Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Records 1 - 20 / 40

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    Enhanced UHPLC-MS/MS screening of selective androgen receptor modulators following urine hydrolysis
    Gadaj, Anna ; Ventura, Emiliano ; Healy, Jim ; Botrè, Francesco ; Sterk, Saskia S. ; Buckley, Tom ; Mooney, Mark H. - \ 2020
    MethodsX 7 (2020). - ISSN 2215-0161
    Doping analysis - Food safety - Hydrolysis - SARMs - UHPLC-MS/MS - UHPLC-MS/MS-based screening of SARMs following urine hydrolysis - Urine

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) represent non-steroidal agents commonly abused in human and animal (i.e. equine, canine) sports, with potential for further misuse as growth promoting agents in livestock-based farming. As a direct response to the real and possible implications of illicit application in both sport as well as food production systems, this study incorporated enzymatic hydrolysis (β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase) into a previously established protocol while maintaining the minimal volume (200 µL) of urine sample required to detect SARMs encompassing various pharmacophores in urine from a range of species (i.e. equine, bovine, human, canine and rodent). The newly presented semi-quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS-based assay is shown to be fit-for-purpose, being rapid and offering high-throughput, with validation findings fulfilling criteria stipulated within relevant doping and food control legislation. • CCβ values determined at 1 ng mL−1 for majority of analytes. • Deconjugation step included in the method led to significantly increased relative abundance of ostarine in analysed incurred urine samples demonstrating the requirement for hydrolysis to detect a total form of emerging SARMs. • Assay amenable for use within routine testing to ensure fair play in animal and human sports and that animal-derived food is free from contamination with SARM residues.

    Plant volatiles induced by herbivore eggs prime defenses and mediate shifts in the reproductive strategy of receiving plants
    Paschalidou, Foteini ; Eyman, Lisa ; Sims, James ; Buckley, James ; Fatouros, Nina ; Moraes, Consuelo M. De; Mescher, Mark C. - \ 2020
    Dryad
    Plants can detect cues associated with the risk of future herbivory and modify defense phenotypes accordingly; however, our current understanding is limited both with respect to the range of early warning cues to which plants respond and the nature of the responses. Here we report that exposure to volatile emissions from plant tissues infested with herbivore eggs promotes stronger defense responses to subsequent herbivory in two Brassica species. Furthermore, exposure to these volatile cues elicited an apparent shift from growth to reproduction in Brassica nigra, with exposed plants exhibiting increased flower and seed production, but reduced leaf production, relative to unexposed controls. Our results thus document plant defense priming in response to a novel environmental cue, oviposition-induced plant volatiles, while also showing that plant responses to early warning cues can include changes in both defense and life-history traits.
    Plant volatiles induced by herbivore eggs prime defences and mediate shifts in the reproductive strategy of receiving plants
    Pashalidou, Foteini G. ; Eyman, Lisa ; Sims, James ; Buckley, James ; Fatouros, Nina E. ; Moraes, Consuelo M. De; Mescher, Mark C. - \ 2020
    Ecology Letters 23 (2020)7. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 1097 - 1106.
    Brassica - cues - defence - fitness - herbivore performance - herbivore-induced plant volatiles - oviposition-induced plant volatiles - Pieris brassicae - priming

    Plants can detect cues associated with the risk of future herbivory and modify defence phenotypes accordingly; however, our current understanding is limited both with respect to the range of early warning cues to which plants respond and the nature of the responses. Here we report that exposure to volatile emissions from plant tissues infested with herbivore eggs promotes stronger defence responses to subsequent herbivory in two Brassica species. Furthermore, exposure to these volatile cues elicited an apparent shift from growth to reproduction in Brassica nigra, with exposed plants exhibiting increased flower and seed production, but reduced leaf production, relative to unexposed controls. Our results thus document plant defence priming in response to a novel environmental cue, oviposition-induced plant volatiles, while also showing that plant responses to early warning cues can include changes in both defence and life-history traits.

