Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Bodemtop snijdt hete hangijzers aan
Brussaard, L. - \ 2019
Applying ecosystem services for pre-market environmental risk assessments of regulated stressors
Devos, Y. ; Munns Jr., W.R. ; Forbes, V.E. ; Maltby, Lorraine ; Stenseke, Marie ; Brussaard, L. ; Streissl, F. ; Hardy, A. - \ 2019
In: Proceedings of the Third EFSA Scientific Conference: Science, Food and Society Guest / Devos, Y., Elliott, K.C., Hardy, A., John Wiley and Sons (EFSA Journal S1)
Ecosystem services (ES) are the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. Investigating the environment through an ES framework has gained wide acceptance in the international scientific community and is applied by policymakers to protect biodiversity and safeguard the sustainability of ecosystems. This approach can enhance the ecological and societal relevance of pre‐market/prospective environmental risk assessments (ERAs) of regulated stressors by: (1) informing the derivation of operational protection goals; (2) enabling the integration of environmental and human health risk assessments; (3) facilitating horizontal integration of policies and regulations; (4) leading to more comprehensive and consistent environmental protection; (5) articulating the utility of, and trade‐offs involved in, environmental decisions; and (6) enhancing the transparency of risk assessment results and the decisions based upon them. Realisation of these advantages will require challenges that impede acceptance of an ES approach to be overcome. Particularly, there is concern that, if biodiversity only matters to the extent that it benefits humans, the intrinsic value of nature is ignored. Moreover, our understanding of linkages among ecological components and the processes that ultimately deliver ES is incomplete, valuing ES is complex, and there is no standard ES lexicon and limited familiarity with the approach. To help overcome these challenges, we encourage: (1) further research to establish biodiversity–ES relationships; (2) the development of approaches that (i) quantitatively translate responses to chemical stressors by organisms and groups of organisms to ES delivery across different spatial and temporal scales, (ii) measure cultural ES and ease their integration into ES valuations, and (iii) appropriately value changes in ES delivery so that trade‐offs among different management options can be assessed; (3) the establishment of a standard ES lexicon; and (4) building capacity in ES science and how to apply ES to ERAs. These development needs should not prevent movement towards implementation of an ES approach in ERAs, as the advantages we perceive of using this approach render it more than worthwhile to tackle those challenges. Society and the environment stand to benefit from this shift in how we conduct the ERA of regulated stressors.
Earthworm communities in arable land : effects of crop residue management and field margins
Teixeira de Aguiar Frazão, Joana Frederica - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. Brussaard, co-promotor(en): R.G.M. de Goede; J.H. Faber; M.M. Pulleman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439312 - 212
Responses of earthworm communities to crop residue management after inoculation of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Frazão, Joana ; Goede, Ron G.M. de; Salánki, Tamás E. ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Faber, Jack H. ; Hedde, Mickaël ; Pulleman, Mirjam M. - \ 2019
Applied Soil Ecology 142 (2019). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 177 - 188.
Arable field - Community weighted mean - Crop residue availability - Rao's quadratic entropy - Tillage - Trait-based approach

Earthworms are important for soil functioning in arable cropping systems and earthworm species differ in their response to soil tillage and crop residue management. Lumbricus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) are rare in intensively tilled arable fields. In two parallel field trials with either non-inversion (NIT) or conventional tillage (CT), we investigated the feasibility of inoculating L. terrestris under different crop residue management (amounts and placement). Simultaneously, we monitored the response of the existing earthworm communities to L. terrestris inoculation and to crop residue treatments in terms of earthworm density, species diversity and composition, ecological groups and functional diversity. L. terrestris densities were not affected by residue management. We were not able to infer effects of the inoculation on the existing earthworm communities since L. terrestris also colonized non-inoculated plots. In NIT and two years after trial establishment, the overall native earthworm density was 1.4 and 1.6 times higher, and the epigeic density 2.5 times higher, in treatments with highest residue application (S 100 ) compared to 25% (S 25 ) or no (S 0 ) crop residues, respectively. Residue management did not affect earthworm species composition, nor the functional trait diversity and composition, except for an increase of the community weighted means of bifide typhlosolis in S 0 compared to S 100 . In CT, however, crop residues did have a strong effect on species composition, ecological groups and functional traits. Without crop residues (S 0 ), epigeic density was respectively 20 and 30% lower than with crop residues placed on the soil surface (S 100 ) or incorporated (I 100 ). Community composition was clearly affected by crop residues. Trait diversity was 2.6 to 3 times larger when crop residues were provided, irrespective of placement. Crop residues in CT also resulted in heavier earthworms and in a shift in the community towards species with a thicker epidermis and cuticle, a feather typhlosolis shape, and a higher average cocoon production rate. We conclude that earthworm communities under conventional tillage respond more strongly to the amount of crop residue than to its placement. Under non-inversion tillage, crop residue amounts affected earthworm communities, but to a smaller degree than under conventional tillage.

