Future streamflow regime changes in the United States: Assessment using functional classification
Brunner, Manuela I. ; Melsen, Lieke A. ; Newman, Andrew J. ; Wood, Andrew W. ; Clark, Martyn P. - \ 2020
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 24 (2020)8. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 3951 - 3966.
Streamflow regimes are changing and expected to further change under the influence of climate change, with potential impacts on flow variability and the seasonality of extremes. However, not all types of regimes are going to change in the same way. Climate change impact assessments can therefore benefit from identifying classes of catchments with similar streamflow regimes. Traditional catchment classification approaches have focused on specific meteorological and/or streamflow indices, usually neglecting the temporal information stored in the data. The aim of this study is 2-fold: (1) develop a catchment classification scheme that enables incorporation of such temporal information and (2) use the scheme to evaluate changes in future flow regimes. We use the developed classification scheme, which relies on a functional data representation, to cluster a large set of catchments in the conterminous United States (CONUS) according to their mean annual hydrographs. We identify five regime classes that summarize the behavior of catchments in the CONUS: (1) intermittent regime, (2) weak winter regime, (3) strong winter regime, (4) New Year's regime, and (5) melt regime. Our results show that these spatially contiguous classes are not only similar in terms of their regimes, but also their flood and drought behavior as well as their physiographical and meteorological characteristics. We therefore deem the functional regime classes valuable for a number of applications going beyond change assessments, including model validation studies or predictions of streamflow characteristics in ungauged basins. To assess future regime changes, we use simulated discharge time series obtained from the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrologic model driven with meteorological time series generated by five general circulation models. A comparison of the future regime classes derived from these simulations with current classes shows that robust regime changes are expected only for currently melt-influenced regions in the Rocky Mountains. These changes in mountainous, upstream regions may require adaption of water management strategies to ensure sufficient water supply in dependent downstream regions.
Organic micropollutant removal in full-scale rapid sand filters used for drinking water treatment in The Netherlands and Belgium
Marcantonio, Camilla Di; Bertelkamp, Cheryl ; Bel, Nikki van; Pronk, Tessa E. ; Timmers, Peer H.A. ; Wielen, Paul van der; Brunner, Andrea M. - \ 2020
Chemosphere 260 (2020). - ISSN 0045-6535
Drinking water treatment - Microbial community composition analysis - Non-target screening - Organic micropollutants - Rapid sand filtration - Transformation products
Biological treatment processes have the potential to remove organic micropollutants (OMPs) during water treatment. The OMP removal capacity of conventional drinking water treatment processes such as rapid sand filters (RSFs), however, has not been studied in detail. We investigated OMP removal and transformation product (TP) formation in seven full-scale RSFs all treating surface water, using high-resolution mass spectrometry based quantitative suspect and non-target screening (NTS). Additionally, we studied the microbial communities with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (NGS) in both influent and effluent waters as well as the filter medium, and integrated these data to comprehensively assess the processes that affect OMP removal. In the RSF influent, 9 to 30 of the 127 target OMPs were detected. The removal efficiencies ranged from 0 to 93%. A data-driven workflow was established to monitor TPs, based on the combination of NTS feature intensity profiles between influent and effluent samples and the prediction of biotic TPs. The workflow identified 10 TPs, including molecular structure. Microbial community composition analysis showed similar community composition in the influent and effluent of most RSFs, but different from the filter medium, implying that specific microorganisms proliferate in the RSFs. Some of these are able to perform typical processes in water treatment such as nitrification and iron oxidation. However, there was no clear relationship between OMP removal efficiency and microbial community composition. The innovative combination of quantitative analyses, NTS and NGS allowed to characterize real scale biological water treatments, emphasizing the potential of bio-stimulation applications in drinking water treatment.
