Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Balanced harvest: concept, policies, evidence, and management implications
Zhou, Shijie ; Kolding, Jeppe ; Garcia, Serge M. ; Plank, Michael J. ; Bundy, Alida ; Charles, Anthony ; Hansen, Cecilie ; Heino, Mikko ; Howell, Daniel ; Jacobsen, Nis S. ; Reid, David G. ; Rice, Jake C. ; Zwieten, Paul A.M. van - \ 2019
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 29 (2019)3. - ISSN 0960-3166 - p. 711 - 733.
Ecological effect - Ecosystem approach to fishery - Ecosystem structure - Fishing intensity - Production - Selectivity - Sustainability

Balanced harvest has been proposed to reduce fishing impact on ecosystems while simultaneously maintaining or even increasing fishery yield. The concept has attracted broad interest, but also received criticisms. In this paper, we examine the theory, modelling studies, empirical evidence, the legal and policy frameworks, and management implications of balanced harvest. The examination reveals unresolved issues and challenges from both scientific and management perspectives. We summarize current knowledge and address common questions relevant to the idea. Major conclusions include: balanced harvest can be expressed in several ways and implemented on multiple levels, and with different approaches e.g. métier based management; it explicitly bridges fisheries and conservation goals in accordance with international legal and policy frameworks; modelling studies and limited empirical evidence reveal that balanced harvest can reduce fishing impact on ecosystem structure and increase the aggregate yield; the extent of balanced harvest is not purely a scientific question, but also a legal and social choice; a transition to balanced harvest may incur short-term economic costs, while in the long-term, economic results will vary across individual fisheries and for society overall; for its application, balanced harvest can be adopted at both strategic and tactical levels and need not be a full implementation, but could aim for a “partially-balanced” harvest. Further objective discussions and research on this subject are needed to move balanced harvest toward supporting a practical ecosystem approach to fisheries.

Towards ecosystem-based management : identifying operational food-web indicators for marine ecosystems
Tam, Jamie C. ; Link, Jason S. ; Rossberg, Axel G. ; Rogers, Stuart I. ; Levin, Philip S. ; Rochet, Marie-Joelle ; Bundy, Alida ; Belgrano, Andrea ; Libralato, Simone ; Tomczak, Maciej ; Wolfshaar, K.E. van de; Pranovi, Fabio ; Gorokhova, Elena ; Large, Scott I. ; Niquil, Nathalie ; Greenstreet, Simon P.R. ; Druon, Jean-Noel ; Lesutiene, Jurate ; Johansen, Marie ; Preciado, Izaskun ; Patricio, Joana ; Palialexis, Andreas ; Tett, Paul ; Johansen, Geir O. ; Houle, Jennifer ; Rindorf, Anna - \ 2017
ICES Journal of Marine Science 74 (2017)7. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 2040 - 2052.
ecoystem-based management - Good environmental status - Indicator selection - integrated ecosystem assessment - marine strategy framework directive
Modern approaches to Ecosystem-Based Management and sustainable use of marine resources must account for the myriad of pressures (interspecies, human and environmental) affecting marine ecosystems. The network of feeding interactions between co-existing species and populations (food webs) are an important aspect of all marine ecosystems and biodiversity. Here we describe and discuss a process to evaluate the selection of operational food-web indicators for use in evaluating marine ecosystem status. This process brought together experts in food-web ecology, marine ecology, and resource management, to identify available indicators that can be used to inform marine management. Standard evaluation criteria (availability and quality of data, conceptual basis, communicability, relevancy to management) were implemented
to identify practical food-web indicators ready for operational use and indicators that hold promise for future use in policy and management. The major attributes of the final suite of operational food-web indicators were structure and functioning. Indicators that represent resilience of the marine ecosystem were less developed. Over 60 potential food-web indicators were evaluated and the final selection of operational food-web indicators includes: the primary production required to sustain a fishery, the productivity of seabirds (or charismatic megafauna), zooplankton indicators, primary productivity, integrated trophic indicators, and the biomass of trophic guilds. More efforts
should be made to develop thresholds-based reference points for achieving Good Environmental Status. There is also a need for international
collaborations to develop indicators that will facilitate management in marine ecosystems used by multiple countries.
Fisheries, the inverted food pyramid
Kolding, J. ; Bundy, A. ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Plank, M. - \ 2016
ICES Journal of Marine Science 73 (2016)6. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1697 - 1713.
