Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Non-Timber Forest Product Livelihood-Focused Interventions in Support of Mangrove Restoration: A Call to Action
    Debrot, Adolphe O. ; Veldhuizen, Ab ; Burg, Sander W.K. Van Den; Klapwijk, Charlotte J. ; Islam, Nazrul ; Alam, Iftakharul ; Ahsan, Mohammed Nazmul ; Ahmed, Moin U. ; Hasan, Selim R. ; Fadilah, Ratnawaty ; Noor, Yus R. ; Pribadi, Rudhi ; Rejeki, Sri ; Damastuti, Ekaningrum ; Koopmanschap, Esther ; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, Catharien ; Reinhard, Stijn ; Verburg, Charlotte ; Poelman, Marnix - \ 2020
    Forests 11 (2020)11. - ISSN 1999-4907 - 17 p.
    Mangroves of tropical and subtropical shores and deltas contribute to ecosystem functioning and human wellbeing in numerous ways but continue to be lost or degraded worldwide at a rapid pace. Overexploitation driven by poverty is often the root cause of mangrove destruction and degradation. The negative feedback cycle between destruction and poverty can only be broken by justly valuing current or introducing new sustainable livelihood options to foster long-lasting local support for mangroves. The large array of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) that mangroves offer have rarely been developed beyond the subsistence level and remain undervalued as “products of the poor”. In light of the global trends towards sustainability and bio-economy, today they represent a major business opportunity for forest communities to produce high value-added end-user products. Even though mangrove NTFPs have been recognized to have high potential toward inclusive development and poverty alleviation and to be highly gender-equal, the development of mangrove NTFPs has continued to attract very little funding or research interest. Several ecological characteristics make commercialization of mangrove NTFPs particularly challenging. Production at economies of scale, including quality standards, as well as marketing and value chain management are all essential in order to develop these products beyond their subsistence role. To be most effective, a systems perspective on NTFP development is needed, whereby product-market development occurs in unison and based on a participative, inclusive and fair development approach. The species/product of choice for value-added product-market development in any specific community or area will depend on several factors. To address many of the typical constraints and maximize the chances of success, we suggest that the use of village or district-level cooperatives may be particularly useful. A better use of the untapped potential of mangroves for local livelihoods may form a most convincing advocate for local protection and restoration of mangrove forests. Therefore, funding agencies, governments and researchers alike are called to invest in mangrove NTFP development as a way to locally incentivize sustainable mangrove protection and restoration. View Full-Text
    Haalbaarheidsstudie PL4.0 data-ruimte: knelpuntenanalyse datagebruik op boerenbedrijf en aanbevelingen om de impasse te doorbreken
    Kempenaar, Corné ; Mollema, Ruud ; Been, Thomas ; Boheemen, Koen van; Biewenga, Gelein ; Burg, Simone van der; Wassenaer, Lan van; Meij, Koos van der; Graumans, Conny ; Horst, Arjan ter; Janssen, Sander ; Lokhorst, Kees ; Sijbrandij, Fedde ; Steinbusch, Maurice ; Vlugt, Peter van der; Wal, Tamme van der - \ 2020
    Wageningen : Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business Unit Agrosystems (Rapport / Stichting Wageningen Research, Wageningen Plant Research, Business unit Agrosystems WPR-10.18174/532701) - 117
    De PPS PL4.0 onderzoekt in fase 1 de haalbaarheid van een veilige ruimte voor het delen van data voor open-teeltenbedrijven, waardoor zij een volwaardige positie krijgen in data-gedreven AgriFood waardeketens. Het doel van de PPS is een collectieve, publiek-private R&D inspanning te leveren om te komen tot een basis voor grootschalig, slim, veilig, transparant en ‘in control’ gebruik van data in open teelten (inclusief teelt van voedergewassen) en AgriFood-ketens in Nederland. In dit rapport worden (1) de huidige situatie van data gebruik op akkerbouw-, ruwvoerproductie- en loonwerkbedrijven beschreven, (2) technische, organisatorische, ethische en juridische aspecten van data-gebruik en (3) een knelpuntenanalyse van data-gebruik op deze open-teelten bedrijven. De kern van de uitkomsten van de analyse is dat boeren moeten werken met een lappendeken van ICT-tools die onderling slecht verbonden zijn waardoor het schier onmogelijk is om op hun bedrijven gegenereerde data overzichtelijk bij elkaar te brengen in een gebruiksvriendelijk data-platform van waaruit ze alle zaken met hun data willen kunnen doen waarin meerwaarde zit (monitoring, benchmarking, verantwoording, teelt-, bedrijf- en ketenoptimalisatie, etc.). Kernwoorden zijn Data-soevereiniteit (zeggenschap over data) en Interoperabiliteit (kunnen koppelen van data en systemen). Om de knelpunten op te lossen doen we een achttal aanbevelingen, waarvan de belangrijkste is het maken van publiek-private afspraken over architectuurprincipes van technische en organisatorische aard. Die afspraken zijn de basis voor realisatie van de gewenste data-ruimte van de boer waardoor hij een volwaardige partner wordt in AgriFood ketens. En als die gewenste data-ruimte er is, ontstaan er nieuwe mogelijkheden op gebied van bedrijfs- en ketenoptimalisatie, nieuwe services en monitoring van maatschappelijke doelen waaronder die van EU GLB. De aanbevelingen kunnen uitgewerkt worden in fase 2 van PPS PL4.0, waarin de PPS met meer partners wil werken aan de gewenste data-ruimte en het aantonen van de meerwaarde van slim data gebruiken in use cases.
    Gender integration in international agricultural research for development
    Burg, Margreet Van Der - \ 2020
    In: Routledge Handbook of Gender and Agriculture / Sachs, Carolyn E., Jensen, Leif, Castellanos, Paige, Sexsmith, Kathleen, Taylor and Francis - ISBN 9780367190019 - p. 69 - 84.
    Agri-food systems - Agricultural sciences - AR4D - CGIAR - Gender - Gender integration - SDGs