H7N9 influenza split vaccine with SWE oil-in-water adjuvant greatly enhances cross-reactive humoral immunity and protection against severe pneumonia in ferrets
Jonge, Jørgen de; Dijken, Harry van; Heij, Femke de; Spijkers, Sanne ; Mouthaan, Justin ; Jong, Rineke de; Roholl, Paul ; Adami, Eduardo Alfredo ; Akamatsu, Milena Apetito ; Ho, Paulo Lee ; Brunner, Livia ; Collin, Nicolas ; Friede, Martin ; Ferreira, José A. ; Luytjes, Willem - \ 2020
Vaccines 5 (2020)1. - ISSN 2076-393X
Until universal influenza vaccines become available, pandemic preparedness should include developing classical vaccines against potential pandemic influenza subtypes. We here show that addition of SWE adjuvant, a squalene-in-water emulsion, to H7N9 split influenza vaccine clearly enhanced functional antibody responses in ferrets. These were cross-reactive against H7N9 strains from different lineages and newly emerged H7N9 variants. Both vaccine formulations protected in almost all cases against severe pneumonia induced by intratracheal infection of ferrets with H7N9 influenza; however, the SWE adjuvant enhanced protection against virus replication and disease. Correlation analysis and curve fitting showed that both VN- and NI-titers were better predictors for protection than HI-titers. Moreover, we show that novel algorithms can assist in better interpretation of large data sets generated in preclinical studies. Cluster analysis showed that the adjuvanted vaccine results in robust immunity and protection, whereas the response to the non-adjuvanted vaccine is heterogeneous, such that the protection balance may be more easily tipped toward severe disease. Finally, cluster analysis indicated that the dose-sparing capacity of the adjuvant is at least a factor six, which greatly increases vaccine availability in a pandemic situation.
Equalization of four cardiovascular risk algorithms after systematic recalibration: Individual-participant meta-analysis of 86 prospective studies
Pennells, Lisa ; Kaptoge, Stephen ; Wood, Angela ; Sweeting, Mike ; Zhao, Xiaohui ; White, Ian ; Burgess, Stephen ; Willeit, Peter ; Bolton, Thomas ; Moons, Karel G.M. ; Schouw, Yvonne T. Van Der; Selmer, Randi ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Assmann, Gerd ; Amouyel, Philippe ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Kivimaki, Mika ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Blaha, Michael J. ; Kuller, Lewis H. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Gillum, Richard F. ; Meisinger, Christa ; Ford, Ian ; Knuiman, Matthew W. ; Rosengren, Annika ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Völzke, Henry ; Cooper, Cyrus ; Marín Ibañez, Alejandro ; Casiglia, Edoardo ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Cooper, Jackie A. ; Rodriguez, Beatriz ; Sundström, Johan ; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth ; Dankner, Rachel ; Nietert, Paul J. ; Davidson, Karina W. ; Wallace, Robert B. ; Blazer, Dan G. ; Björkelund, Cecilia ; Donfrancesco, Chiara ; Krumholz, Harlan M. ; Nissinen, Aulikki ; Davis, Barry R. ; Coady, Sean ; Whincup, Peter H. ; Jørgensen, Torben ; Ducimetiere, Pierre ; Trevisan, Maurizio ; Engström, Gunnar ; Crespo, Carlos J. ; Meade, Tom W. ; Visser, Marjolein ; Kromhout, Daan ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Daimon, Makoto ; Price, Jackie F. ; Gómez De La Cámara, Agustin ; Jukema, J.W. ; Lamarche, Benoît ; Onat, Altan ; Simons, Leon A. ; Kavousi, Maryam ; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav ; Gallacher, John ; Dekker, Jacqueline M. ; Arima, Hisatomi ; Shara, Nawar ; Tipping, Robert W. ; Roussel, Ronan ; Brunner, Eric J. ; Koenig, Wolfgang ; Sakurai, Masaru ; Pavlovic, Jelena ; Gansevoort, Ron T. ; Nagel, Dorothea ; Goldbourt, Uri ; Barr, Elizabeth L.M. ; Palmieri, Luigi ; Njølstad, Inger ; Sato, Shinichi ; Monique Verschuren, W.M. ; Varghese, Cherian V. ; Graham, Ian ; Onuma, Oyere ; Greenland, Philip ; Woodward, Mark ; Ezzati, Majid ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Sattar, Naveed ; Jackson, Rod ; Ridker, Paul M. ; Cook, Nancy R. ; Agostino, Ralph B. D'; Thompson, Simon G. ; Danesh, John ; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Simpson, Lara M. ; Pressel, Sara L. ; Couper, David J. ; Nambi, Vijay ; Matsushita, Kunihiro ; Folsom, Aaron R. ; Shaw, Jonathan E. ; Magliano, Dianna