Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Legume and cereal defence metabolites as lead compounds for novel antimicrobials : production, analysis, and structural modification
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.-P. Vincken; H. Gruppen; W.N. Chen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463435932 - 194
Toward developing a yeast cell factory for the production of prenylated flavonoids
Levisson, Mark ; Araya-Cloutier, Carla ; Bruijn, Wouter J.C. De; Heide, Menno Van Der; Salvador López, José Manuel ; Daran, Jean Marc ; Vincken, Jean Paul ; Beekwilder, Jules - \ 2019
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2019). - ISSN 0021-8561
8-prenylnaringenin - de novo - metabolic engineering - naringenin - prenylated flavonoids - Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Prenylated flavonoids possess a wide variety of biological activities, including estrogenic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Hence, they have potential applications in food products, medicines, or supplements with health-promoting activities. However, the low abundance of prenylated flavonoids in nature is limiting their exploitation. Therefore, we investigated the prospect of producing prenylated flavonoids in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a proof of concept, we focused on the production of the potent phytoestrogen 8-prenylnaringenin. Introduction of the flavonoid prenyltransferase SfFPT from Sophora flavescens in naringenin-producing yeast strains resulted in de novo production of 8-prenylnaringenin. We generated several strains with increased production of the intermediate precursor naringenin, which finally resulted in a production of 0.12 mg L -1 (0.35 μM) 8-prenylnaringenin under shake flask conditions. A number of bottlenecks in prenylated flavonoid production were identified and are discussed.

The Shadow Price of Irrigation Water in Major Groundwater‐Depleting Countries
Bierkens, M.F.P. ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Bruijn, Jens A. de; Veninga, Willeke ; Wada, Yoshihide - \ 2019
Water Resources Research 55 (2019)5. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 4266 - 4287.
In many semiarid regions with irrigation, the depletion rate of groundwater resources has increased substantially during the last decades. A possible reason for this is that the price that users pay for their water does not reflect its scarcity and value. An alternative way to assess the perceived value of water is calculating its shadow price, which is defined here as the marginal value produced, and relates to the efficiency gain from current reallocation. Here we determine the shadow price of water used for irrigation for the most important groundwater‐depleting countries and for four staple crops and one cash crop. To quantify the shadow price, the relation between the output and the water input is represented using production functions. We use globally available panel data on country‐specific crop yields and prices together with crop‐specific water consumption, calculated with the global hydrological model PCR‐GLOBWB, to parameterize the production function by country and crop with econometric analyses.
Our results show that the variation of shadow prices for staple crops within several countries is high, indicating economically inefficient use of water resources, including nonrenewable groundwater. We also analyze the effects of reallocating irrigation water between crops, showing that changes in water
allocation could lead to either an increase in the economic efficiency of water use or large reductions in irrigation water consumption. Our study thus provides a hydroeconomic basis to stimulate sustainable use of finite groundwater resources globally.
Mass spectrometric characterisation of avenanthramides and enhancing their production by germination of oat (Avena sativa)
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Dinteren, Sarah van; Gruppen, Harry ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2019
Food Chemistry 277 (2019). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 682 - 690.
Avena sativa - Avenanthramides - Cereal grain - Germination - LC-MS - Phytoalexin - Plant defence - Poaceae

Avenanthramides are amides, with a phenylalkenoic acid (PA) and an anthranilic acid (AA) subunit, which are secondary metabolites of oat. Oat seeds were germinated, extracted, and the avenanthramides analysed by a combination of UHPLC with ion trap and high resolution ESI-MS. Typical fragmentation pathways with corresponding diagnostic fragments belonging to the PA and AA subunits were identified and summarised in a decision guideline. Based on these findings 28 unique avenanthramides were annotated in the oat seed(ling) extracts, including the new avenanthramide 6f (with a 4/5-methoxy AA subunit). Avenanthramide content increased by 25 times from seed to seedling. Avenanthramides 2p, 2c, and 2f, which are commonly described as the major avenanthramides, represented less than 20% of the total content in the seedlings. Future quantitative analyses should, therefore, include a wider range of avenanthramides to avoid underestimation of the total avenanthramide content.