    Prevalent root-derived phenolics drive shifts in microbial community composition and prime decomposition in forest soil
    Zwetsloot, Marie ; Munoz Ucros, Juana ; Wickings, Kyle ; Wilhelm, Roland C. ; Sparks, Jed ; Buckley, Daniel H. ; Bauerle, Taryn L. - \ 2020
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry 145 (2020). - ISSN 0038-0717
    Phenolic compounds perform various functions in soil ranging from microbial substrate to toxin and form the basis of several plant-mediated processes. The aim of this study was to investigate how phenolics commonly exuded by tree roots influence soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and interact with other labile forms of carbon (C) abundant in root exudates. Therefore, we performed a 38-day incubation experiment and assessed whether phenolic compounds (benzoic acid, caffeic acid and catechin) facilitated or inhibited SOM decomposition in a glucose-amended forest soil. Changes in decomposition, substrate use, fungal and bacterial community composition, and microbial abundance and activity were measured over time using 13C-stable-isotope tracing, DNA-based molecular methods and enzyme assays. Our findings showed that phenolics inhibited microbial activity and abundance to varying degrees. Yet, benzoic acid was the only compound producing a substantial priming effect leading to a 21% increase in SOM decomposition, which was amplified in glucose-amended soils. This stimulation in microbial activity was associated with an increase in β-1,4-glucosidase activity and the bacterial genera Paraburkholderia and Caballeronia of the Burkholderiaceae family. Phenolics drove microbial community shifts in glucose-amended soils with negligible interactive effects. In conclusion, phenolic priming of SOM decomposition is associated with microbial community shifts and amplified in the presence of glucose. This evidence emphasizes the need for considering phenolics and interactions among root exudates as priming mechanisms in the rhizosphere and other soil environments where aromatics and phenolic compounds are abundant.
    Exploring nitrogen indicators of farm performance among farm types across several European case studies
    Quemada, M. ; Lassaletta, L. ; Jensen, L.S. ; Godinot, O. ; Brentrup, F. ; Buckley, C. ; Foray, S. ; Hvid, S.K. ; Oenema, J. ; Richards, K.G. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 177 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    Arable farms - Dairy farms - Externalisation - Monitoring - Nitrogen balance - Pig farms

    Nitrogen (N) indicators are key for characterizing farm performance, because of the role of N in food production and environmental sustainability. A systematic monitoring of N balance at the farm level could contribute to understanding differences in N management and impacts among farms and among regions. The objective of this study was to increase the understanding of differences in N indicators at the farm level across Europe, and to derive possible target values. Farm-level data were collected through surveys of 1240 farms from Atlantic, Continental and Mediterranean Europe, that were diverse rather tahn country representative. The data were analysed according to a common procedure, using three related indicators: N use efficiency (NUE, farm-gate ratio of N outputs to N inputs), N surplus and N output in agricultural products. Specific target values were derived for farm type (arable, dairy, pig and mixed farms) based on the statistical analysis of the data set. The effect of not accounting for N losses involved in the production of purchased feed and the end use of exported manure (externalisation) on the animal farm indicators was evaluated by recalculating inputs with adjusting factors. The results show a wide variation in NUE and N surplus, mainly related to differences in farming systems and management. Arable farms presented lower mean N input and surplus than livestock farms, and therefore had the highest median NUE. The modest targets (i.e. median of data) for arable farms were NUE 61% and N surplus 68 kg N ha−1, for dairy farms NUE 30% and N surplus 155 kg N ha−1, and for pig farms NUE 40% and N surplus 135 kg N ha−1. Externalisation had a large effect on animal farm indicators. After adjusting for externalisation, the modest target NUE for dairy farms was 19% and for pig farms 23%. Farms outside their agro-environmental optimum could approach their specific targets by increasing or reducing N inputs (intensification or extensification) or adopting additional strategies (sustainable intensification). In conclusion, N indicators were useful to compare farm performance among different farming systems and to define a characteristic operating space for a farm population, but caution should be taken when comparing livestock farms before externalisation adjustment, and consideration should be given to changes in soil N stocks. Farm system-specific targets for N indicators and linkages with the Common Agricultural Policy may create the necessary incentives to optimise NUE and reduce N losses to air and water.