J. ; Zimmet, Paul Z. ; Wannamethee, S.G. ; Willeit, Johann ; Santer, Peter ; Egger, Georg ; Casas, Juan Pablo ; Amuzu, Antointtte ; Tikhonoff, Valérie ; Sutherland, Susan E. ; Cushman, Mary ; Søgaard, Anne Johanne ; Håheim, Lise Lund ; Ariansen, Inger ; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne ; Jensen, Gorm B. ; Schnohr, Peter ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Vanuzzo, Diego ; Panico, Salvatore ; Balkau, Beverley ; Bonnet, Fabrice ; Marre, Michel ; La Cámara, Agustin Gómez De; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Angel ; Friedlander, Yechiel ; McCallum, John ; McLachlan, Stela ; Guralnik, Jack ; Phillips, Caroline L. ; Wareham, Nick ; Schöttker, Ben ; Saum, Kai Uwe ; Holleczek, Bernd ; Tolonen, Hanna ; Vartiainen, Erkki ; Jousilahti, Pekka ; Harald, Kennet ; Massaro, Joseph M. ; Pencina, Michael ; Vasan, Ramachandran ; Kayama, Takamasa ; Kato, Takeo ; Oizumi, Toshihide ; Jespersen, Jørgen ; Møller, Lars ; Bladbjerg, Else Marie ; Chetrit, A. ; Wilhelmsen, Lars ; Lissner, Lauren ; Dennison, Elaine ; Kiyohara, Yutaka ; Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Doi, Yasufumi ; Nijpels, Giel ; Stehouwer, Coen D.A. ; Kazumasa, Yamagishi ; Iso, Hiroyasu ; Kurl, Sudhir ; Tuomainen, Tomi Pekka ; Salonen, Jukka T. ; Deeg, Dorly J.H. ; Nilsson, Peter M. ; Bo, Hedblad ; Melander, Olle ; Boer, Ian H. De; DeFilippis, Andrew Paul ; Watt, Graham ; Tverdal, Aage ; Kirkland, Susan ; Shimbo, Daichi ; Shaffer, Jonathan ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Harst, Pim Van Der; Hillege, Hans L. ; Dallongeville, Jean ; Schulte, Helmut ; Trompet, Stella ; Smit, Roelof A.J. ; Stott, David J. ; Després, Jean Pierre ; Cantin, Bernard ; Dagenais, Gilles R. ; Laughlin, Gail ; Wingard, Deborah ; Aspelund, Thor ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; Gudmundsson, Elias Freyr ; Ikram, Arfan ; Rooij, Frank J.A. Van; Franco, Oscar H. ; Rueda-Ochoa, Oscar L. ; Muka, Taulant ; Glisic, Marija ; Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh ; Howard, Barbara V. ; Ying, Zhang ; Jolly, Stacey ; Davey-Smith, George ; Can, Günay ; Yüksel, Hüsniye ; Nakagawa, Hideaki ; Morikawa, Yuko ; Miura, Katsuyuki ; Ingelsson, Martin ; Giedraitis, Vilmantas ; Gaziano, J.M. ; Shipley, Martin ; Arndt, Volker ; Ibañez, Alejandro Marín ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2019
European Heart Journal 40 (2019)7. - ISSN 0195-668X - p. 621 - 631.
Calibration - Cardiovascular disease - Discrimination - Risk algorithms - Risk prediction
Aims There is debate about the optimum algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimation. We conducted head-to-head comparisons of four algorithms recommended by primary prevention guidelines, before and after 'recalibration', a method that adapts risk algorithms to take account of differences in the risk characteristics of the populations being studied. Methods and results Using individual-participant data on 360 737 participants without CVD at baseline in 86 prospective studies from 22 countries, we compared the Framingham risk score (FRS), Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), pooled cohort equations (PCE), and Reynolds risk score (RRS). We calculated measures of risk discrimination and calibration, and modelled clinical implications of initiating statin therapy in people judged to be at 'high' 10 year CVD risk. Original risk algorithms were recalibrated using the risk factor profile and CVD incidence of target populations. The four algorithms had similar risk discrimination. Before recalibration, FRS, SCORE, and PCE over-predicted CVD risk on average by 10%, 52%, and 41%, respectively, whereas RRS under-predicted by 10%. Original versions of algorithms classified 29-39% of individuals aged ≥40 years as high risk. By contrast, recalibration reduced this proportion to 22-24% for every algorithm. We estimated that to prevent one CVD event, it would be necessary to initiate statin therapy in 44-51 such individuals using original algorithms, in contrast to 37-39 individuals with recalibrated algorithms. Conclusion Before recalibration, the clinical performance of four widely used CVD risk algorithms varied substantially. By contrast, simple recalibration nearly equalized their performance and improved modelled targeting of preventive action to clinical need.