    “Science for impact” has been the implicit motto for the agricultural sciences since the late 19th Century. New insights into the natural sciences that could benefit agriculture inspired the establishment of agricultural sciences with an emphasis on biophysical components. Gradually, disciplines with a societal perspective started to provide guidance to improve effectivity and avoid harmful impacts. By acknowledging farmers as a diverse group of actors on various farm types, women in farming also came into the picture. Nevertheless, until the 1970s scientific investigation of the systemic interplay of all scales, aspects, and actors had been lacking and never became mainstream. Currently, agriculture and food-oriented scientific institutions explicitly frame their work as “science for impact” in support of the Sustainable Development Goals. In addition to the life sciences, social sciences are urged to contribute. This chapter highlights gender integration in international agricultural research for development (AR4D) in its capacity to interconnect social and life sciences. The chapter first distinguishes five research orientations and then stresses their interconnectedness by presenting recent research on gender in international AR4D. Lastly, current gender approaches are explicated to stimulate purposefully selecting approaches in advancing further gender integration.

    Meningen dokter en patiënt over onnodige vitaminebepalingen
    Hofstede, Hetty ; Burg, Rosalie van der; Mulder, Bob ; Bohnen, Arthur ; Bindels, Patrick ; Wit, Niek de; Vugt, S.F. van; Schepper, E.I.T. de - \ 2020
    Huisarts & Wetenschap 63 (2020). - ISSN 0018-7070 - p. 21 - 24.
    Het aantal niet-zinvolle vitaminebepalingen stijgt enorm. Uit interviews met huisartsen en patiënten blijkt dat patiënten vaak andere ideeën hebben over wat zinvolle bepalingen zijn dan hun huisarts. De huisarts staat dan voor de uitdaging om de relatie met de patiënt goed te houden. Patiënten hebben behoefte aan betrouwbare, up-to-date informatie over welke bepalingen zinvol zijn en welke niet, bijvoorbeeld via Thuisarts.nl. Huisartsen hebben baat bij nascholing, bondige praktijkinformatie en feedback over de eigen testaanvragen.
    De vastgoedsector heeft nieuwe financieringsmogelijkheden voor natuurinclusieve klimaatadaptatie nodig
    Selnes, T. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Michels, R. - \ 2020
    Service Magazine 2020 (2020)27. - ISSN 1384-2757
    The future(s) of digital agriculture and sustainable food systems: An analysis of high-level policy documents
    Lajoie-O'Malley, Alana ; Bronson, Kelly ; Burg, Simone van der; Klerkx, Laurens - \ 2020
    Ecosystem Services 45 (2020). - ISSN 2212-0416
    Agriculture 4.0 - Digital transformation - Directionality - Food security - Frame analysis - Future visions - Normative orientation

    Ecosystem services delivery is influenced by food systems and vice versa. As the application of digital technologies in agriculture continues to expand, digital technologies might affect the delivery of ecosystem services in view of the sorts of food systems in which they are embedded. The direction food systems develop towards the future, and the role digital technologies play in this development, is influenced by imaginings, hopes and visions about what these technologies mean for future food systems. In this article, we investigate what roles are being imagined for these technologies by international actors with the ability to influence the future of food systems. We analyze outward-facing policy documents as well as conference proceedings on digital agriculture produced by the World Bank, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Using qualitative textual analysis, we show that these organisations envision future food systems that prioritize maximizing food output through technology. We illustrate how this vision reflects a long-standing narrative about the role of technology in food systems innovation, which makes the controversial assumption that increases in food production lead to improvements in food security. Based on this finding, we suggest that evaluations of how digital agricultural technologies might affect the delivery of ecosystem services must begin by considering what visions of future food systems are take into account in science, technology development and policy making. Supporting similar research on high-level narratives surrounding agroecology and climate smart agriculture, we find that the dominant narrative in our dataset supports the status quo global, industrial agriculture and food system. This system continues to be criticized by many scholars for its environmental impacts. Based on our findings, we suggest that ecosystems service researchers could contribute substantially to the evaluation of environmental impacts of digital agriculture by analyzing the impact digital agriculture may have on the trade-offs between provisioning, regulatory, and cultural ecosystem services for several different food system futures. Such analyses can feed into processes of responsible innovation.

