Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Calcium Carbonate Packed Electrochemical Precipitation Column: New Concept of Phosphate Removal and Recovery
Lei, Yang ; Narsing, Santosh ; Saakes, Michel ; Weijden, Renata D. Van Der; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)18. - ISSN 0013-936X

Phosphorus (P) is a vital micronutrient element for all life forms. Typically, P can be extracted from phosphate rock. Unfortunately, the phosphate rock is a nonrenewable resource with a limited reserve on the earth. High levels of P discharged to water bodies lead to eutrophication. Therefore, P needs to be removed and is preferably recovered as an additional P source. A possible way to achieve this goal is by electrochemically induced phosphate precipitation with coexisting calcium ions. Here, we report a new concept of phosphate removal and recovery, namely a CaCO3 packed electrochemical precipitation column, which achieved improved removal efficiency, shortened hydraulic retention time, and substantially enhanced stability, compared with our previous electrochemical system. The concept is based on the introduction of CaCO3 particles, which facilitates calcium phosphate precipitation by buffering the formed H+ at the anode, releases Ca2+, acts as seeds, and establishes a high pH environment in the bulk solution in addition to that in the vicinity of the cathode. It was found that the applied current, the CaCO3 particle size, and the feed rate affect the removal of phosphate. Under optimized conditions (particle size, <0.5 mm; feed rate, 0.4 L/d; current, 5 mA), in a continuous flow system, the CaCO3 packed electrochemical precipitation column achieved 90 ± 5% removal of phosphate in 40 days and >50% removal over 125 days with little maintenance. The specific energy consumptions of this system lie between 29 and 61 kWh/kg P. The experimental results demonstrate the promising potential of the CaCO3 packed electrochemical precipitation column for P removal and recovery from P-containing streams.

(Bio)electrochemical recovery of ammonia from urine
Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J.N. Buisman, co-promotor(en): A. ter Heijne; P. Kuntke. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950763 - 169
Activated carbon mixed with marine sediment is suitable as bioanode material for Spartina anglica sediment/plant microbial fuel cell: Plant growth, electricity generation, and spatial microbial community diversity
Sudirjo, Emilius ; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Strik, David P.B.T.B. - \ 2019
Water 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2073-4441
Activated carbon - Bioanode - Constructed wetlands - Marine sediment - Microbial community - Plant-MFC - Sediment-MFC

Wetlands cover a significant part of the world's land surface area. Wetlands are permanently or temporarily inundated with water and rich in nutrients. Therefore, wetlands equipped with Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells (Plant-MFC) can provide a new source of electricity by converting organic matter with the help of electrochemically active bacteria. In addition, sediments provide a source of electron donors to generate electricity from available (organic) matters. Eight lab-wetlands systems in the shape of flat-plate Plant-MFC were constructed. Here, four wetland compositions with activated carbon and/or marine sediment functioning as anodes were investigated for their suitability as a bioanode in a Plant-MFC system. Results show that Spartina anglica grew in all of the Plant-MFCs, although the growth was less fertile in the 100% activated carbon (AC100) Plant-MFC. Based on long-term performance (2 weeks) under 1000 ohm external load, the 33% activated carbon (AC33) Plant-MFC outperformed the other Plant-MFCs in terms of current density (16.1 mA/m2 plant growth area) and power density (1.04 mW/m2 plant growth area). Results also show a high diversity of microbial communities dominated by Proteobacteria with 42.5-69.7% relative abundance. Principal Coordinates Analysis shows clear different bacterial communities between 100% marine sediment (MS100) Plant-MFC and AC33 Plant-MFC. This result indicates that the bacterial communities were affected by the anode composition. In addition, small worms (Annelida phylum) were found to live around the plant roots within the anode of the wetland with MS100. These findings show that the mixture of activated carbon and marine sediment are suitable material for bioanodes and could be useful for the application of Plant-MFC in a real wetland. Moreover, the usage of activated carbon could provide an additional function like wetland remediation or restoration, and even coastal protection.