Soil suppressiveness to Pythium ultimum in ten European long-term field experiments and its relation with soil parameters
Bongiorno, Giulia ; Postma, Joeke ; Bünemann, Else K. ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Goede, Ron G.M. de; Mäder, Paul ; Tamm, Lucius ; Thuerig, Barbara - \ 2019
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 133 (2019). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 174 - 187.
Cress bioassay - Labile organic carbon - Pythium ultimum - Soil management effects - Soil quality parameters - Soil suppressiveness - Tillage

Soil suppressiveness to pathogens is defined as the capacity of soil to regulate soil-borne pathogens. It can be managed by agricultural practices, but the effects reported so far remain inconsistent. Soil suppressiveness is difficult to predict and for this reason different soil properties have been linked to it with the aim to find informative indicators, but these relationships are not conclusive. The objectives of this study were i) to test if soil suppressiveness is affected by long-term agricultural management such as tillage and organic matter (OM) addition; ii) to understand the direct and indirect relationships between soil suppressiveness and labile organic carbon fractions; and iii) to understand the relationship between soil suppressiveness and other chemical, physical and biological soil quality indicators. We measured soil suppressiveness with a bioassay using Pythium ultimum - Lepidium sativum (cress) as a model system. The bioassay was performed in soils from 10 European long-term field experiments (LTEs) which had as main soil management practices tillage and/or organic matter addition. We found that the site had a stronger influence on soil suppressiveness than agricultural practices. Reduced tillage had a positive effect on the suppressive capacity of the soil across sites using an overall model. Organic farming and mineral fertilization increased soil suppressiveness in some LTEs, but no overall effect of OM was found when aggregating the LTEs. Soil suppressiveness across LTEs was linked mainly to microbial biomass and labile carbon in the soil, but not to total soil organic matter content. From structural equation modelling (SEM) we conclude that labile carbon is important for the maintenance of an abundant and active soil microbial community, which is essential for the expression of soil suppressiveness. However, soil suppressiveness could only partly (25%) be explained by the soil parameters measured, suggesting that other mechanisms contribute to soil suppressiveness such as the presence and the activity of specific bacterial and fungal taxa with high biocontrol activity.

iSQAPER task WP 3.3 soil quality indicators : Influence of soil type and land management on chemical, physical and biological soil parameters assessed visually and analytically
Hoek, J. ; Berg, W. van den; Wesselink, M. ; Sukkel, W. ; Mäder, P. ; Bünemann, E. ; Bongiorno, G. ; Goede, R. de; Brussaard, L. ; Bai, Z. ; Haagsma, W. ; Verstegen, H. ; Glavan, M. ; Ferreira, C.S. ; Garcia Orenes, F. ; Toth, Z. ; Zhang, W. ; Fan, H. ; Fu, H. ; Gao, H. ; Xu, M. - \ 2019
Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Open Teelten (Wageningen Plant Research Report 783) - 114
Recovery of nutrients from the liquid fraction of digestate : Use of enriched zeolite and biochar as nitrogen fertilizers
Kocatürk-Schumacher, Nazlı Pelin ; Zwart, Kor ; Bruun, Sander ; Jensen, Lars Stoumann ; Sørensen, Helle ; Brussaard, Lijbert - \ 2019
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 182 (2019)2. - ISSN 1436-8730 - p. 187 - 195.
biogas digestate - clinoptilolite - double-pot technique - enriched sorbent - initial loading - slow release N fertilizer