Comparative analysis of binding patterns of MADS-domain proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana
Aerts, Niels ; Bruijn, S.A. de; Mourik, H. van; Angenent, G.C. ; Dijk, A.D.J. van - \ 2018
MADS-domain proteins - CArG-box - ChiP-seq - transcription factor binding specifity - sequence conservation
Background Correct flower formation requires highly specific temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression. In Arabidopsis thaliana the majority of the master regulators that determine flower organ identity belong to the MADS-domain transcription factor family. The canonical DNA binding motif for this transcription factor family is the CArG-box, which has the consensus CC(A/T)6GG. However, so far, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-domain binding patterns has not yet been performed. Results Eight publicly available ChIP-seq datasets of MADS-domain proteins that regulate the floral transition and flower formation were analyzed. Surprisingly, the preferred DNA binding motif of each protein was a CArG-box with an NAA extension. Furthermore, motifs of other transcription factors were found in the vicinity of binding sites of MADS-domain transcription factors, suggesting that interaction of MADS-domain proteins with other transcription factors is important for target gene regulation. Finally, conservation of CArG-boxes between Arabidopsis ecotypes was assessed to obtain information about their evolutionary importance. CArG-boxes that fully matched the consensus were more conserved than other CArG-boxes, suggesting that the perfect CArG-box is evolutionary more important than other CArG-box variants. Conclusion Our analysis provides detailed insight into MADS-domain protein binding patterns. The results underline the importance of an extended version of the CArG-box and provide a first view on evolutionary conservation of MADS-domain protein binding sites in Arabidopsis ecotypes.
Lachen als een boer met subsidie
Doorn, Anne van - \ 2018
Successional changes in rhizosphere microbiome composition and functions during induction of the soil immune response
Gomez Exposito, R. ; Bruijn, I. de; Postma, J. ; Raaijmakers, J.M. - \ 2018
Europarlementariers willen pulsvisserij verbieden door fakenews
Rijnsdorp, Adriaan ; Pieters, Remco ; Boute, Pim - \ 2018

Het Europees Parlement benadeelt Nederlandse vissers op basis van foute, gemanipuleerde informatie. Dat stelt ondermeer visserijbioloog Adriaan Rijnsdorp, die deze week met verbijstering toekeek hoe een ruime meerderheid van het Europees Parlement voor een totaalverbod op de zogeheten pulsvisserij stemde. 'Als je met fakenews een politiek doel dient dan ben je smerig bezig', aldus de hoogleraar van de Wageningen Universiteit.

INNOVA Ezine 3 – Kiel Bay, Heavy rains and erosion in the Baltic coastal area
Timmermans, W. ; Jong, F. de; Bruijn, Daphne de; Harsema, H. ; Stelljes, N. ; Sterr, H. ; Martinez, G. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Blauwdruk
PISTILLATA paralogs in Tarenaya hassleriana have diverged in interaction specificity
Bruijn, Suzanne de; Zhao, Tao ; Muiño, Jose M. ; Schranz, Eric M. ; Angenent, Gerco C. ; Kaufmann, Kerstin - \ 2018
BMC Plant Biology 18 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-2229
Cleomaceae - Flower development - Gene duplications - MADS - Paralogs - PISTILLATA - Tarenaya