Recovery of calcium phosphate granules from black water using a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge bed and gas-lift reactor
Cunha, Jorge Ricardo ; Schott, Chris ; Weijden, Renata D. van der; Leal, Lucía Hernández ; Zeeman, Grietje ; Buisman, Cees - \ 2019
Environmental Research 178 (2019). - ISSN 0013-9351
Anaerobic treatment - Calcium phosphate precipitation - Crystallisation - Granulation - Methane

Adding calcium during anaerobic digestion of vacuum collected black water (BW) in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor increased the retention of total phosphorus (P) in the reactor from 51% to 87%. However, the insufficient mixing in the reactor caused cementation and relatively high content of organics in the recovered calcium phosphate (CaP) granules, limiting the P recovery. In this study, the UASB reactor was mixed with an internal gas-lift (UASB-GL) to prevent cementation and to enhance the P content in CaP granules. The novel UASB-GL reactor operated for 300 days, treating concentrated BW. At steady state, the removal of total COD and P was 92% and 90%, respectively. The gas injection created a sludge bed with an average total suspended solids concentration of 73 ± 16 g/L at the bottom and 31 ± 5 g/L at the top of the reactor. The concentration of solid P at the bottom of the reactor was 4.58 ± 1.34 gP/L, while at the top a much lower concentration was obtained (0.75 ± 0.32 gP/L). 89% of the CaP granules was found at the bottom of the reactor. The harvested CaP granules (>0.4 mm diameter) contained on average 7.8 ± 0.6 wt% of P. A potential recovery of 57% of P in BW as CaP granules was calculated, considering actual application of the UASB-GL reactor in source separated sanitation.

Reduce and re-use: studying retailers' food waste from an Operations Research perspective
Buisman, Marjolein Elize - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.M. Bloemhof, co-promotor(en): R. Haijema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463950411 - 150
Wetsus toont zijn waarde in water : De Sillicon Valley onder de wateruniversiteiten staat gewoon in Leeuwarden
Buisman, Cees - \ 2019
Onderzoek naar combinatie zeewier en mosselcultuur
Buisman, Kim - \ 2019
Aquacultuur 34 (2019)2. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 35 - 38.
Branched Medium Chain Fatty Acids : Iso-Caproate Formation from Iso-Butyrate Broadens the Product Spectrum for Microbial Chain Elongation
Leeuw, Kasper D. De; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Strik, David P.B.T.B. - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)13. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 7704 - 7713.

Chain elongation fermentation can be used to convert organic residues into biobased chemicals. This research aimed to develop a bioprocess for branched medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) production. A long-term continuous reactor experiment showed that iso-caproate (4-methyl pentanoate, i-C6) can be produced via ethanol based chain elongation. The enriched microbiome formed iso-caproate from iso-butyrate at a rate of 44 ± 6 mmol C L-1 day-1 during the last phase. This amounted to 20% of all formed compounds based on carbon atoms. The main fermentation product was n-caproate (55% of all carbon), as a result of acetate and subsequent n-butyrate elongation. The microbiome preferred straight-chain elongation over branched-chain elongation. Lowering the acetate concentration in the influent led to an increase of excessive ethanol oxidation (EEO) into electron equivalents (e.g., H2) and acetate. The formed acetate in turn stimulated straight chain elongation, but the resulting lower net acetate supply rate towards straight chain elongation led to an increased selectivity towards and productivity of i-C6. The electrons produced via oxidation routes and chain elongation were apparently utilized by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, homoacetogens, and carboxylate-to-alcohol reducing bacteria. Further improvements could be achieved if the acetate-producing EEO was minimized and limitations of ethanol and CO2 were prevented.