Introductory overview of identifiability analysis: A guide to evaluating whether you have the right type of data for your modeling purpose
Guillaume, Joseph H.A. ; Jakeman, John D. ; Marsili-Libelli, Stefano ; Asher, Michael ; Brunner, Philip ; Croke, B. ; Hill, Mary C. ; Jakeman, Anthony J. ; Keesman, Karel J. ; Razavi, S. ; Stigter, Johannes D. - \ 2019
Environmental Modelling & Software 119 (2019). - ISSN 1364-8152 - p. 418 - 432.
Derivative based methods - Emulation - Hessian - Identifiability - Non-uniqueness - Response surface - Uncertainty
Identifiability is a fundamental concept in parameter estimation, and therefore key to the large majority of environmental modeling applications. Parameter identifiability analysis assesses whether it is theoretically possible to estimate unique parameter values from data, given the quantities measured, conditions present in the forcing data, model structure (and objective function), and properties of errors in the model and observations. In other words, it tackles the problem of whether the right type of data is available to estimate the desired parameter values. Identifiability analysis is therefore an essential technique that should be adopted more routinely in practice, alongside complementary methods such as uncertainty analysis and evaluation of model performance. This article provides an introductory overview to the topic. We recommend that any modeling study should document whether a model is non-identifiable, the source of potential non-identifiability, and how this affects intended project outcomes.
Defining and applying the concept of Favourable Reference Values for species habitats under the EU Birds and Habitats Directives : examples of setting favourable reference values
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Agrillo, E. ; Attorre, F. ; Boitani, L. ; Brunner, A. ; Evans, P. ; Foppen, R. ; Gubbay, S. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Langhout, W. ; Pacifici, M. ; Ramirez, I. ; Rondinini, C. ; Roomen, M. van; Siepel, H. ; Swaaij, C.A.M. van; Winter, H.V. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2929) - 219
Defining and applying the concept of Favourable Reference Values for species habitats under the EU Birds and Habitats Directives : technical report
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Agrillo, E. ; Attorre, F. ; Boitani, L. ; Brunner, A. ; Evans, P. ; Foppen, R. ; Gubbay, S. ; Janssen, J.A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Langhout, W. ; Noordhuis, R. ; Pacifici, M. ; Ramirez, I. ; Rondinini, C. ; Roomen, M. van; Siepel, H. ; Winter, H.V. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2928) - 93
Exploring urban metabolism—Towards an interdisciplinary perspective
Dijst, M. ; Worrell, E. ; L., Böcker ; P., Brunner ; Davoudi, S. ; Geertman, S. ; Harmsen, R. ; Helbich, M. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Kwan, Mei-Po ; Lenz, B. ; Lyons, G. ; Mokhtarian, P.L. ; Newman, P. ; Perrels, A. ; Ribeiro, A.P. ; Rosales Carreón, J. ; Thomson, G. ; Urge-Vorsatz, D. ; Zeyringer, M. - \ 2018
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 132 (2018). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 190 - 203.
The discussion on urban metabolism has been long dominated by natural scientists focussing on natural forces shaping the energy and material flows in urban systems. However, in the anthropocene human forces such as industrialization and urbanization are mobilizing people, goods and information at an increasing pace and as such have a large impact on urban energy and material flows. In this white paper, we develop a combined natural and social science perspective on urban metabolism. More specifically, innovative conceptual and methodological interdisciplinary approaches are identified and discussed to enhance the understanding of the forces that shape urban metabolism, and how these forces affect urban living and the environment. A challenging research agenda on urban metabolism is also presented.
Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction : An Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis
Paige, Ellie ; Barrett, Jessica ; Pennells, Lisa ; Sweeting, Michael ; Willeit, Peter ; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Goldbourt, Uri ; Best, Lyle G. ; Assmann, Gerd ; Salonen, Jukka T. ; Nietert, Paul J. ; Verschuren, W.M.M. ; Brunner, Eric J. ; Kronmal, Richard A. ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Bakker, Stephan L.J. ; Dagenais, Gilles R. ; Sato, Shinichi ; Jansson, Jan Håkan ; Willeit, Johann ; Onat, Altan ; La Cámara, Agustin Gómez De; Roussel, Ronan ; Völzke, Henry ; Dankner, Rachel ; Tipping, Robert W. ; Meade, Tom W. ; Donfrancesco, Chiara ; Kuller, Lewis H. ; Peters, Annette ; Gallacher, John ; Kromhout, Daan ; Iso, Hiroyasu ; Knuiman, Matthew W. ; Casiglia, Edoardo ; Kavousi, Maryam ; Palmieri, Luigi ; Sundström, Johan ; Davis, Barry R. ; Njølstad, Inger ; Couper, David ; Danesh, John ; Thompson, Simon G. ; Wood, Angela M. - \ 2017
American Journal of Epidemiology 186 (2017)8. - ISSN 0002-9262 - p. 899 - 907.