    Data from: Old World and New World Phasmatodea: phylogenomics resolve the evolutionary history of stick and leaf insects
    Simon, Sabrina ; Letsch, Harald ; Bank, Sarah ; Buckley, Thomas R. ; Donath, Alexander ; Liu, Shanlin ; Machida, Ryuichiro ; Meusemann, Karen ; Misof, Bernhard ; Podsiadlowski, Lars ; Zhou, Xin ; Wipfler, Benjamin ; Bradler, Sven - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    Phasmatodea comprises over 3,000 extant species and stands out as one of the last remaining insect orders for which a robust, higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis is lacking. New research suggests that the extant diversity is the result of a surprisingly recent and rapid radiation that has been difficult to resolve with standard Sanger sequence data. In order to resolve the early branching events of stick and leaf insects, we analyzed transcriptomes from 61 species, including 38 Phasmatodea species comprising all major clades and 23 outgroup taxa, including all other Polyneoptera orders. Using a custom-made ortholog set based on reference genomes from four species, we identified on average 2,274 orthologous genes in the sequenced transcriptomes. We generated various sub-alignments and performed maximum-likelihood analyses on several representative datasets to evaluate the effect of missing data and matrix composition on our phylogenetic estimates. Based on our new data, we are able to reliably resolve the deeper nodes between the principal lineages of extant Phasmatodea. Among Euphasmatodea, we provide strong evidence for a basal dichotomy of Aschiphasmatodea and all remaining euphasmatodeans, the Neophasmatodea. Within the latter clade, we recovered a previously unrecognized major New World and Old World lineage, for which we introduce the new names Oriophasmata tax. nov. (“Eastern phasmids”) and Occidophasmata tax. nov. (“Western phasmids”). Occidophasmata comprise Diapheromerinae, Pseudophasmatinae, and Agathemera, whereas all remaining lineages form the Oriophasmata, including Heteropterygidae, Phylliinae, Bacillus, Lonchodidae (Necrosciinae + Lonchodinae), Clitumninae, Cladomorphinae, and Lanceocercata. We furthermore performed a divergence time analysis and reconstructed the historical biogeography for stick and leaf insects. Phasmatodea either originated in Southeast Asia or in the New World. Our results suggest that the extant distribution of Phasmatodea is largely the result of dispersal events in a recently and rapidly diversified insect lineage rather than the result of vicariant processes.
    Old World and New World Phasmatodea: Phylogenomics Resolve the Evolutionary History of Stick and Leaf Insects
    Simon, Sabrina ; Letsch, Harald ; Bank, Sarah ; Buckley, Thomas R. ; Donath, Alexander ; Liu, Shanlin ; Machida, Ryuichiro ; Meusemann, Karen ; Misof, Bernhard ; Podsiadlowski, Lars ; Zhou, Xin ; Wipfler, Benjamin ; Bradler, Sven - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 7 (2019). - ISSN 2296-701X
    Phasmatodea comprises over 3,000 extant species and stands out as one of the last remaining insect orders for which a robust, higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis is lacking. New research suggests that the extant diversity is the result of a surprisingly recent and rapid radiation that has been difficult to resolve with standard Sanger sequence data. In order to resolve the early branching events of stick and leaf insects, we analyzed transcriptomes from 61 species, including 38 Phasmatodea species comprising all major clades and 23 outgroup taxa, including all other Polyneoptera orders. Using a custom-made ortholog set based on reference genomes from four species, we identified on average 2,274 orthologous genes in the sequenced transcriptomes. We generated various sub-alignments and performed maximum-likelihood analyses on several representative datasets to evaluate the effect of missing data and matrix composition on our phylogenetic estimates. Based on our new data, we are able to reliably resolve the deeper nodes between the principal lineages of extant Phasmatodea. Among Euphasmatodea, we provide strong evidence for a basal dichotomy of Aschiphasmatodea and all remaining euphasmatodeans, the Neophasmatodea. Within the latter clade, we recovered a previously unrecognized major New World and Old World lineage, for which we introduce the new names Oriophasmata tax. nov. (“Eastern phasmids”) and Occidophasmata tax. nov. (“Western phasmids”). Occidophasmata comprise Diapheromerinae, Pseudophasmatinae, and Agathemera, whereas all remaining lineages form the Oriophasmata, including Heteropterygidae, Phylliinae, Bacillus, Lonchodidae (Necrosciinae + Lonchodinae), Clitumninae, Cladomorphinae, and Lanceocercata. We furthermore performed a divergence time analysis and reconstructed the historical biogeography for stick and leaf insects. Phasmatodea either originated in Southeast Asia or in the New World. Our results suggest that the extant distribution of Phasmatodea is largely the result of dispersal events in a recently and rapidly diversified insect lineage rather than the result of vicariant processes.
    Development and validation of a semi-quantitative ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for screening of selective androgen receptor modulators in urine
    Ventura, Emiliano ; Gadaj, Anna ; Monteith, Gail ; Ripoche, Alexis ; Healy, Jim ; Botrè, Francesco ; Sterk, Saskia S. ; Buckley, Tom ; Mooney, Mark H. - \ 2019
    Journal of Chromatography. A, Including electrophoresis and other separation methods 1600 (2019). - ISSN 0021-9673 - p. 183 - 196.
    Doping control - Residue and food safety - Selective androgen receptor modulators - UHPLC-MS/MS - Urine