Background: Floral organs are specified by MADS-domain transcription factors that act in a combinatorial manner, as summarized in the (A)BCE model. However, this evolutionarily conserved model is in contrast to a remarkable amount of morphological diversity in flowers. One of the mechanisms suggested to contribute to this diversity is duplication of floral MADS-domain transcription factors. Although gene duplication is often followed by loss of one of the copies, sometimes both copies are retained. If both copies are retained they will initially be redundant, providing freedom for one of the paralogs to change function. Here, we examine the evolutionary fate and functional consequences of a transposition event at the base of the Brassicales that resulted in the duplication of the floral regulator PISTILLATA (PI), using Tarenaya hassleriana (Cleomaceae) as a model system. Results: The transposition of a genomic region containing a PI gene led to two paralogs which are located at different positions in the genome. The original PI copy is syntenic in position with most angiosperms, whereas the transposed copy is syntenic with the PI genes in Brassicaceae. The two PI paralogs of T. hassleriana have very similar expression patterns. However, they may have diverged in function, as only one of these PI proteins was able to act heterologously in the first whorl of A. thaliana flowers. We also observed differences in protein complex formation between the two paralogs, and the two paralogs exhibit subtle differences in DNA-binding specificity. Sequence analysis indicates that most of the protein sequence divergence between the two T. hassleriana paralogs emerged in a common ancestor of the Cleomaceae and the Brassicaceae. Conclusions: We found that the PI paralogs in T. hassleriana have similar expression patterns, but may have diverged at the level of protein function. Data suggest that most protein sequence divergence occurred rapidly, prior to the origin of the Brassicaceae and Cleomaceae. It is tempting to speculate that the interaction specificities of the Brassicaceae-specific PI proteins are different compared to the PI found in other angiosperms. This could lead to PI regulating partly different genes in the Brassicaceae, and ultimately might result in change floral in morphology.

QSAR of 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one antimicrobials and their drug design perspectives
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Hageman, Jos A. ; Araya-Cloutier, Carla ; Gruppen, Harry ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2018
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 26 (2018)23-24. - ISSN 0968-0896 - p. 6105 - 6114.
2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one - Antibacterial - Antifungal - Benzoxazinoid - Benzoxazinone - Drug design - QSAR - SAR

Synthetic derivatives of 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones have been shown to possess promising antimicrobial activity, whereas their natural counterparts were found lacking in this respect. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of natural and synthetic 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones as antimicrobials were established. Data published in literature were curated into an extensive dataset of 111 compounds. Descriptor selection was performed by a genetic algorithm. QSAR models revealed differences in requirements for activity against fungi, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Shape, VolSurf, and H-bonding property descriptors were frequently picked in all models. The models obtained for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria showed good predictive power (Q2 Ext 0.88 and 0.85, respectively). Based on the models generated, an additional set of 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones, for which no antimicrobial activity had been determined in literature, were evaluated in silico. Additionally, newly designed lead compounds with a 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one scaffold were generated in silico by varying the positions and combinations of substituents. Two of these were predicted to be up to 5 times more active than any of the compounds in the current dataset. The 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one scaffold was concluded to possess potential for the design of new antimicrobial compounds with potent antibacterial activity, a multitarget mode of action, and possibly reduced susceptibility to gram negatives’ efflux pumps.

INNOVA Ezine 2 – Valencia Region, Droughts and Agricultural Interests in a Metropolitan Area in Spain
Timmermans, W. ; Jong, F. de; Martín, Adrià Rubio ; Bruijn, Daphne de; Harsema, H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Blauwdruk
In the metropolitan area of Valencia the water use is intense and the region suffers from frequent droughts due to climate conditions. Valencia is surrounded by an agricultural landscape with deep cultural significance and with a multi-sectoral structure in which irrigated agriculture plays an important role in the consumption of water. The Albufera Natural Park, less than 10 km south of Valencia, is a freshwater lagoon and its surroundings rice plots. Given the predicted adverse effects of climate change, it is important for the City of Valencia to develop adaptation strategies for the future climate. The mandate for the INNOVA project is to develop a climate service that satisfies the water use needs to support the distribution of potable water to its users.

The second INNOVA e-zine shows the climate and adaptation challenges the Valencia region is facing. The first issue showed the Mirror Waal project in the Nijmegen area (NL).