The liquid fraction after liquid/solid separation of biogas digestate has a high potential as a fertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the direct application of digestate in agricultural fields results in practical problems due to its voluminous nature. One solution to this could be to concentrate nutrients onto sorbents such as biochar or zeolites, which can subsequently be used as a fertilizer. This study investigated the ability of biochar and zeolite ‘clinoptilolite' enriched with digestate nutrients to supply nitrogen (N) when used as a fertilizer. A pot experiment with ryegrass was conducted to test the effect of a nutrient-enriched biochar and clinoptilolite by determining plant biomass growth and N uptake. This included untreated biochar and clinoptilolite as controls and two levels of N application (15 and 45 mg N per pot) each at two initial loading ratios (low and high). Nutrient-enriched biochar and clinoptilolite increased plant biomass yield (up to 1.02 and 2.39 g per pot) and N uptake (up to 11.23 and 39.94 mg N per pot) compared to the untreated sorbents treatments. Initial loading ratio had a significant effect on plant biomass response and apparent N recovery (ANR) for enriched clinoptilolite, and lower initial loading ratio improved plant growth. In contrast to clinoptilolite, higher initial loading ratio resulted in higher ANR. In conclusion, our results reveal that N released from enriched clinoptilolite and biochar could be taken up by the plants, clinoptilolite performed more effectively than biochar, and initial loading ratio affected the performance of the sorbents when used as a fertilizer.

Sensitivity of labile carbon fractions to tillage and organic matter management and their potential as comprehensive soil quality indicators across pedoclimatic conditions in Europe
Bongiorno, Giulia ; Bünemann, Else K. ; Oguejiofor, Chidinma U. ; Meier, Jennifer ; Gort, Gerrit ; Comans, Rob ; Mäder, Paul ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Goede, Ron de - \ 2019
Ecological Indicators 99 (2019). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 38 - 50.
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) - Hot water extractable carbon (HWEC) - Hydrophilic dissolved organic carbon (Hy-DOC) - Long-term experimental field (LTEs) - Particulate organic matter carbon (POMC) - Permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC)

Soil quality is defined as the capacity of the soil to perform multiple functions, and can be assessed by measuring soil chemical, physical and biological parameters. Among soil parameters, labile organic carbon is considered to have a primary role in many soil functions related to productivity and environmental resilience. Our study aimed at assessing the suitability of different labile carbon fractions, namely dissolved organic carbon (DOC), hydrophilic DOC (Hy-DOC), permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC, also referred to as Active Carbon), hot water extractable carbon (HWEC) and particulate organic matter carbon (POMC) as soil quality indicators in agricultural systems. To do so, we tested their sensitivity to two agricultural management factors (tillage and organic matter input) in 10 European long-term field experiments (LTEs), and we assessed the correlation of the different labile carbon fractions with physical, chemical and biological soil quality indicators linked to soil functions. We found that reduced tillage and high organic matter input increase concentrations of labile carbon fractions in soil compared to conventional tillage and low organic matter addition, respectively. POXC and POMC were the most sensitive fractions to both tillage and fertilization across the 10 European LTEs. In addition, POXC was the labile carbon fraction most positively correlated with soil chemical (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and cation exchange capacity), physical (water stable aggregates, water holding capacity, bulk density) and biological soil quality indicators (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, and soil respiration). We conclude that POXC represents a labile carbon fraction sensitive to soil management and that is the most informative about total soil organic matter, nutrients, soil structure, and microbial pools and activity, parameters commonly used as indicators of various soil functions, such as C sequestration, nutrient cycling, soil structure formation and soil as a habitat for biodiversity. Moreover, POXC measurement is relatively cheap, fast and easy. Therefore, we suggest measuring POXC as the labile carbon fraction in soil quality assessment schemes in addition to other valuable soil quality indicators.