Cardiovascular disease - Longitudinal measurements - Repeated measurements - Risk factors - Risk prediction
The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data encompassing 1962-2014) with more than 1 million measurements of systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Over a median 12 years of follow-up, 21,170 CVD events occurred. Risk prediction models using cumulative mean values of repeated measurements and summary measures from longitudinal modeling of the repeated measurements were compared with models using measurements from a single time point. Risk discrimination (Cindex) and net reclassification were calculated, and changes in C-indices were meta-analyzed across studies. Compared with the single-time-point model, the cumulative means and longitudinal models increased the C-index by 0.0040 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0023, 0.0057) and 0.0023 (95% CI: 0.0005, 0.0042), respectively. Reclassification was also improved in both models; compared with the single-time-point model, overall net reclassification improvements were 0.0369 (95% CI: 0.0303, 0.0436) for the cumulative-means model and 0.0177 (95% CI: 0.0110, 0.0243) for the longitudinal model. In conclusion, incorporating repeated measurements of blood pressure and cholesterol into CVD risk prediction models slightly improves risk prediction.
XYLEM NAC DOMAIN1, an angiosperm NAC transcription factor, inhibits xylem differentiation through conserved motifs that interact with RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED
Zhao, Chengsong ; Lasses, Theres ; Bako, Laszlo ; Kong, Danyu ; Zhao, Bingyu ; Chanda, Bidisha ; Bombarely, Aureliano ; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo ; Scheres, Ben ; Brunner, Amy M. ; Beers, Eric P. - \ 2017
New Phytologist 216 (2017)1. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 76 - 89.
Arabidopsis thaliana - Angiosperm - Differentiation - LXCXE - NAC domain - Retinoblastoma - Xylem
The Arabidopsis thaliana gene XYLEM NAC DOMAIN1 (XND1) is upregulated in xylem tracheary elements. Yet overexpression of XND1 blocks differentiation of tracheary elements. The molecular mechanism of XND1 action was investigated. Phylogenetic and motif analyses indicated that XND1 and its homologs are present only in angiosperms and possess a highly conserved C-terminal region containing linear motifs (CKII-acidic, LXCXE, E2FTD-like and LXCXE-mimic) predicted to interact with the cell cycle and differentiation regulator RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR). Protein-protein interaction and functional analyses of XND1 deletion mutants were used to test the importance of RBR-interaction motifs. Deletion of either the LXCXE or the LXCXE-mimic motif reduced both the XND1-RBR interaction and XND1 efficacy as a repressor of differentiation, with loss of the LXCXE motif having the strongest negative impacts. The function of the XND1 C-terminal domain could be partially replaced by RBR fused to the N-terminal domain of XND1. XND1 also transactivated gene expression in yeast and plants. The properties of XND1, a transactivator that depends on multiple linear RBR-interaction motifs to inhibit differentiation, have not previously been described for a plant protein. XND1 harbors an apparently angiosperm-specific combination of interaction motifs potentially linking the general differentiation regulator RBR with a xylem-specific pathway for inhibition of differentiation.
An analytical framework for strategic delta planning : negotiating consent for long-term sustainable delta development
Seijger, C. ; Douven, W. ; Halsema, G. van; Hermans, L. ; Evers, J. ; Phi, H.L. ; Khan, M.F. ; Brunner, J. ; Pols, L. ; Ligtvoet, W. ; Koole, S. ; Slager, K. ; Vermoolen, M.S. ; Hasan, S. ; Thi Minh Hoang, Vo - \ 2017
Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 60 (2017)8. - ISSN 0964-0568 - p. 1485 - 1509.
actor coalitions - implementation - innovations - participatory planning tools - Strategic delta planning
Sectoral planning on water, agriculture and urban development has not been able to prevent increased flood risks and environmental degradation in many deltas. Governments conceive strategic delta planning as a promising planning approach and develop strategic delta plans. Such plans are linked to actions and means for implementation in the short-term, in line with long-term strategic choices. This paper introduces an analytical framework that focuses on the role of actors, innovative solutions and participatory planning tools in negotiating consent for the strategic choices in a delta plan and its implementation. Cases of Bangladesh, the Netherlands and Vietnam are discussed as a plausibility probe to explore the framework's potential. The probe reveals that the framework is promising to explain the process and outcomes of strategic delta planning in urbanizing deltas. The paper ends with an initial research agenda to stimulate research and discussion on this new delta planning approach.
|Functional characterization of the Phytophthora infestans RXLR effector AVR2
Malec, Marek ; Jäntsch, Christiane ; Wang, Y. ; Breen, Susan ; Gilroy, Eleanor M. ; Govers, F. ; Birch, Paul R.J. ; Brunner, Frédéric - \ 2016
- p. 16 - 16.