From awareness of upcoming flooding risks, via complex planning and design efforts into the final result. Whereas Nijmegen is far in the Adaptation Cycle; the Valencia metropolitan area is between the steps of identifying adaptation options (Step 3) and assessing these options (Step 4).
INNOVA Ezine 1 – Nijmegen, the EU Green Capital 2018 and Room for the River Waal
Timmermans, W. ; Jong, F. de; Ginkel, M. van; Martinez, G. ; Bruijn, D. de; Harsema, H. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Blauwdruk
The Dutch city of Nijmegen is becoming well-known because of its planning approach that combines large scale climate adaptation measures with a strong emphasis on spatial quality. Nijmegen is situated along the Waal river, one of Europe’s largest transport and ecological corridors. More than 250M euro has been spent on a new bypass of the Waal, called the Mirror Waal, one of the major urban examples of the Dutch Room for the River project. This e-zine shows the Mirror Waal project. From awareness of upcoming flooding risks, via complex planning and design efforts into the final result, including innovative ecological engineering, new sport activities and spontaneous festivals. The e-zine is presented by the INNOVA project. It is the first e-zine out of ten. INNOVA is a research project aiming to facilitate the use of climate data and projections, scientifically known as climate services, in adaptation efforts by urban governments. The project focuses on three European cities, and a small island state. These are: Kiel Bay in Germany, Nijmegen in The Netherlands, Valencia in Spain, and finally, the French West-Indies Islands of Guadeloupe & Martinique.
Costs of persisting unreliable memory : Reduced foraging efficiency for free-flying parasitic wasps in a wind tunnel
Bruijn, Jessica A.C. de; Vet, Louise E.M. ; Smid, Hans M. - \ 2018
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6 (2018)OCT. - ISSN 2296-701X
Cotesia glomerata - Foraging efficiency - Learning - Memory - Non-host - Oviposition - Prediction error - Unreliable information

Parasitic wasps are known to improve their foraging efficiency after learning of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) upon encountering their hosts on these plants. However, due to spatial and temporal variation of herbivore communities, learned HIPV cues can become unreliable, no longer correctly predicting host presence. Little is known about the potential fitness costs when memories holding such unreliable information persist. Here we studied how persistent memory, containing unreliable information, affects the foraging efficiency for hosts in Cotesia glomerata. Wasps were conditioned to associate one of two types of HIPVs with either P. brassicae frass, 1 single oviposition in P. brassicae, 3 ovipositions in P. brassicae spaced in time or they were kept unconditioned. The following day, wasps were allowed to forage in a wind tunnel, in an environment that either conflicted or was congruent with their learned plant experience. The foraging environment consisted of host (P. brassicae) and non-host (Mamestra brassicae) infested plants. The conflicting environment had non-hosts on the conditioned plant species and hosts on the non-conditioned plant species, whereas the congruent environment had hosts on the conditioned plant species and non-hosts on the unconditioned plant species. Wasps had to navigate through five non-host infested plants to reach the host-infested plant. Since C. glomerata wasps do not distinguish between HIPVs induced by host and non-host caterpillars, the conflicting foraging situation caused a prediction error, by guiding wasps to non-host infested plants. Especially wasps given 3 spaced oviposition experiences, tested in a conflicting situation, spent significantly more time on non-host infested plants and showed a high tendency to oviposit in the non-hosts. As a result, they took significantly more time to find their hosts. Conditioned wasps, which were tested in a congruent situation, were more responsive than unconditioned wasps, but there was no difference in foraging efficiency between these two groups in the wasps that showed a response. We conclude that persistent memories, such as formed after 3 experiences spaced in time, can lead to maladaptive foraging behavior if the contained information becomes unreliable.

Structure and biosynthesis of benzoxazinoids : Plant defence metabolites with potential as antimicrobial scaffolds
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Gruppen, Harry ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2018
Phytochemistry 155 (2018). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 233 - 243.
Antibacterial - Antifungal - Benzoxazinone - Benzoxazolinone - Cereal - Classification - Modification - Plant defence - Poaceae - Synthetic

Benzoxazinoids, comprising the classes of benzoxazinones and benzoxazolinones, are a set of specialised metabolites produced by the plant family Poaceae (formerly Gramineae), and some dicots. The family Poaceae in particular contains several important crops like maize and wheat. Benzoxazinoids play a role in allelopathy and as defence compounds against (micro)biological threats. The effectivity of benzoxazinones in these functionalities is largely imposed by the subclasses (determined by N substituent). In this review, we provide an overview of all currently known natural benzoxazinoids and a summary of the current state of knowledge of their biosynthesis. We also evaluated their antimicrobial activity based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values reported in literature. Monomeric natural benzoxazinoids seem to lack potency as antimicrobial agents. The 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one backbone, however, has been shown to be a potential scaffold for designing new antimicrobial compounds. This has been demonstrated by a number of studies that report potent activity of synthetic derivatives of 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, which possess MIC values down to 6.25 μg mL−1 against pathogenic fungi (e.g. C. albicans) and 16 μg mL−1 against bacteria (e.g. S. aureus and E. coli). Observations on the structural requirements for allelopathy, insecticidal, and antimicrobial activity suggest that they are not necessarily conferred by similar mechanisms.