The granular capacitive moving bed reactor for the scale up of bioanodes
Borsje, Casper ; Sleutels, Tom ; Saakes, Michel ; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Heijne, Annemiek ter - \ 2019
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 94 (2019)8. - ISSN 0268-2575 - p. 2738 - 2748.
activated carbon - bioelectrochemical system - capacitive bioanode - gas lift reactor - granular bed - microbial electrochemical technology

BACKGROUND: Scaling up bioelectrochemical systems for the treatment of wastewater faces challenges. Material costs, low conductivity of wastewater and clogging are issues that need a novel approach. The granular capacitive moving bed reactor can potentially solve these challenges. In this reactor, capacitive activated carbon granules are used as bioanode material. The charge storage capabilities of these capacitive granules allow for the physical separation of the charging and the discharging process and therefore a separation of the wastewater treatment and energy recovery process. RESULTS: This study investigates the performance of the granular capacitive moving bed reactor. In this reactor, activated granules were transported from the bottom to the top of the reactor using a gas lift and settled on top of the granular bed, which moved downwards through the internal discharge cell. This moving granular bed was applied to increase the contact time with the discharge anode to increase the current density. The capacitive moving bed reactor (total volume 7.7 L) produced a maximum current of 23 A m−2 normalized to membrane area (257 A m−3granules). Without granules, the current was only 1.4 A m−2membrane. The activity of the biofilm on the granules increased over time, from 436 up to 1259 A m−3granules. A second experiment produced similar areal current density and increase in activity over time. CONCLUSION: Whereas the produced current density is promising for further scaling up of bioanodes, the main challenges are to improve the discharge of the charged granules and growth of biofilm on the granules under shear stress.

Methanol based elongation of propionate and propionate and acetate in continuous and batch mixed culture systems
Smit, Sanne de; Leeuw, K.D. de; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Strik, D.P.B.T.B. - \ 2019
chain elongation - selective pressure - open-culture fermentation - mixed culture fermentation - biobased chemicals - methanol - butyrate - n-valerate
Continuous methanol based chain elongation of propionate to n-valerate was performed in a mixed culture reactor. Additionally, the study shows simultaneous methanol based elongation of propionate and acetate to respectively n-valerate and iso/n-butyrate in a continuous mixed culture reactor. A range of mixed culture batch experiments was performed with methanol and propionate and the initial pH ranging from 5 to 7.5 (steps of 0.5)
Granular activated carbon in capacitive microbial fuel cells
Caizán Juanarena, Leire - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J.N. Buisman, co-promotor(en): A. ter Heijne. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439787 - 202
Continuous n-valerate formation from propionate and methanol in an anaerobic chain elongation open-culture bioreactor
Smit, Sanne M. De; Leeuw, Kasper D. de; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Strik, David P.B.T.B. - \ 2019
Biotechnology for Biofuels 12 (2019)1. - ISSN 1754-6834 - 16 p.
Biobased chemicals - Butyrate - Chain elongation - Methanol - Mixed-culture fermentation - n-Valerate - Open-culture fermentation - Selective pressure

Background: Chain elongation forms a new platform technology for the circular production of biobased chemicals from renewable carbon and energy sources. This study aimed to develop a continuous methanol-based chain elongation process for the open-culture production of a new-generation biofuel precursor and potential platform chemical: n-valerate. Propionate was used as a substrate for chain elongation to n-valerate in an anaerobic open-culture bioreactor. In addition, the co-production of n- and iso-butyrate in addition to n-valerate via, respectively, acetate and propionate elongation was investigated. Results: n-Valerate was produced during batch and continuous experiments with a pH in the range 5.5-5.8 and a hydraulic retention time of 95 h. Decreasing the pH from 5.8 to 5.5 caused an increase of the selectivity for n-valerate formation (from 58 up to 70 wt%) during methanol-based propionate elongation. n-Valerate and both n- and iso-butyrate were produced during simultaneous methanol-based elongation of propionate and acetate. Propionate was within the open-culture preferred over acetate as a substrate with 10-30% more consumption. Increasing the methanol concentration in the influent (from 250 to 400 mM) resulted in a higher productivity (from 45 to 58 mmol C/L/day), but a lower relative product selectivity (from 49 to 43 wt%) of n-valerate. The addition of acetate as a substrate did not change the average n-valerate productivities. Within the continuous bioreactor experiments, 6 to 17 wt% of formed products was methane. The microbial community during all steady-states in both methanol-based elongation bioreactors was dominated by species related to Clostridium luticellarii and Candidatus Methanogranum. C. luticellarii is the main candidate for n-valerate formation from methanol and propionate. Conclusions: n-Valerate was for the first time proven to be produced from propionate and methanol by an open-culture bioreactor. Methanogenic activity can be inhibited by decreasing the pH, and the n-valerate productivity can be improved by increasing the methanol concentration. The developed process can be integrated with various biorefinery processes from thermochemical, (bio)electrochemical, photovoltaic and microbial technologies. The findings from this study form a useful tool to steer the process of biological production of chemicals from biomass and other carbon and energy sources.