    A semi-quantitative method was developed to monitor the misuse of 15 SARM compounds belonging to nine different families, in urine matrices from a range of species (equine, canine, human, bovine and murine). SARM residues were extracted from urine (200 μL) with tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) without further clean-up and analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). A 12 min gradient separation was carried out on a Luna Omega Polar C18 column, employing water and methanol, both containing 0.1% acetic acid (v/v), as mobile phases. The mass spectrometer was operated both in positive and negative electrospray ionisation modes (ESI±), with acquisition in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Validation was performed according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria and European Union Reference Laboratories for Residues (EU-RLs) guidelines with CCβ values determined at 1 ng mL −1 , excluding andarine (2 ng mL −1 ) and BMS-564929 (5 ng mL −1 ), in all species. This rapid, simple and cost effective assay was employed for screening of bovine, equine, canine and human urine to determine the potential level of SARMs abuse in stock farming, competition animals as well as amateur and elite athletes, ensuring consumer safety and fair play in animal and human performance sports.

    Embracing 3D Complexity in Leaf Carbon–Water Exchange
    Earles, J.M. ; Buckley, Thomas N. ; Brodersen, Craig R. ; Busch, Florian A. ; Cano, F.J. ; Choat, Brendan ; Evans, John R. ; Farquhar, Graham D. ; Harwood, Richard ; Huynh, Minh ; John, Grace P. ; Miller, Megan L. ; Rockwell, Fulton E. ; Sack, Lawren ; Scoffoni, Christine ; Struik, Paul C. ; Wu, Alex ; Yin, Xinyou ; Barbour, Margaret M. - \ 2019
    Trends in Plant Science 24 (2019)1. - ISSN 1360-1385 - p. 15 - 24.
    3D - leaf anatomy - leaf hydraulic conductance - mesophyll conductance - photosynthesis

    Leaves are a nexus for the exchange of water, carbon, and energy between terrestrial plants and the atmosphere. Research in recent decades has highlighted the critical importance of the underlying biophysical and anatomical determinants of CO2 and H2O transport, but a quantitative understanding of how detailed 3D leaf anatomy mediates within-leaf transport has been hindered by the lack of a consensus framework for analyzing or simulating transport and its spatial and temporal dynamics realistically, and by the difficulty of measuring within-leaf transport at the appropriate scales. We discuss how recent technological advancements now make a spatially explicit 3D leaf analysis possible, through new imaging and modeling tools that will allow us to address long-standing questions related to plant carbon–water exchange.