Predicting soil N supply and yield parameters in peat grasslands
Deru, Joachim G.C. ; Bloem, Jaap ; Goede, Ron de; Hoekstra, Nyncke ; Keidel, Harm ; Kloen, Henk ; Nierop, Andreas ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Schouten, Ton ; Akker, Jan van den; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2019
Applied Soil Ecology 134 (2019). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 77 - 84.
Apparent N recovery - Grass yield - N mineralization - Soil biota - Soil chemical-physical quality - Soil nitrogen supply - Terric Histosols

Considerable nitrogen (N) mineralization occurs in drained peat soils in use for dairy grassland, due to aerobic decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). N losses may be limited by matching grass N uptake with N mineralization and by adapting on-farm fertilization schemes to soil N supply (SNS) and apparent N recovery (ANR). Previous attempts to predict SNS of peat grasslands from soil parameters have been unsuccessful, partly due to high variation in SNS between sites and years. In this paper, we present field data from twenty dairy grasslands on drained peat (29–65% SOM; Terric Histosols). Grass yield parameters (e.g. SNS and ANR) were compared with a comprehensive data set of soil biotic and abiotic properties measured at the start of the growing season, and with N mineralization calculated from this data. SNS ranged between 171 and 377 kg N ha−1 (mean: 264 kg N ha−1) during the growing season. Soil N mineralization estimated by laboratory incubation and by foodweb-based production ecological calculations gave similar mean values with slightly higher coefficients of variation, but correlations with SNS were not significant. Regression analysis with soil properties showed a positive correlation between SNS and soil Ca:Mg ratio and a negative correlation between fertilized grass yield and soil C:SOM ratio. No significant models were found for ANR. Based on our data and on literature, we conclude that these parameters indicate linkages between grass yield and soil physical-hydrological properties such as soil structure and water availability. In particular, the C:SOM ratio in these soils with high organic matter content may be an indicator of water repellency, and our results suggest that grass growth was limited by drought more than by nutrient availability.

Circular agriculture has already started
Zanten, Hannah van; Boer, Imke de; Oenema, Oene ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Poppe, Krijn ; Scholten, Martin - \ 2018
agriculture - cycling - biobased economy - agricultural wastes - biomass - sustainability
De kringlooplandbouw is al begonnen
Zanten, Hannah van; Scholten, Martin ; Boer, Imke de; Oenema, Oene ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Sukkel, Wijnand ; Poppe, Krijn - \ 2018
biobased economy - agriculture - cycling - farmers - biomass - agricultural wastes
Hoe sluiten we de kringlopen?: Vijf experts geven invulling aan landbouwvisie regering
Brussaard, Lijbert ; Boer, Imke de; Poppe, Krijn ; Ittersum, Martin van; Oenema, Oene - \ 2018
Crop traits drive soil carbon sequestration under organic farming
García-Palacios, Pablo ; Gattinger, Andreas ; Bracht-Jørgensen, Helene ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Carvalho, Filipe ; Castro, Helena ; Clément, Jean Christophe ; Deyn, Gerlinde De; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Foulquier, Arnaud ; Hedlund, Katarina ; Lavorel, Sandra ; Legay, Nicolas ; Lori, Martina ; Mäder, Paul ; Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Martins da Silva, Pedro ; Muller, Adrian ; Nascimento, Eduardo ; Reis, Filipa ; Symanczik, Sarah ; Paulo Sousa, José ; Milla, Rubén - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)5. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 2496 - 2505.
climate change mitigation - crop residue - ecological intensification - leaf nitrogen - meta-analysis - organic farming - resource economics traits - soil carbon stocks