Analysis of adoption rates for Needs Driven versus Value Driven innovation water technologies
O’Callaghan, Paul ; Adapa, Lakshmi M. ; Buisman, Cees - \ 2019
Water Environment Research 91 (2019)2. - ISSN 1061-4303 - p. 144 - 156.
Disruptive innovation - Innovation adoption - Innovation drivers - Sustaining innovation - Technology diffusion - Water innovation - Water technology - Water technology adoption

This paper analyzes six case studies of new water technology innovations in the last three decades and investigates the differences in timelines for moving through the various stages of water technology commercialization. The concept of two different types of innovation was explored: Crisis/Needs Driven and Value Driven. It was found that the case studies that mapped to the Crisis/Needs Driven innovation moved relatively quickly compared to Value Driven innovations and in most cases involved new entrants. New entrants refer to new companies or start-ups that have recently entered the water technology market. The case studies, which could be mapped to Value Driven innovation, had a slower rate of technology diffusion, and they involved a combination of existing companies as well as new entrants. • Practitioner points • The paper identifies two key types of innovation: Crisis/Needs Driven and Value Driven. • Legislation was observed to be a key driver for the adoption of new technology innovation in the water sector. • The Crisis/Needs driven innovations studied were observed to diffuse through the Water Technology Diffusion model at up to twice the pace of Value driven innovation. • Crisis/Needs driven innovation typically involves disruptive innovation offered by new entrants, whereas with Value driven innovation, the solutions are provided by both existing companies as well as new entrants. • It is also observed that in most cases a technology that is adopted in order to meet a crisis or need in the market is more expensive at the outset compared with incumbent solutions. • While value driven adoption has a slower cycle for adoption, it presents a lower risk as it is less dependent on external factors and timing of implementation of regulations or the occurrence of some public health related or environmental crisis.

Electrochemical and microbiological characterization of single carbon granules in a multi-anode microbial fuel cell
Caizán-Juanarena, Leire ; Servin-Balderas, Ivonne ; Chen, Xuan ; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Heijne, Annemiek ter - \ 2019
Journal of Power Sources 435 (2019). - ISSN 0378-7753
Capacitive bioanode - Charge storage - Charge/discharge cycles - Granular activated carbon - Microbial community - Total nitrogen

Capacitive microbial fuel cells (MFCs) use bacteria on a capacitive anode to oxidize organics in wastewater and simultaneously charge the electrode. This study aims to gain knowledge on the performance of single activated carbon (AC) granules, which are used as capacitive bioanodes. To this end, a multi-anode MFC that allows the testing of up to 29 granules under the same experimental conditions is used. 2 types of AC granules (PK and GAC) and 3 different size-ranges (n = 8 each) are studied in terms of current production, biomass quantification, microbial community and charge storage. Additionally, charge storage of PK granules (n = 24) is determined for different charging/discharging times. Results show that total produced charge directly relates to biomass amount, which has a linear relation towards granule outer surface area. Small AC granules have higher volumetric current densities, which could be of interest for their application in up-scaled reactors. PK granules show slightly higher biomass and current production than GAC granules, while these latter ones show larger volumetric charge storage capacity. Similarly, it is shown that short charging/discharging times are needed to obtain maximum charge storage and current output. These findings are of importance to design and operate MFCs with capacitive properties.