Stal van de Toekomst proeftuin voor duurzame varkenshouderij
Verdoes, Nico - \ 2018
Automated high-throughput individual tracking system for insect behavior : Applications on memory retention in parasitic wasps
Bruijn, Jessica A.C. de; Vet, Louise E.M. ; Jongsma, Maarten A. ; Smid, Hans M. - \ 2018
Journal of Neuroscience Methods 309 (2018). - ISSN 0165-0270 - p. 208 - 217.
Cotesia glomerata - Learning - Memory retention - Nasonia vitripennis - Parasitic wasps - Tracking system

Background: Insects are important models to study learning and memory formation in both an ecological and neuroscience context due to their small size, behavioral flexibility and ecological diversity. Measuring memory retention is often done through simple time-consuming set-ups, producing only a single parameter for conditioned behavior. We wished to obtain higher sample sizes with fewer individuals to measure olfactory memory retention more efficiently. New method: The high-throughput individual T-maze uses commercially available tracking software, Ethovision XT®, in combination with a Perspex stack of plates as small as 18 × 18 cm, which accommodates 36 olfactory T-mazes, where each individual wasp could choose between two artificial odors. Various behavioral parameters, relevant to memory retention, were acquired in this set-up; first choice, residence time, giving up time and zone entries. From these parameters a performance index was calculated as a measure of memory retention. Groups of 36 wasps were simultaneously tested within minutes, resulting in efficient acquisition of sufficiently high sample sizes. Results: This system was tested with two very different parasitic wasp species, the larval parasitoid Cotesia glomerata and the pupal parasitoid Nasonia vitripennis, and has proven to be highly suitable for testing memory retention in both these species. Comparison with existing methods: Unlike other bioassays, this system allows for both high-throughput and recording of detailed individual behavior. Conclusions: The high-throughput individual T-maze provides us with a standardized high-throughput, labor-efficient and cost-effective method to test various kinds of behavior, offering excellent opportunities for comparative studies of various aspects of insect behavior.

Antibacterial prenylated stilbenoids from peanut (Arachis hypogaea)
Bruijn, Wouter J.C. de; Araya-Cloutier, Carla ; Bijlsma, Judith ; Swart, Anne de; Sanders, Mark G. ; Waard, Pieter de; Gruppen, Harry ; Vincken, Jean Paul - \ 2018
Phytochemistry Letters 28 (2018). - ISSN 1874-3900 - p. 13 - 18.
Antimicrobial - Leguminosae - Natural product - Prenylation - Secondary metabolite - Stilbene

Stilbenoids are a class of secondary metabolites with a stilbene backbone that can be produced by peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as defence metabolites. Six monomeric prenylated stilbenoids, including the compound arachidin-6 (4), were isolated from extracts of fungus-elicited peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) using preparative liquid chromatography. Their structures were confirmed by MSn, HRMS and NMR spectroscopy and their antibacterial activity was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Similarly to other phenolic compounds, prenylated derivatives of stilbenoids were more active than their non-prenylated precursors piceatannol, resveratrol, and pinosylvin. Chiricanine A (6), a chain-prenylated pinosylvin derivative, was the most potent compound tested, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 μg mL−1. Arachidin-6 (4), a ring-prenylated piceatannol derivative, had moderate potency (MIC 50–75 μg mL−1). In conclusion, prenylated stilbenoids represent a group of potential natural antibacterials which show promising activity against MRSA.