Organic farming (OF) enhances top soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in croplands compared with conventional farming (CF), which can contribute to sequester C. As farming system differences in the amount of C inputs to soil (e.g. fertilization and crop residues) are not enough to explain such increase, shifts in crop residue traits important for soil C losses such as litter decomposition may also play a role. To assess whether crop residue (leaf and root) traits determined SOC sequestration responses to OF, we coupled a global meta-analysis with field measurements across a European-wide network of sites. In the meta-analysis, we related crop species averages of leaf N, leaf-dry matter content, fine-root C and N, with SOC stocks and sequestration responses in OF vs. CF. Across six European sites, we measured the management-induced changes in SOC stocks and leaf litter traits after long-term ecological intensive (e.g. OF) vs. CF comparisons. Our global meta-analysis showed that the positive OF-effects on soil respiration, SOC stocks, and SOC sequestration rates were significant even in organic farms with low manure application rates. Although fertilization intensity was the main driver of OF-effects on SOC, leaf and root N concentrations also played a significant role. Across the six European sites, changes towards higher leaf litter N in CF also promoted lower SOC stocks. Our results highlight that crop species displaying traits indicative of resource-acquisitive strategies (e.g. high leaf and root N) increase the difference in SOC between OF and CF. Indeed, changes towards higher crop residue decomposability was related with decreased SOC stocks under CF across European sites. Synthesis and applications. Our study emphasizes that, with management, changes in crop residue traits contribute to the positive effects of organic farming (OF) on soil carbon sequestration. These results provide a clear message to land managers: the choice of crop species, and more importantly their functional traits (e.g. leave and root nitrogen), should be considered in addition to management practices and climate, when evaluating the potential of OF for climate change mitigation.

Functional diversity in nematode communities across terrestrial ecosystems
Sechi, Valentina ; Goede, Ron G.M. De; Rutgers, Michiel ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Mulder, Christian - \ 2018
Basic and Applied Ecology 30 (2018). - ISSN 1439-1791 - p. 76 - 86.
Body-size distribution - Functional divergence - Functional evenness - Functional richness - Functional trait - Trophic groups

Functional diversity can be defined as the distribution of trait values within a community. Hence, functional diversity can be an indicator of habitat filtering and a reliable environmental predictor of ecosystem functioning. However, there is a serious lack of studies that test how functional diversity indices change depending on the environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to provide such evidence by analyzing the distribution and variation of continuous body-mass values (i.e. functional diversity) and related shifts in body length and width in a nematode community. We used a large online dataset on nematode traits to analyze: (i) the distribution of body mass using three functional diversity indices, i.e. functional richness, functional divergence and functional evenness; (ii) the shifts in body-size traits (length and width); and (iii) the body-mass distributions of five trophic groups and of the entire nematode community. Managed grasslands exhibited the widest range of body-mass values while body-mass distribution in arable fields covered the greatest area in comparison to the other ecosystem types. The shift in body size revealed environmental filters that could not have been identified by the study of functional diversity indices per se. We found low values of functional evenness to be associated with high values of functional richness. We provide novel empirical evidence that body-mass distribution within a trophic group mirrors the effects of habitat filtering more than the distribution in the community as a whole. Hence, our trait-based approach, more than functional diversity itself, disclosed soil food-web structure and identified community responses.

Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality : A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China
Bai, Zhanguo ; Caspari, Thomas ; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez ; Batjes, Niels H. ; Mäder, Paul ; Bünemann, Else K. ; Goede, Ron de; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Xu, Minggang ; Ferreira, Carla Sofia Santos ; Reintam, Endla ; Fan, Hongzhu ; Mihelič, Rok ; Glavan, Matjaž ; Tóth, Zoltán - \ 2018
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 265 (2018). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 1 - 7.
Agricultural management practices - Literature review - Long-term field experiments - Response ratio - Soil quality indicators
In this paper we present effects of four paired agricultural management practices (organic matter (OM) addition versus no organic matter input, no-tillage (NT) versus conventional tillage, crop rotation versus monoculture, and organic agriculture versus conventional agriculture) on five key soil quality indicators, i.e., soil organic matter (SOM) content, pH, aggregate stability, earthworms (numbers) and crop yield. We have considered organic matter addition, no-tillage, crop rotation and organic agriculture as “promising practices”; no organic matter input, conventional tillage, monoculture and conventional farming were taken as the respective references or “standard practice” (baseline). Relative effects were analysed through indicator response ratio (RR) under each paired practice. For this we considered data of 30 long-term experiments collected from 13 case study sites in Europe and China as collated in the framework of the EU-China funded iSQAPER project. These were complemented with data from 42 long-term experiments across China and 402 observations of long-term trials published in the literature. Out of these, we only considered experiments covering at least five years. The results show that OM addition favourably affected all the indicators under consideration. The most favourable effect was reported on earthworm numbers, followed by yield, SOM content and soil aggregate stability. For pH, effects depended on soil type; OM input favourably affected the pH of acidic soils, whereas no clear trend was observed under NT. NT generally led to increased aggregate stability and greater SOM content in upper soil horizons. However, the magnitude of the relative effects varied, e.g. with soil texture. No-tillage practices enhanced earthworm populations, but not where herbicides or pesticides were applied to combat weeds and pests. Overall, in this review, yield slightly decreased under NT. Crop rotation had a positive effect on SOM content and yield; rotation with ley very positively influenced earthworms’ numbers. Overall, crop rotation had little impact on soil pH and aggregate stability − depending on the type of intercrop; alternatively, rotation of arable crops only resulted in adverse effects. A clear positive trend was observed for earthworm abundance under organic agriculture. Further, organic agriculture generally resulted in increased aggregate stability and greater SOM content. Overall, no clear trend was found for pH; a decrease in yield was observed under organic agriculture in this review.
Organic management and cover crop species steer soil microbial community structure and functionality along with soil organic matter properties
Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Korthals, Gerard ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. de - \ 2018
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 263 (2018). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 7 - 17.
Aromaticity - Dissolved organic matter - Legacy effects - MicroResp - PLFA/NLFA - Water repellency
It is well recognized that organic soil management stimulates bacterial biomass and activity and that including cover crops in the rotation increases soil organic matter (SOM). Yet, to date the relative impact of different cover crop species and organic vs. non-organic soil management on soil bacteria and fungi and on SOM quantity and quality remains to be tested. We used a long-term (10 years) full-factorial field experiment to test the combined effects of organic vs. conventional soil management with different cover crop species (oat or rye) and the legacy effects of seven soil health treatments (SHTs: treatments with compost, chitin, marigold, grass–clover, biofumigation or anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), and fallow as control) on microbial community biomass, structure and catabolic activity and on SOM quantity and quality (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), aromaticity and water repellency). Microbial community traits were assessed using PLFA/NLFA analyses and multi-substrate induced respiration. We found that organic soil management enhanced total microbial biomass by increasing bacterial, saprotrophic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal biomass; and increased total microbial catabolic activity, associated with maintaining high microbial efficiency (low qCO2). Effects of organic management were amplified by oat as cover crop, which enhanced the abundance of saprotrophic fungi resulting in a higher fungal:bacterial ratio. Total SOM concentration was similar among treatments, however the most easily accessible fraction, i.e. DOC, was higher in organic compared to conventional soils. Also, the aromaticity of the DOC was lower in organic than in conventional systems, which was associated with lower water repellency. There was a legacy effect of SHTs on fungal:bacterial ratio in that chitin and marigold showed higher fungal:bacterial ratio compared to compost, biofumigation and ASD even 6 years after the last application. We conclude that organic soil management enhances the abundance of all microbial groups and their total catabolic activity, associated with a higher concentration and lower aromaticity of dissolved organic matter. These effects can be enlarged by the growth of specific cover crops and the application of certain soil health treatments.