A global assessment of fishing patterns and fishing pressure from 110 different Ecopath models, representing marine ecosystems throughout the world and covering the period 1970–2007, show that human exploitation across trophic levels (TLs) is highly unbalanced and skewed towards low productive species at high TLs, which are around two TLs higher than the animal protein we get from terrestrial farming. Overall, exploitation levels from low trophic species were <15% of production, and only 18% of the total number of exploited groups and species were harvested >40% of their production. Generally, well-managed fisheries from temperate ecosystems were more selectively harvested at higher exploitation rates than tropical and upwelling (tropical and temperate) fisheries, resulting in potentially larger long-term changes to the ecosystem structure and functioning. The results indicate a very inefficient utilization of the food energy value of marine production. Rebuilding overfished components of the ecosystem and changing focus to balancing exploitation across a wider range of TLs, i.e. balanced harvesting, has the potential to significantly increase overall catches from global marine fisheries.
Balanced Harvest in the Real World. Scientific, Policy and Operational Issues in an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries
Garcia, S.M. ; Bianchi, G. ; Charles, A. ; Kolding, J. ; Rice, J. ; Rochet, M.J. ; Zhou, S. ; Delius, G. ; Reid, D. ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van; Atcheson, M. ; Bartley, D. ; Borges, L. ; Bundy, A. ; Dagorn, L. ; Dunn, D. ; Hall, M. ; Heino, M. ; Jacobsen, B. ; Jacobsen, N.S. ; Law, R. ; Makino, M. ; Martin, F. ; Skern-Mauritzen, M. ; Suuronen, P. ; Symons, D. - \ 2015
Gland, Switzerland : IUCN - 94 p.
The concept of the Ecosystem Approach has entered the fishery harvesting discussions both from fishery perspectives (Reykjavik Declaration; FAO 2003 Annex to the Code of Conduct and from the principles of the Ecosystem Approach adopted by the CBD in 1995. Both perspectives establish the need to maintain ecosystem structure and functioning, whether for sustainable use of biodiversity (CBD) or simply to keep exploited ecosystems healthy and productive (fisheries). In response, the “Balanced Harvest” (BH) concept was suggested by a group of scientists brought together by the IUCN Fisheries Experts Group during the CBD CoP 10 in 2010. The meeting and the BH concept as consolidated there highlighted some of the collateral ecological effects of current fishing patterns and unbalanced removals of particular components of the food web, stimulating a critical rethinking of current approaches to fisheries management. The meeting on “Balanced Harvest in the real world - Scientific, policy and operational issues in an ecosystem approach to fisheries” (Rome, September 29-October 2, 2014) examined the progress made since 2010 on a number of fronts. It considered questions related to the scientific underpinning of the BH concept, including theory, modelling, and empirical observations. It began to explore the economic, policy and management implications of harvesting in a more balanced way.
Editorial: Global in scope and regionally rich: an IndiSeas workshop helps shape the future of marine ecosystem indicators
Shin, Y.J. ; Bundy, A. ; Piet, G.J. - \ 2012
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 22 (2012)3. - ISSN 0960-3166 - p. 835 - 845.
size-based indicators - cusum control charts - to-end models - fisheries management - community structure - ecological status - climate-change - fuzzy-logic - food webs - catch
This report summarizes the outcomes of an IndiSeas workshop aimed at using ecosystem indicators to evaluate the status of the world’s exploited marine ecosystems in support of an ecosystem approach to fisheries, and global policy drivers such as the 2020 targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Key issues covered relate to the selection and integration of multi-disciplinary indicators, including climate, biodiversity and human dimension indicators, and to the development of data- and model-based methods to test the performance of ecosystem indicators in providing support for fisheries management. To enhance the robustness of our cross-system comparison, unprecedented effort was put in gathering regional experts from developed and developing countries, working together on multi-institutional survey datasets, and using the most up-to-date ecosystem models.
Balanced harvesting: Can it reconcile fisheries and conservation objectives, and how can it be done?
Arimoto, T. ; Beyer, J.E. ; Borges, L. ; Bundy, A. ; Dunn, D. ; Fulton, B. ; Hall, M. ; Heino, M. ; Law, R. ; Makino, M. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Simard, F. ; Smith, A.D.M. ; Zwieten, P.A.M. van - \ 2012
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