Comparison of Two Sustainable Counter Electrodes for Energy Storage in the Microbial Rechargeable Battery
Molenaar, Sam D. ; Elzinga, Margo ; Willemse, Sonja G. ; Sleutels, Tom ; Heijne, Annemiek ter; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
ChemElectroChem 6 (2019)9. - ISSN 2196-0216 - p. 2464 - 2473.
bioelectrochemical systems - energy storage - microbial electrochemical technology - microbial electrosynthesis - microbial rechargeable batteries

Recently, the microbial rechargeable battery (MRB) has been proposed as a potentially sustainable and low-cost electrical energy storage technology. In the MRB, bioelectrochemical CO 2 reduction and subsequent product oxidation has successfully been combined in one integrated system. However, finding a suitable counter electrode is hindering its further development. In this work, we have tested two alternative counter electrodes in duplicate-namely, i) oxygen/water and ii) a capacitive electrode-for use in the MRB platform. During daily charge/discharge cycling over periods of 11 to 15 days, experimentally obtained energy efficiencies of 25 and 3.7 % were reported when using the capacitive and the oxygen/water electrodes, respectively. Large overpotentials, resulting in a voltage efficiency of 15 % and oxygen crossover leading to coulombic efficiencies of 25 % caused the considerably lower efficiency for the oxygen/water systems, despite the theoretical higher voltage efficiency. Although the capacitive electrode equipped systems performed better, energy density is limited by the operational potential window within which capacitive systems can operate reliably. Microbial community analysis revealed dominant presence of Geobacter in the bioanode and Selenomonadales in the biocathode. These results do not necessarily bring practical application of the MRB closer, but they do provide new insights in the working principle of this new technology.

Bioelectrochemical chain elongation
Raes, Sanne M.T. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J.N. Buisman, co-promotor(en): Strik. D.P.B.T.B.. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463439169 - 167
Energy Efficient Phosphorus Recovery by Microbial Electrolysis Cell Induced Calcium Phosphate Precipitation
Lei, Yang ; Du, Mengyi ; Kuntke, Philipp ; Saakes, Michel ; Weijden, Renata van der; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering 7 (2019)9. - ISSN 2168-0485 - p. 8860 - 8867.
amorphous calcium phosphate - bioelectrochemical - energy consumption - local high pH - phosphate removal

Phosphorus (P) removal and recovery from waste streams is essential for a sustainable world. Here, we updated a previously developed abiotic electrochemical P recovery system to a bioelectrochemical system. The anode was inoculated with electroactive bacteria (electricigens) which are capable of oxidizing soluble organic substrates and releasing electrons. These electrons are then used for the reduction of water at the cathode, resulting in an increase of pH close to the cathode. Hence, phosphate can be removed with coexisting calcium ions as calcium phosphate at the surface of the cathode with a much lower energy input. Depending on the available substrate (sodium acetate) concentration, an average current density from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 6.6 ± 0.4 A/m 2 was achieved. This resulted in a P removal of 20.1 ± 1.5% to 73.9 ± 3.7%, a Ca removal of 10.5 ± 0.6% to 44.3 ± 1.7% and a Mg removal of 2.7 ± 1.9% to 16.3 ± 3.0%. The specific energy consumption and the purity of the solids were limited by the relative low P concentration (0.23 mM) in the domestic wastewater. The relative abundance of calcium phosphate in the recovered product increased from 23% to 66% and the energy consumption for recovery was decreased from 224 ± 7 kWh/kg P to just 56 ± 6 kWh/kg P when treating wastewater with higher P concentration (0.76 mM). An even lower energy demand of 21 ± 2 kWh/kg P was obtained with a platinized cathode. This highlights the promising potential of bioelectrochemical P recovery from P-rich waste streams.