De vele gezichten van de regenworm
Brussaard, L. ; Goede, R.G.M. de - \ 2018
In: Ecologie: leren & onderwijzen / Kapteijn, Mieke, Kamp, Marcel, de Hullu, Els, Nederlandse Vereniging voor het Onderwijs in de Natuurwetenschappen (NVON) (NVON Reeks 15) - ISBN 9789087970154 - p. 118 - 124.
Soil Quality - a critical review
Bunemann, Else K. ; Bongiorno, G. ; Bai, Z.G. ; Creamer, Rachel ; Deyn, G.B. de; Goede, R.G.M. de; Fleskens, L. ; Geissen, V. ; Kuijper, T.W.M. ; Mäder, Paul ; Pulleman, M.M. ; Sukkel, W. ; Groenigen, J.W. van; Brussaard, L. - \ 2018
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 120 (2018). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 105 - 125.
Sampling and analysis or visual examination of soil to assess its status and use potential is widely practiced from plot to national scales. However, the choice of relevant soil attributes and interpretation of measurements are not straightforward, because of the complexity and site-specificity of soils, legacy effects of previous land use, and trade-offs between ecosystem services. Here we review soil quality and related concepts, in terms of definition, assessment approaches, and indicator selection and interpretation. We identify the most frequently used soil quality indicators under agricultural land use. We find that explicit evaluation of soil quality with respect to specific soil threats, soil functions and ecosystem services has rarely been implemented, and few approaches provide clear interpretation schemes of measured indicator values. This limits their adoption by land managers as well as policy. We also consider novel indicators that address currently neglected though important soil properties and processes, and we list the crucial steps in the development of a soil quality assessment procedure that is scientifically sound and supports management and policy decisions that account for the multi-functionality of soil. This requires the involvement of the pertinent actors, stakeholders and end-users to a much larger degree than practiced to date.
Soil ecology and ecosystem services of dairy and semi-natural grasslands on peat
Deru, Joachim G.C. ; Bloem, Jaap ; Goede, Ron de; Keidel, Harm ; Kloen, Henk ; Rutgers, Michiel ; Akker, Jan van den; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2018
Applied Soil Ecology 125 (2018). - ISSN 0929-1393 - p. 26 - 34.
Biodiversity - C mineralization - Grassland - Histosols - N mineralization - Water infiltration
Peat wetlands are of major importance for ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water regulation and maintenance of biodiversity. However, peat drainage for farming leads to CO2 emission, soil subsidence and biodiversity losses. In the peat areas in the Netherlands, solutions are sought in reducing drainage, adapting farming to wetter soils, and converting productive dairy grasslands to less intensively managed semi-natural grasslands. Our objective was to compare the soil ecology and related ecosystem services of dairy and semi-natural grasslands on peat soils (Terric Histosols). Soil biotic and abiotic parameters were measured in twenty dairy and twenty semi-natural sites, with particular focus on (i) soil faunal diversity (ecosystem service "maintenance of biodiversity"), (ii) CO2 emission ("climate regulation"), (iii) water infiltration ("water regulation") and (iv) soil fertility ("grass production"). Mean soil faunal taxonomic richness per site (alpha diversity) was higher in dairy grasslands compared to semi-natural grasslands. However, the total observed number of taxa (gamma diversity) in dairy grassland was 13% lower for soil fauna and 21% lower when including plant species. Potential C mineralization rate in the topsoil - used as a proxy for CO2 emission - was not influenced by land use but was limited by drought. Additionally, potential C mineralization depended on different C sources and microbial groups in the two grassland types. Water infiltration rate differed by a factor of five between land use types (dairy > semi-natural), and correlated with soil porosity. As expected, soil fertility was higher in dairy than in semi-natural grasslands. However, potential N mineralization was similar in dairy and semi-natural grasslands and was correlated negatively with bacterial biomass apparently indicating N immobilization, and positively with bacterial growth that depended on labile C and N in soil. Our study on peat soils shows that dairy versus semi-natural grassland use influences biodiversity, climate regulation, water regulation and (potential for) grassland production. We conclude with recommendations for land management to optimize the delivery of those ecosystem services.
Duurzaam bodembeheer alleen mogelijk door samenwerking van alle partijen
Postma, J. - \ 2017
Gewasbescherming 48 (2017)2/3. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 89 - 89.
Ruim 150 deelnemers bezochten de themadag ‘Beter
Bodembeheer de diepte in’ donderdag 6 april in
Nijkerk. De brede belangstelling van beleidsmakers,
boeren, onderzoekers, adviseurs, onderwijs en toeleveranciers
tekende de grote interesse voor duurzaam bodembeheer
in Nederland. In het plenaire ochtendprogramma
zei Emeritus hoogleraar bodembiologie
Lijbert Brussaard dat wereldwijd een radicale omslag
nodig is in de manier waarop we de gehele voedselketen
organiseren. De manier waarop we met onze bodem
omgaan speelt hierin een centrale rol. Er kan alleen een
verandering plaatsvinden als alle betrokken partijen,
beleid, boer, ketenpartijen, consument, onderwijs en
onderzoek hierin samenwerken.
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