    Pursuing sustainability through multi-stakeholder collaboration: A description of the governance, actions, and perceived impacts of the roundtables for sustainable beef
    Buckley, Kristy J. ; Newton, Peter ; Gibbs, Holly K. ; McConnel, Ian ; Ehrmann, John - \ 2019
    World Development 121 (2019). - ISSN 0305-750X - p. 203 - 217.
    Beef - Cattle - Commodity - Multi-stakeholder - Roundtable - Sustainability

    Roundtables for sustainable beef have evolved in national contexts as well as at the global level as a multi-stakeholder process to address sustainability concerns in the cattle sector. However, due to their relatively recent inception, the literature on the beef roundtables is extremely limited and very little scholarly work has traced their process or impact. We used semi-structured interviews with key informants to examine the governance, actions, and potential impacts of the roundtables for sustainable beef, and identified opportunities and challenges for achieving greater sustainability impact. We found that the beef roundtables are in different stages of development and implementation and that they have diverse approaches based on their geographic contexts. However, they have universally adopted a model of sector-wide continuous improvement, in contrast to roundtables for other commodities, which have in many cases adopted formal certification programs. Activities by the roundtables for sustainable beef have variously included working towards definitions of sustainable beef; setting sustainability principles and criteria; and creating working groups to address specific aspects of sustainability (e.g., verification, deforestation). Our interviews identified opportunities to expand the roundtables’ roles, activities, and sustainability impacts. This study provides a benchmark of the roundtables’ efforts to date, and generates hypotheses and ideas for how they could evolve in the future.

    Detecting signatures of pathogen-mediated selection using population genomics
    Buckley, James ; Holub, Eric B. ; Koch, Marcus A. ; Vergeer, P. ; Mable, Barbara K. - \ 2018
    University of Glasgow
    SRP148549 - PRJNA472246 - Arabidopsis lyrata
    This study used RAD-sequencing of Arabidopsis lyrata individuals sampled from across the range of two subspecies, A.l. lyrata (N.American) and A.l .petraea (European), to determine genome-wide patterns of polymorphism and genetic structure in this species. Using these data we also investigated whether genomic smoothing approaches across RAD loci could detect genomic regions showing signatures of balancing selection, specifically significantly elevated diversity and either elevated differentiation among geographic regions or shifts towards intermediate allele frequencies within regions. We then identified annotated disease resistance loci within these genomic regions of interest. Together this project shows that genome scans based on a small number of individuals sampled from a wide range of populations confirmed the relative scarcity of signatures of balancing selection across the genome, but also identified new potential disease resistance candidates within genomic regions showing signatures of balancing selection that would be strong candidates for further sequencing efforts.
    Restriction associated DNA-genotyping at multiple spatial scales in Arabidopsis lyrata reveals signatures of pathogen-mediated selection
    Buckley, James ; Holub, Eric B. ; Koch, Marcus A. ; Vergeer, Philippine ; Mable, Barbara K. - \ 2018
    BMC Genomics 19 (2018)1. - ISSN 1471-2164
    Arabidopsis lyrata - Balancing selection - Disease resistance - Genome scan - Mating system - Pathogens - Polymorphism - R-genes - RAD-seq

    Background: Genome scans based on outlier analyses have revolutionized detection of genes involved in adaptive processes, but reports of some forms of selection, such as balancing selection, are still limited. It is unclear whether high throughput genotyping approaches for identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms have sufficient power to detect modes of selection expected to result in reduced genetic differentiation among populations. In this study, we used Arabidopsis lyrata to investigate whether signatures of balancing selection can be detected based on genomic smoothing of Restriction Associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) data. We compared how different sampling approaches (both within and between subspecies) and different background levels of polymorphism (inbreeding or outcrossing populations) affected the ability to detect genomic regions showing key signatures of balancing selection, specifically elevated polymorphism, reduced differentiation and shifts towards intermediate allele frequencies. We then tested whether candidate genes associated with disease resistance (R-gene analogs) were detected more frequently in these regions compared to other regions of the genome. Results: We found that genomic regions showing elevated polymorphism contained a significantly higher density of R-gene analogs predicted to be under pathogen-mediated selection than regions of non-elevated polymorphism, and that many of these also showed evidence for an intermediate site-frequency spectrum based on Tajima's D. However, we found few genomic regions that showed both elevated polymorphism and reduced FST among populations, despite strong background levels of genetic differentiation among populations. This suggests either insufficient power to detect the reduced population structure predicted for genes under balancing selection using sparsely distributed RAD markers, or that other forms of diversifying selection are more common for the R-gene analogs tested. Conclusions: Genome scans based on a small number of individuals sampled from a wide range of populations were sufficient to confirm the relative scarcity of signatures of balancing selection across the genome, but also identified new potential disease resistance candidates within genomic regions showing signatures of balancing selection that would be strong candidates for further sequencing efforts.