The genome of Phytophthora infestans encodes a large number of RXLR effectors that are aiming to manipulate host cellular functions in order to promote disease. PiAVR2 is an RXLR effector that was shown to interact with potato BSU1-like (BSL) ser/thr phosphatase 1 (Saunders et al., Plant cell 2012), the homolog of Arabidopsis BSL1, a positive regulator of the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathway controlling plant growth and development. The exploitation of the large existing -omics, genetic and material resources on BR signaling in Arabidopsis could possibly help to decipher the mechanistic basis of the mode of action of PiAVR2 and guide subsequent work in solanaceous plant species, the natural hosts of P. infestans. Using a cell-based system, we have identified a strong interaction between PiAVR2 and AtBSL1, AtBSL2 and AtBSL3 but not with AtBSU1. In further studies, we show that, although PiAVR2 interacts with BSU1-like phosphatases, it is not affecting typical BR responses such as BR-dependent activation of BES1/BZR2 transcription factor and BR- regulated gene expression. PiAVR2 also does not affect flg22-dependent early immune responses in Arabidopsis such as the oxidative burst, MAP kinase activation, or FRK1 induction. However, PiAVR2 enhances susceptibility to microbe infection in Arabidopsis and PiAVR2 plants are more sensitive to the (hemi)biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and Phytophthora capsici but more resistant to the necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola. Future work will aim to determine how PiAVR2 impedes plant immunity through its interaction with the BSLs.
Association of Cardiometabolic Multimorbidity With Mortality
Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Kaptoge, Stephen ; Wormser, David ; Willeit, Peter ; Butterworth, Adam S. ; Bansal, Narinder ; O’Keeffe, Linda M. ; Gao, Pei ; Wood, Angela M. ; Burgess, Stephen ; Freitag, Daniel F. ; Pennells, Lisa ; Peters, Sanne A. ; Hart, Carole L. ; Håheim, Lise Lund ; Gillum, Richard F. ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Yeap, Bu B. ; Knuiman, Matthew W. ; Nietert, Paul J. ; Kauhanen, Jussi ; Salonen, Jukka T. ; Kuller, Lewis H. ; Simons, Leon A. ; Schouw, Yvonne T. van der; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth ; Selmer, Randi ; Crespo, Carlos J. ; Rodriguez, Beatriz ; Verschuren, Monique W.M. ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Svärdsudd, Kurt ; Harst, Pim Van Der; Björkelund, Cecilia ; Wilhelmsen, Lars ; Wallace, Robert B. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Amouyel, Philippe ; Barr, Elizabeth L.M. ; Iso, Hiroyasu ; Onat, Altan ; Trevisan, Maurizio ; agostino, Ralph B. D'; Cooper, Cyrus ; Kavousi, Maryam ; Welin, Lennart ; Roussel, Ronan ; Hu, Frank B. ; Sato, Shinichi ; Davidson, Karina W. ; Howard, Barbara V. ; Leening, Maarten J.G. ; Rosengren, Annika ; Dörr, Marcus ; Deeg, Dorly J.H. ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Stehouwer, Coen D.A. ; Nissinen, Aulikki ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Donfrancesco, Chiara ; Kromhout, Daan ; Price, Jackie F. ; Peters, Annette ; Meade, Tom W. ; Casiglia, Edoardo ; Lawlor, Debbie A. ; Gallacher, John ; Nagel, Dorothea ; Franco, Oscar H. ; Assmann, Gerd ; Dagenais, Gilles R. ; Jukema, Wouter J. ; Sundström, Johan ; Woodward, Mark ; Brunner, Eric J. ; Khaw, Kay-Tee ; Wareham, Nicholas J. ; Whitsel, Eric A. ; Njølstad, Inger ; Hedblad, Bo ; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia ; Engström, Gunnar ; Rosamond, Wayne D. ; Selvin, Elizabeth ; Sattar, Naveed ; Thompson, Simon G. ; Danesh, John - \ 2015
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 314 (2015)1. - ISSN 0098-7484 - p. 52 - 60.