Ivium Raw data of Charging and Discharging experiment for article "Marine sediment mixed with activated carbon allows electricity production and storage from internal and external energy sources: a new rechargeable bio-battery with bi-directional electron transfer properties"
Sudirjo, Emilius ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Strik, D.P.B.T.B. - \ 2019
activated carbon - capacitance - bio-battery - bio anode - marine sediment - charging - discharging - energy storage
Marine Sediment Mixed With Activated Carbon Allows Electricity Production and Storage From Internal and External Energy Sources: A New Rechargeable Bio-Battery With Bi-Directional Electron Transfer Properties
Sudirjo, Emilius ; Buisman, Cees J.N. ; Strik, David P.B.T.B. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Microbiology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-302X - 15 p.
Marine sediment has a great potential to generate electricity with a bioelectrochemical system (BES) like the microbial fuel cell (MFC). In this study, we investigated the potential of marine sediment and activated carbon (AC) to generate and store electricity. Both internal and external energy supply was validated for storage behavior. Four types of anode electrode compositions were investigated. Two types were mixtures of different volumes of AC and Dutch Eastern Scheldt marine sediment (67% AC and 33% AC) and the others two were 100% AC or 100% marine sediment based. Each composition was duplicated. Operating these BES’s under MFC mode with solely marine sediment as the anode electron donor resulted in the creation of a bio-battery. The recharge time of such bio-battery does depend on the fuel content and its usage. The results show that by usage of marine sediment and AC electricity was generated and stored. The 100% AC and the 67% AC mixed with marine sediment electrode were over long term potentiostatic controlled at -100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl which resulted in a cathodic current and an applied voltage. After switching back to the MFC operation mode at 1000 Ω external load, the electrode turned into an anode and electricity was generated. This supports the hypothesis that external supply electrical energy was recovered via bi-directional electron transfer. With open cell voltage experiments these AC marine bioanodes showed internal supplied electric charge storage up to 100 mC at short self-charging times (10 and 60 s) and up to 2.4∘C (3,666 C/m3 anode) at long charging time (1 h). Using a hypothetical cell voltage of 0.2 V, this value represents an internal electrical storage density of 0.3 mWh/kg AC marine anode. Furthermore it was remarkable that the BES with 100% marine sediment based electrode also acted like a capacitor similar to the charge storage behaviors of the AC based bioanodes with a maximum volumetric storage of 1,373 C/m3 anode. These insights give opportunities to apply such BES systems as e.g., ex situ bio-battery to store and use electricity for off-grid purpose in remote areas.
Increasing the Selectivity for Sulfur Formation in Biological Gas Desulfurization
Rink, Rieks De; Klok, Johannes B.M. ; Heeringen, Gijs J. Van; Sorokin, Dimitry Y. ; Heijne, Annemiek Ter; Zeijlmaker, Remco ; Mos, Yvonne M. ; Wilde, Vinnie De; Keesman, Karel J. ; Buisman, Cees J.N. - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)8. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 4519 - 4527.

In the biotechnological desulfurization process under haloalkaline conditions, dihydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is removed from sour gas and oxidized to elemental sulfur (S 8 ) by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Besides S 8 , the byproducts sulfate (SO 4 2- ) and thiosulfate (S 2 O 3 2- ) are formed, which consume caustic and form a waste stream. The aim of this study was to increase selectivity toward S 8 by a new process line-up for biological gas desulfurization, applying two bioreactors with different substrate conditions (i.e., sulfidic and microaerophilic), instead of one (i.e., microaerophilic). A 111-day continuous test, mimicking full scale operation, demonstrated that S 8 formation was 96.6% on a molar H 2 S supply basis; selectivity for SO 4 2- and S 2 O 3 2- were 1.4 and 2.0% respectively. The selectivity for S 8 formation in a control experiment with the conventional 1-bioreactor line-up was 75.6 mol %. At start-up, the new process line-up immediately achieved lower SO 4 2- and S 2 O 3 2- formations compared to the 1-bioreactor line-up. When the microbial community adapted over time, it was observed that SO 4 2- formation further decreased. In addition, chemical formation of S 2 O 3 2- was reduced due to biologically mediated removal of sulfide from the process solution in the anaerobic bioreactor. The increased selectivity for S 8 formation will result in 90% reduction in caustic consumption and waste stream formation compared to the 1-bioreactor line-up.

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