    Reviewing research priorities in weed ecology, evolution and management: a horizon scan
    Neve, P. ; Barney, J.N. ; Buckley, Y. ; Cousens, R.D. ; Graham, S. ; Jordan, N.R. ; Lawton-Rauh, A. ; Liebman, M. ; Mesgaran, M.B. ; Shaw, J. ; Storkey, J. ; Baraibar, B. ; Baucom, R.S. ; Chalak, M. ; Childs, D.Z. ; Christensen, S. ; Eizenberg, H. ; Fernández-Quintanilla, C. ; French, K. ; Harsch, M. ; Heijting, S. ; Harrison, L. ; Loddo, D. ; Macel, M. ; Maczey, N. ; Merotto, A. ; Mortensen, D. ; Necajeva, J. ; Peltzer, D.A. ; Recasens, J. ; Renton, M. ; Riemens, M. ; Sønderskov, M. ; Williams, M. ; Rew, Lisa - \ 2018
    Weed Research 58 (2018)4. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 250 - 258.
    Weedy plants pose a major threat to food security, biodiversity, ecosystem services and consequently to human health and wellbeing. However, many currently used weed management approaches are increasingly unsustainable. To address this knowledge and practice gap, in June 2014, 35 weed and invasion ecologists, weed scientists, evolutionary biologists and social scientists convened a workshop to explore current and future perspectives and approaches in weed ecology and management. A horizon scanning exercise ranked a list of 124 pre‐submitted questions to identify a priority list of 30 questions. These questions are discussed under seven themed headings that represent areas for renewed and emerging focus for the disciplines of weed research and practice. The themed areas considered the need for transdisciplinarity, increased adoption of integrated weed management and agroecological approaches, better understanding of weed evolution, climate change, weed invasiveness and finally, disciplinary challenges for weed science. Almost all the challenges identified rested on the need for continued efforts to diversify and integrate agroecological, socio‐economic and technological approaches in weed management. These challenges are not newly conceived, though their continued prominence as research priorities highlights an ongoing intransigence that must be addressed through a more system‐oriented and transdisciplinary research agenda that seeks an embedded integration of public and private research approaches. This horizon scanning exercise thus set out the building blocks needed for future weed management research and practice; however, the challenge ahead is to identify effective ways in which sufficient research and implementation efforts can be directed towards these needs.
    State Obligations with regard to the Extraterritorial Activities of Companies Domiciled on their Territories : Towards Convergence in International Human Rights Law
    Bernaz, N. - \ 2016
    In: Towards Convergence in International Human Rights Law / Buckley, Carla M., Donald, Alice, Leach, Philip, Brill (Nottingham Studies on Human Rights ) - ISBN 9789004284241 - p. 435 - 453.
    European Court of Human Rights; Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; treaty monitoring bodies; fragmentation; jurisprudence; Inter-American Court of Human Rights; African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights; African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights; pluralism
    Analyzing the Negotiation Dynamics Leading to the Prominence of Forests in the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
    Arts, B.J.M. ; Buckley, Kristy ; Ellakany, Hosny - \ 2016
    Ecologically sustainable weed management : How do we get from proof-of-concept to adoption?
    Liebman, Matt ; Baraibar, Bàrbara ; Buckley, Yvonne ; Childs, Dylan ; Christensen, Svend ; Cousens, Roger ; Eizenberg, Hanan ; Heijting, Sanne ; Loddo, Donato ; Merotto, Aldo ; Renton, Michael ; Riemens, Marleen - \ 2016
    Ecological Applications 26 (2016)5. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1352 - 1369.
    Diversified weed management strategies - Herbicide resistance - Multidisciplinary research - Outreach - Site-specific weed management - Weed ecology - Weed-suppressive crop genotypes