Altered neural responsivity to food cues in relation to food preferences, but not appetite-related hormone concentrations after RYGB-surgery
Zoon, Harriët F.A. ; Bruijn, Suzanne E.M. de; Smeets, Paul A.M. ; Graaf, Cees de; Janssen, Ignace M.C. ; Schijns, Wendy ; Aarts, Edo O. ; Jager, Gerry ; Boesveldt, Sanne - \ 2018
Behavioural Brain Research 353 (2018). - ISSN 0166-4328 - p. 194 - 202.
Endocannabinoid - Energy-density - fMRI - Food cues - Ghrelin - Obesity - Olfactory - Reward - Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery - Visual

Background: After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, patients report a shift in food preferences away from high-energy foods. Objective: We aimed to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying this shift in food preferences by assessing changes in neural responses to food pictures and odors before and after RYGB. Additionally, we investigated whether altered neural responsivity was associated with changes in plasma endocannabinoid and ghrelin concentrations. Design: 19 RYGB patients (4 men; age 41 ± 10 years; BMI 41 ± 1 kg/m2 before; BMI 36 ± 1 kg/m2 after) participated in this study. Before and two months after RYGB surgery, they rated their food preferences using the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task and BOLD fMRI responses towards pictures and odors of high-, and low-energy foods and non-food items were measured. Blood samples were taken to determine plasma endocannabinoid and ghrelin concentrations pre- and post-surgery. Results: Patients demonstrated a shift in food preferences away from high-fat/sweet and towards low-energy/savory food products, which correlated with decreased superior parietal lobule responsivity to high-energy food odor and a reduced difference in precuneus responsivity to high-energy versus low-energy food pictures. In the anteroventral prefrontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus) the difference in deactivation towards high-energy versus non-food odors reduced. The precuneus was less deactivated in response to all cues. Plasma concentrations of anandamide were higher after surgery, while plasma concentrations of other endocannabinoids and ghrelin did not change. Alterations in appetite-related hormone concentrations did not correlate with changes in neural responsivity. Conclusions: RYGB leads to changed responsivity of the frontoparietal control network that orchestrates top-down control to high-energy food compared to low-energy food and non-food cues, rather than in reward related brain regions, in a satiated state. Together with correlations with the shift in food preference from high- to low-energy foods this indicates a possible role in new food preference formation.

Altered neural inhibition responses to food cues after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
Zoon, H.F.A. ; Bruijn, S.E.M. de; Jager, G. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Graaf, C. de; Janssen, I.M.C. ; Schijns, W. ; Deden, L. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2018
Biological Psychology 137 (2018). - ISSN 0301-0511 - p. 34 - 41.
Bariatric surgery - fMRI - Food preferences - go/no-go - Impulsivity - Inhibitory control - Weight-Loss

Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is a highly effective weight-loss intervention that often reduces preference and intake of high-energy foods. Research into the neural mechanisms behind this shift has mainly focused on reward processing of food cues. However, the ability to successfully control food intake and thereby weight-loss also depends on inhibitory control capacity. We investigated whether RYGB leads to alterations in neural inhibitory control in response to food cues. Methods: A food-specific go/no-go task with pictures of high-energy (desserts) and low-energy foods (vegetables), was used to assess neural inhibition responses before and after RYGB with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Data from 18 morbidly obese patients (15 females; age 41 ± 11 years; BMI 42 ± 4 kg/m2 before; BMI 36 ± 4 kg/m2 after) were analysed. Pre- and post-RYGB BOLD fMRI responses were compared for response inhibition towards high- and low-energy foods. Participants were tested in a satiated state. Results: Response inhibition to high-energy foods was associated with increased activation of the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), right medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, right middle cingulate cortex and the right inferior frontal operculum (involved in inhibitory control), after compared to before surgery. Response inhibition to low-energy foods elicited diminished post- compared to pre-surgery responses in the left superior temporal pole, right parahippocampal gyrus and right hypothalamus (involved in metabolic control). Conclusion: Neural changes indicate improved response inhibition towards high-energy food cues, altered influence of metabolic control during response inhibition towards low-energy food cues and a more positive attitude to both high-energy and low-energy food after RYGB. Alterations in neural circuits involved in inhibitory control, satiety signalling and reward processing may contribute to effective weight-loss after RYGB.

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