrike K. ; Berg, Otto ; Schwaner, Janneke M. ; Brown, Matthew D. ; Li, Gen ; Voesenek, Cees J. ; Leeuwen, Johan L. van - \ 2020
    New Phytologist 228 (2020)2. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 586 - 595.
    carnivorous plants - functional morphology - plant biomechanics - suction feeding - Utricularia australis - Utricularia gibba

    Aquatic bladderworts (Utricularia gibba and U. australis) capture zooplankton in mechanically triggered underwater traps. With characteristic dimensions less than 1 mm, the trapping structures are among the smallest known to capture prey by suction, a mechanism that is not effective in the creeping-flow regime where viscous forces prevent the generation of fast and energy-efficient suction flows. To understand what makes suction feeding possible on the small scale of bladderwort traps, we characterised their suction flows experimentally (using particle image velocimetry) and mathematically (using computational fluid dynamics and analytical mathematical models). We show that bladderwort traps avoid the adverse effects of creeping flow by generating strong, fast-onset suction pressures. Our findings suggest that traps use three morphological adaptations: the trap walls' fast release of elastic energy ensures strong and constant suction pressure; the trap door's fast opening ensures effectively instantaneous onset of suction; the short channel leading into the trap ensures undeveloped flow, which maintains a wide effective channel diameter. Bladderwort traps generate much stronger suction flows than larval fish with similar gape sizes because of the traps' considerably stronger suction pressures. However, bladderworts' ability to generate strong suction flows comes at considerable energetic expense.

    Opportunities for seaweed biorefinery
    Lange, Lene ; Grandorf Bak, Urd ; Cole Brandstrup Hansen, Steffen ; Gregersen, Olavur ; Harmsen, Paulien ; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva ; Meyer, Anne ; Mikkelsen, Maria D. ; Broek, Ben van den; Óli Hreggviðsson, Guðmundur - \ 2020
    In: Sustainable Seaweed Technologies / Dolores Torres, M., Kraan, S., Dominguez, H., Elsevier (Advances in Green Chemistry ) - ISBN 9780128179437 - p. 3 - 31.
    This introductory chapter provides an overview of seaweed biorefinery opportunities, providing basis for multiple value chains, contributing to nutrition and health of a growing global population, to local job generation and development, to ecosystem services, and not the least to climate change mitigation and adaptation. A unique and rich diversity of the seaweed components provides the basis for the broad spectrum of value-chains described here. Red, brown, and green seaweeds are phylogenetically very different and this is reflected in their differences in growth, structure, and biochemical composition. Stable supply and high quality of feedstock are essential for unlocking the value-adding potential of seaweeds. A special focus of the chapter is to provide an overview of the range of different methods of seaweed production (through cultivation or from natural growth, collected or cut at the shore). Furthermore, the results of dedicated efforts to develop new deep-sea cultivation technologies of brown seaweed are highlighted. The chapter has a dual message with regard to seaweed processing: the need to develop more environmentally benign biological processing (to replace chemical processing); the advantage (regarding resource efficiency) and opportunities (social and economic) of designing seaweed biorefineries according to the cascading principle. Making optimized use of all valuable components of seaweed biomass, cascading from high-value products, such as skin care, health-promoting food and feed supplements and functional food ingredients; to lower-value products, such as plant stimulants, soil improvers, and bioenergy. Lastly, this introductory chapter provides global perspectives for future development of sustainable seaweed utilization, contributing to the UN-SDGs, providing livelihood and health for more.
    Urban climate awareness and urgency to adapt : An international overview
    Lenzholzer, Sanda ; Carsjens, Gerrit-Jan ; Brown, Robert D. ; Tavares, Silvia ; Vanos, Jennifer ; Kim, You Joung ; Lee, Kanghyun - \ 2020
    Urban Climate 33 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0955
    Awareness - Climate change - International - Societal actors - Urban heat island - Urban wind

    Urban climate manifests itself through thermal and wind environments specific to cities and can cause wind danger or overheating. Cities can benefit from preventing these effects through adaptation measures. However, before any action can be taken in improving these urban climate conditions, an awareness of the problems is needed. Numerous studies show that there is awareness of urban climate extremes as a problem, yet that knowledge lacks amongst different actors in society, and may further differ between countries. Therefore, we conducted an international study on the awareness levels regarding urban climate phenomena and the sense of urgency to act within four groups: citizens, local politicians, urban planners and designers, and urban climate experts. Semi-structured interviews with experts in ten countries worldwide were conducted. Results indicate that the urgency to adapt to climate change was acknowledged rather equally for the four groups of actors. In contrast, awareness of urban climate phenomena (urban heat islands and urban wind patterns) amongst citizens and politicians is rather low in most countries. Amongst urban planners and designers and the urban climate experts we observed a generally high awareness regarding urban climate phenomena. Raising awareness requires tailor-made strategies for specific needs of the different actor groups.

    Digest: How the snowshoe hare got its brown coat: Convergent evolution or gene flow?*
    Ottenburghs, Jente - \ 2020
    Evolution 74 (2020)9. - ISSN 0014-3820 - p. 2174 - 2175.

    The winter-brown phenotype of snowshoe hares in the Pacific Northwest was acquired through hybridization with black-tailed jackrabbits. Some snowshoe hares in more northern boreal populations exhibit the same phenotype, but how did they acquire it? Jones and colleagues show that the phenotype in the boreal populations is the outcome of convergent evolution, highlighting the importance of understanding the genetic basis of a trait in reconstructing its evolution.