Importance The prevalence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is increasing.
Objective To estimate reductions in life expectancy associated with cardiometabolic multimorbidity.
Design, Setting, and Participants Age- and sex-adjusted mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using individual participant data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (689 300 participants; 91 cohorts; years of baseline surveys: 1960-2007; latest mortality follow-up: April 2013; 128 843 deaths). The HRs from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration were compared with those from the UK Biobank (499 808 participants; years of baseline surveys: 2006-2010; latest mortality follow-up: November 2013; 7995 deaths). Cumulative survival was estimated by applying calculated age-specific HRs for mortality to contemporary US age-specific death rates.
Exposures A history of 2 or more of the following: diabetes mellitus, stroke, myocardial infarction (MI).
Main Outcomes and Measures All-cause mortality and estimated reductions in life expectancy.
Results In participants in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration without a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI at baseline (reference group), the all-cause mortality rate adjusted to the age of 60 years was 6.8 per 1000 person-years. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 15.6 in participants with a history of diabetes, 16.1 in those with stroke, 16.8 in those with MI, 32.0 in those with both diabetes and MI, 32.5 in those with both diabetes and stroke, 32.8 in those with both stroke and MI, and 59.5 in those with diabetes, stroke, and MI. Compared with the reference group, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.9 (95% CI, 1.8-2.0) in participants with a history of diabetes, 2.1 (95% CI, 2.0-2.2) in those with stroke, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.9-2.2) in those with MI, 3.7 (95% CI, 3.3-4.1) in those with both diabetes and MI, 3.8 (95% CI, 3.5-4.2) in those with both diabetes and stroke, 3.5 (95% CI, 3.1-4.0) in those with both stroke and MI, and 6.9 (95% CI, 5.7-8.3) in those with diabetes, stroke, and MI. The HRs from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration were similar to those from the more recently recruited UK Biobank. The HRs were little changed after further adjustment for markers of established intermediate pathways (eg, levels of lipids and blood pressure) and lifestyle factors (eg, smoking, diet). At the age of 60 years, a history of any 2 of these conditions was associated with 12 years of reduced life expectancy and a history of all 3 of these conditions was associated with 15 years of reduced life expectancy.
Conclusions and Relevance Mortality associated with a history of diabetes, stroke, or MI was similar for each condition. Because any combination of these conditions was associated with multiplicative mortality risk, life expectancy was substantially lower in people with multimorbidity.
Sensitivity Analysis of a Land-Use Change Model with and without Agents to Assess Land Abandonment and Long-Term Re-Forestation in a Swiss Mountain Region
Brandle, M. ; Langendijk, G. ; Peter, S. ; Brunner, S.H. - \ 2015
Land 4 (2015)2. - ISSN 2073-445X - p. 475 - 512.
Land abandonment and the subsequent re-forestation are important drivers behind the loss of ecosystem services in mountain regions. Agent-based models can help to identify global change impacts on farmland abandonment and can test policy and management options to counteract this development. Realigning the representation of human decision making with time scales of ecological processes such as reforestation presents a major challenge in this context. Models either focus on the agent-specific behavior anchored in the current generation of farmers at the expense of representing longer scale environmental processes or they emphasize the simulation of long-term economic and forest developments where representation of human behavior is simplified in time and space. In this context, we compare the representation of individual and aggregated decision-making in the same model structure and by doing so address some implications of choosing short or long term time horizons in land-use modeling. Based on survey data, we integrate dynamic agents into a comparative static economic sector supply model in a Swiss mountain region. The results from an extensive sensitivity analysis show that this agent-based land-use change model can reproduce observed data correctly and that both model versions are sensitive to the same model parameters. In particular, in both models the specification of opportunity costs determines the extent of production activities and land-use changes by restricting the output space. Our results point out that the agent-based model can capture short and medium term developments in land abandonment better than the aggregated version without losing its sensitivity to important socio-economic drivers. For comparative static approaches, extensive sensitivity analysis with respect to opportunity costs, i.e., the measure of benefits forgone due to alternative uses of labor is essential for the assessment of the impact of climate change on land abandonment and re-forestation in mountain regions.
Practical identifiability analysis of environmental models
Marsili-Libelli, S. ; Beck, M.B. ; Brunner, P. ; Croke, B. ; Guillaume, J. ; Jakeman, A. ; Jakeman, J. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Stigter, J.D. - \ 2014
- p. 1 - 13.
