Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Forensic microbiology reveals that Neisseria animaloris infections in harbour porpoises follow traumatic injuries by grey seals
Foster, Geoffrey ; Whatmore, Adrian M. ; Dagleish, Mark P. ; Malnick, Henry ; Gilbert, Maarten J. ; Begeman, Lineke ; Macgregor, Shaheed K. ; Davison, Nicholas J. ; Roest, Hendrik Jan ; Jepson, Paul ; Howie, Fiona ; Muchowski, Jakub ; Brownlow, Andrew C. ; Wagenaar, Jaap A. ; Kik, Marja J.L. ; Deaville, Rob ; Doeschate, Mariel T.I. ten; Barley, Jason ; Hunter, Laura ; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. - \ 2019
Scientific Reports 9 (2019). - ISSN 2045-2322

Neisseria animaloris is considered to be a commensal of the canine and feline oral cavities. It is able to cause systemic infections in animals as well as humans, usually after a biting trauma has occurred. We recovered N. animaloris from chronically inflamed bite wounds on pectoral fins and tailstocks, from lungs and other internal organs of eight harbour porpoises. Gross and histopathological evidence suggest that fatal disseminated N. animaloris infections had occurred due to traumatic injury from grey seals. We therefore conclude that these porpoises survived a grey seal predatory attack, with the bite lesions representing the subsequent portal of entry for bacteria to infect the animals causing abscesses in multiple tissues, and eventually death. We demonstrate that forensic microbiology provides a useful tool for linking a perpetrator to its victim. Moreover, N. animaloris should be added to the list of potential zoonotic bacteria following interactions with seals, as the finding of systemic transfer to the lungs and other tissues of the harbour porpoises may suggest a potential to do likewise in humans.

Beached bachelors: An extensive study on the largest recorded sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus mortality event in the North Sea
IJsseldijk, Lonneke L. ; Neer, Abbo van; Deaville, Rob ; Begeman, Lineke ; Bildt, Marco van de; Brand, Judith M.A. van den; Brownlow, Andrew ; Czeck, Richard ; Dabin, Willy ; Doeschate, Mariel ten; Herder, Vanessa ; Herr, Helena ; IJzer, Jooske ; Jauniaux, Thierry ; Jensen, Lasse Fast ; Jepson, Paul D. ; Jo, Wendy Karen ; Lakemeyer, Jan ; Lehnert, Kristina ; Leopold, Mardik F. ; Osterhaus, Albert ; Perkins, Matthew W. ; Piatkowski, Uwe ; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen ; Pund, Ralf ; Wohlsein, Peter ; Gröne, Andrea ; Siebert, Ursula - \ 2018
PLoS ONE 13 (2018)8. - ISSN 1932-6203

Between the 8th January and the 25th February 2016, the largest sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus mortality event ever recorded in the North Sea occurred with 30 sperm whales stranding in five countries within six weeks. All sperm whales were immature males. Groups were stratified by size, with the smaller animals stranding in the Netherlands, and the largest in England. The majority (n = 27) of the stranded animals were necropsied and/ or sampled, allowing for an international and comprehensive investigation into this mortality event. The animals were in fair to good nutritional condition and, aside from the pathologies caused by stranding, did not exhibit significant evidence of disease or trauma. Infectious agents were found, including various parasite species, several bacterial and fungal pathogens and a novel alphaherpesvirus. In nine of the sperm whales a variety of marine litter was found. However, none of these findings were considered to have been the primary cause of the stranding event. Potential anthropogenic and environmental factors that may have caused the sperm whales to enter the North Sea were assessed. Once sperm whales enter the North Sea and head south, the water becomes progressively shallower (<40 m), making this region a global hotspot for sperm whale strandings. We conclude that the reasons for sperm whales to enter the southern North Sea are the result of complex interactions of extrinsic environmental factors. As such, these large mortality events seldom have a single ultimate cause and it is only through multidisciplinary, collaborative approaches that potentially multifactorial large-scale stranding events can be effectively investigated.

Toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the North Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean : Findings and diagnostic difficulties
Velde, Norbert van de; Devleesschauwer, Brecht ; Leopold, Mardik ; Begeman, Lineke ; IJsseldijk, Lonneke ; Hiemstra, Sjoukje ; IJzer, Jooske ; Brownlow, Andrew ; Davison, Nicholas ; Haelters, Jan - \ 2016
Veterinary Parasitology 230 (2016). - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 25 - 32.
ELISA - IFA - Marine mammals - MAT - PCR - Seroprevalence - Toxoplasma gondii

The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and Germany, were tested for the presence of T. gondii. Brain samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of parasite DNA. Blood and muscle fluid samples were tested for specific antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT), a commercial multi-species enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Out of 193 animals tested by PCR, only two harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) cerebrum samples, obtained from animals stranded on the Dutch coast, tested positive. The serological results showed a wide variation depending on the test used. Using a cut-off value of 1/40 dilution in MAT, 141 out of 292 animals (41%) were positive. Using IFA, 30 out of 244 tested samples (12%) were positive at a 1/50 dilution. The commercial ELISA yielded 7% positives with a cut-off of the sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio ≥ 50; and 12% when the cut-off was set at S/P ratio ≥ 20. The high number of positives in MAT may be an overestimation due to the high degree of haemolysis of the samples and/or the presence of lipids. The ELISA results could be an underestimation due to the use of a multispecies conjugate. Our results confirm the presence of T. gondii in marine mammals in The Netherlands and show exposure to the parasite in both the North Sea and the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. We also highlight the limitations of the tests used to diagnose T. gondii in stranded marine mammals.

Is a terrestrial cat parasite really reaching marine mammals?
Velde, N. van der; Devleesschauwer, B. ; Decraeye, S. ; Begeman, L. ; IJsseldijk, Lonneke ; Hiemstra, S. ; Ijzer, J. ; Brownlow, Andrew ; Davison, Nicholas ; Leopold, M.F. ; Jauniaux, T. ; Siebert, U. ; Dorny, P. - \ 2014
- 1 p.
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