    Global status and conservation potential of reef sharks
    MacNeil, Aaron ; Chapman, Demian D. ; Heupel, Michelle ; Simpfendorfer, Colin A. ; Heithaus, Michael ; Meekan, Mark ; Harvey, Euan ; Goetze, Jordan ; Kiszka, Jeremy ; Bond, Mark E. ; Currey-Randall, Leanne M. ; Speed, Conrad W. ; Sherman, Samantha ; Rees, Matthew J. ; Udyawer, Vinay ; Flowers, Kathryn I. ; Clementi, Gina ; Valentin-Albanese, Jasmine ; Gorham, Taylor ; Adam, Shiham ; Khadeeja, Ali ; Pina-Amargós, Fabián ; Angulo-Valdés, Jorge A. ; Asher, Jacob ; García Barcia, Laura ; Beaufort, Océane ; Benjamin, Cecilie ; Bernard, Anthony T.F. ; Berumen, Michael L. ; Bierwagen, Stacy ; Bonnema, Erika ; Bown, Rosalind M.K. ; Bradley, Darcey ; Brooks, Edd ; Brown, Jed ; Buddo, Dayne ; Burke, Patrick ; Cáceres, Camila ; Cardeñosa, Diego ; Carrier, Jeffrey C. ; Caselle, Jennifer E. ; Charloo, Venkatesh ; Claverie, Thomas ; Clua, Eric ; Cochran, Jesse E.M. ; Cook, Neil ; Cramp, Jessica ; D’Alberto, Brooke ; Graaf, Martin de; Dornhege, Mareike ; Estep, Andy ; Fanovich, Lanya ; Farabough, Naomi F. ; Fernando, Daniel ; Flam, Anna L. ; Floros, Camilla ; Fourqurean, Virginia ; Garla, Ricardo ; Gastrich, Kirk ; George, Lachlan ; Graham, Rory ; Guttridge, Tristan ; Hardenstine, Royale S. ; Heck, Stephen ; Henderson, Aaron C. ; Hertler, Heidi ; Hueter, Robert ; Johnson, Mohini ; Jupiter, Stacy ; Kasana, Devanshi ; Kessel, Steven T. ; Kiilu, Benedict ; Kirata, Taratu ; Kuguru, Baraka ; Kyne, Fabian ; Langlois, Tim ; Lédée, Elodie J.I. ; Lindfield, Steve ; Luna-Acosta, Andrea ; Maggs, Jade ; Manjaji-Matsumoto, Mabel ; Marshall, Andrea ; Matich, Philip ; McCombs, Erin ; McLean, Dianne ; Meggs, Llewelyn ; Moore, Stephen ; Mukherji, Sushmita ; Murray, Ryan ; Kaimuddin, Muslimin ; Newman, Stephen J. ; Nogués, Josep ; Obota, Clay ; O’Shea, Owen ; Osuka, Kennedy ; Papastamatiou, Yannis P. ; Perera, Nishan ; Peterson, Bradley ; Ponzo, Alessandro ; Prasetyo, Andhika ; Quamar, Sjamsul ; Quinlan, Jessica ; Ruiz-Abierno, Alexei ; Sala, Enric ; Samoilys, Melita ; Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle ; Schlaff, Audrey ; Simpson, Nikola ; Smith, Adam N.H. ; Sparks, Lauren ; Tanna, Akshay ; Torres, Rubén ; Travers, Michael J. ; Zinnicq Bergmann, Maurits van; Vigliola, Laurent ; Ward, Juney ; Watts, Alexandra M. ; Wen, Colin ; Whitman, Elizabeth ; Wirsing, Aaron J. ; Wothke, Aljoscha ; Zarza-Gonzâlez, Esteban ; Cinner, Joshua E. - \ 2020
    Nature 583 (2020). - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 801 - 806.

    Decades of overexploitation have devastated shark populations, leaving considerable doubt as to their ecological status1,2. Yet much of what is known about sharks has been inferred from catch records in industrial fisheries, whereas far less information is available about sharks that live in coastal habitats3. Here we address this knowledge gap using data from more than 15,000 standardized baited remote underwater video stations that were deployed on 371 reefs in 58 nations to estimate the conservation status of reef sharks globally. Our results reveal the profound impact that fishing has had on reef shark populations: we observed no sharks on almost 20% of the surveyed reefs. Reef sharks were almost completely absent from reefs in several nations, and shark depletion was strongly related to socio-economic conditions such as the size and proximity of the nearest market, poor governance and the density of the human population. However, opportunities for the conservation of reef sharks remain: shark sanctuaries, closed areas, catch limits and an absence of gillnets and longlines were associated with a substantially higher relative abundance of reef sharks. These results reveal several policy pathways for the restoration and management of reef shark populations, from direct top-down management of fishing to indirect improvement of governance conditions. Reef shark populations will only have a high chance of recovery by engaging key socio-economic aspects of tropical fisheries.

    Correction to: Effects of reward magnitude and training frequency on the learning rates and memory retention of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni
    Heinrich, Dennis D.U. ; Vila Pouca, Catarina ; Brown, Culum ; Huveneers, Charlie - \ 2020
    Animal Cognition (2020). - ISSN 1435-9448

    In the original publication of the article, the Fig. 4 was erroneously published.

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