Consumption of dairy products and associations with incident diabetes, CHD and mortality in the Whitehall II study
Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. ; Masset, G. ; Verberne, L.D.M. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Brunner, E.J. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)4. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 718 - 726.
ischemic-heart-disease - postmenopausal women - metabolic syndrome - vascular-disease - life-style - fat intake - vitamin-d - risk - mellitus - milk
Few prospective studies have examined the effects of different types of dairy food on the risks of type 2 diabetes, CHD and mortality. We examined whether intakes of total dairy, high-fat dairy, low-fat dairy, milk and fermented dairy products were related to these outcomes in the Whitehall II prospective cohort study. At baseline, dairy consumption was assessed by FFQ among 4526 subjects (72 % men) with a mean age 56 (sd 6) years. Death certificates and medical records were used to ascertain CHD mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Incident diabetes was detected by the oral glucose tolerance test or self-report. Incidence data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for lifestyle and dietary factors. During approximately 10 years of follow-up, 273 diabetes, 323 CHD and 237 all-cause mortality cases occurred. In multivariable models, intakes of total dairy and types of dairy products were not significantly associated with incident diabetes or CHD (all P values for trend >0·1). Fermented dairy products was inversely associated with overall mortality (hazard ratios approximately 0·7 in the middle and highest tertiles; P for trend <0·01) but not with incident CHD or diabetes (P>0·3). In conclusion, intakes of total dairy and types of dairy products showed no consistent relationship with incident diabetes, CHD or all-cause mortality.
Low-cost small scale processing technologies for production applications in various environments-Mass produced factories
Bramsiepe, C. ; Sievers, S. ; Seifert, T. ; Stefanidis, G.D. ; Vlachos, D.G. ; Schnitzer, H. ; Muster, B. ; Brunner, C. ; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Bruins, M.E. ; Schembecker, G. - \ 2012
Chemical Engineering and Processing 51 (2012). - ISSN 0255-2701 - p. 32 - 52.
fischer-tropsch synthesis - microwave-assisted pyrolysis - hydrogen-production - bio-oil - oxygenated hydrocarbons - reactive distillation - transportation fuels - microchannel reactor - microreactor stacks - catalytic pyrolysis
The requirements for chemical and food production technologies will change in the future as a result of shorter time to market and increasing market volatility. Especially the rising use of renewable resources will require the implementation of flexible and fast to install small-scale production technologies. The increasing number of necessary apparatuses and their distributed operation, however, will constitute major challenges, both economically and procedurally. The proposed solution to face the economic challenge is modularization and standardization. For food production, dewatering represents a key issue. Thus, biomass processing should first be divided into small-scale water separation steps and then into further large-scale processing steps. As dewatering usually happens thermally and heat exchangers often benefit from the economies of scale, heat supply and energy consumption or heat transfer with little capital investment are further issues. Therefore, temperature levels should be decreased and the use of solar heat increased. For the production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass, process integration and process simplification are proposed to improve the efficacy of production equipment and processes. Choosing raw materials with molecular structures, similar to the desired chemical building block, will lower the need for heat exchange and make small-scale manufacturing of fuels and chemicals possible
Soil Carbon stabilization under increased atmospheric CO2
Hoosbeek, M.R. - \ 2010
In: Proceedings of the COST Action FP0803 Conference on Belowground Carbon Turnover in European Forests – State of the Art, Birmensdorf, Switzerland, 26-28 January 2010. - Birmensdorf, Switzerland : Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL - p. 35 - 38.
|Avr2, an RXLR effector from Phytophthora infestans
Breen, S. ; Gilroy, E.M. ; Armstrong, M.R. ; Morales, J.G. ; Hein, I. ; Douglas, E. ; Boevink, P.C. ; Mc Lellan, H. ; Randall, E. ; Zhendong, T. ; Avrova, A.O. ; Pritchard, L. ; Lokossou, A.A. ; Govers, F. ; Vossen, E.A.G. van der; Vleeshouwers, V. ; Brunner, F. ; Whisson, S.C. ; Birch, P.R.J. - \ 2010
In: Book of Abstracts Oomycete Molecular Genetics Network Congress, Toulouse, France, 6-8 June 2010. - - p. 27 - 27.
Vietnam-Netherlands partnership "water for food & ecosystems"
Long, K.T. ; Halsema, G.E. van; Brunner, J. - \ 2009
[S.l.] : Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) [etc.] - 27
waterbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecosystemen - vennootschappen - vietnam - nederland - water management - sustainability - ecosystems - partnerships - vietnam - netherlands