    Weed management is a critically important activity on both agricultural and non-agricultural lands, but it is faced with a daunting set of challenges: environmental damage caused by control practices, weed resistance to herbicides, accelerated rates of weed dispersal through global trade, and greater weed impacts due to changes in climate and land use. Broad-scale use of new approaches is needed if weed management is to be successful in the coming era. We examine three approaches likely to prove useful for addressing current and future challenges from weeds: diversifying weed management strategies with multiple complementary tactics, developing crop genotypes for enhanced weed suppression, and tailoring management strategies to better accommodate variability in weed spatial distributions. In all three cases, proof-of-concept has long been demonstrated and considerable scientific innovations have been made, but uptake by farmers and land managers has been extremely limited. Impediments to employing these and other ecologically based approaches include inadequate or inappropriate government policy instruments, a lack of market mechanisms, and a paucity of social infrastructure with which to influence learning, decision-making, and actions by farmers and land managers. We offer examples of how these impediments are being addressed in different parts of the world, but note that there is no clear formula for determining which sets of policies, market mechanisms, and educational activities will be effective in various locations. Implementing new approaches for weed management will require multidisciplinary teams comprised of scientists, engineers, economists, sociologists, educators, farmers, land managers, industry personnel, policy makers, and others willing to focus on weeds within whole farming systems and land management units.

    Fast–slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide
    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto ; Jones, Owen R. ; Jongejans, Eelke ; Blomberg, Simon ; Hodgson, D. ; Zuidema, P.A. ; Kroon, Hans de; Buckley, Yvonne M. - \ 2016
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (2016)1. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 230 - 235.
    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast–slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast–slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments.
    Designed to eat less: The design of a new plate to ‘mindlessly’ eat less and its effect on consumer perception
    Hoek, A.C. ; Kleef, E. van; Makovec, N. ; Walker, J.D. ; Buckley, J.D. - \ 2014
    Proteomic analysis of meat and bone meal and animal feed
    Reece, P. ; Chassaigne, H. ; Collins, M.J. ; Buckley, M. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Grundy, H. - \ 2012
    In: Detection, identification and quantification of processed animal proteins in feedingstuffs / Jorgensen, J.S, Baeten, V., Namur : Presses universitaires de Namur - ISBN 9782875510297 - p. 113 - 124.
    A fast ethanol assay to detect seed deterioration
    Kodde, J. ; Buckley, W.T. ; Groot, C.C. de; Retiere, M. ; Víquez Zamora, A.M. ; Groot, S.P.C. - \ 2012
    Seed Science Research 22 (2012). - ISSN 0960-2585 - p. 55 - 62.
    physical sanitation treatments - maize zea-mays - cabbage seeds - germination - acetaldehyde - fermentation - mitochondria - sensitivity - performance - metabolism
    The most common way to test seed quality is to use a simple and reliable but time- and space-consuming germination test. In this paper we present a fast and simple method to analyse cabbage seed deterioration by measuring ethanol production from partially imbibed seeds. The method uses a modified breath analyser and is simple compared to gas chromatographic or enzymatic procedures. A modified method using elevated temperatures (40°C instead of 20°C) shortened the assay time and improved its sensitivity. The analysis showed an inverse correlation between ethanol production and seed quality (e.g. the final percentages or speed of germination and the number of normal seedlings). The increase in ethanol production was observed when cabbage seeds were deteriorated by storage under ambient conditions or hot water treatments, both of which reduced the number of normal seedlings. Premature seeds produced more ethanol upon imbibition than mature seeds. Ethanol production occurred simultaneously with oxygen consumption, indicating that lack of oxygen is not the major trigger for ethanol production.
    Check title to add to marked list
    << previous | next >>

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.