    Development of multi-use platforms at sea: Barriers to realising Blue Growth
    Burg, S.W.K. van den; Schupp, Maximilian Felix ; Depellegrin, Daniel ; Barbanti, Andrea ; Kerr, Sandy - \ 2020
    Ocean Engineering 217 (2020). - ISSN 0029-8018
    Aquaculture - Barriers - Blue growth - Multi-use platforms - Offshore energy - Typology

    The recent H2020 Blue Growth projects MARIBE and MUSES investigated the potential of a variety of different combinations of economic activities in co-location or integrated in multi-use platforms. Both projects identified barriers - including regulatory, financing, liability and insurance issues; environmental concerns; stakeholder perceptions; and lack of appropriate skills – that hamper the development of multi-use platforms. The H2020 MARIBE project concluded that further funding for multi-use demonstrations should be provided to increase investor confidence and bring multi-use through the so-called Valley of Death. The H2020 MUSES project concluded that multi-use needs to be proactively facilitated and incentivised through public regulatory bodies and respective support programmes. This paper combines and analyses results from both projects in order to identify key research gaps and actions required for the continued development of multi-use platforms, based on a structured critical review of available peer-reviewed literature on the topic as well as reports of both the MUSES and MARIBE projects. Research gaps and actions are analysed based on a multi-use platform typology to inform developers, policy makers, academia and investors for future development of multi-use at sea.

    Identification of Tomato Proteins That Interact With Replication Initiator Protein (Rep) of the Geminivirus TYLCV
    Maio, Francesca ; Helderman, Tieme A. ; Arroyo-Mateos, Manuel ; Wolf, Miguel van der; Boeren, Sjef ; Prins, Marcel ; Burg, Harrold A. van den - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-462X
    geminivirus - interactome - PCNA - proteomics - Rep - Tomato yellow leaf curl virus - viral replication

    Geminiviruses are plant-infecting DNA viruses that reshape the intracellular environment of their host in order to create favorable conditions for viral replication and propagation. Viral manipulation is largely mediated via interactions between viral and host proteins. Identification of this protein network helps us to understand how these viruses manipulate their host and therefore provides us potentially with novel leads for resistance against this class of pathogens, as genetic variation in the corresponding plant genes could subvert viral manipulation. Different studies have already yielded a list of host proteins that interact with one of the geminiviral proteins. Here, we use affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to further expand this list of interacting proteins, focusing on an important host (tomato) and the Replication initiator protein (Rep, AL1, C1) from Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Rep is the only geminiviral protein proven to be essential for geminiviral replication and it forms an integral part of viral replisomes, a protein complex that consists of plant and viral proteins that allows for viral DNA replication. Using AP-MS, fifty-four ‘high confidence’ tomato proteins were identified that specifically co-purified with Rep. For two of them, an unknown EWS-like RNA-binding protein (called Geminivirus Rep interacting EWS-like protein 1 or GRIEP1) and an isoform of the THO complex subunit 4A (ALY1), we were able to confirm this interaction with Rep in planta using a second method, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC). The THO subunit 4 is part of the THO/TREX (TRanscription-EXport) complex, which controls RNA splicing and nuclear export of mRNA to the cytoplasm and is also connected to plant disease resistance. This work represents the first step towards characterization of novel host factors with a putative role in the life cycle of TYLCV and possibly other geminiviruses.

    Trust in farm data sharing: reflections on the EU code of conduct for agricultural data sharing
    Burg, Simone van der; Wiseman, Leanne ; Krkeljas, Jovana - \ 2020
    Ethics and Information Technology (2020). - ISSN 1388-1957
    Digital farming - Ethics - EU code of conduct - GDPR - Informed consent - Trust

    Digital farming technologies promise to help farmers make well-informed decisions that improve the quality and quantity of their production, with less labour and less impact on the environment. This future, however, can only become a reality if farmers are willing to share their data with agribusinesses that develop digital technologies. To foster trust in data sharing, in Europe the EU Code of Conduct for agricultural data sharing by contractual agreement was launched in 2018 which encourages transparency about data use. This article looks at the EU Code through the lens of literature on trust and contract agreements. We agree with the makers of the EU Code that a contract can make an important contribution to trust relationships as it is needed to mitigate the detrimental effects of power relationships between experts and non-experts. Building on Onora O’Neills perspective to trust, however, we argued that a contract can only be successful in fostering trust when (a) information is comprehended by the more vulnerable party in this relationship who has to sign the contract, (b) the more powerful partner takes responsibility to provide that information, and (c) information is tailored to the information needs of the party signing the contract, even when data are re-used over a longer period. In addition, we think that differences between trust relationships and relationships of accountability, give reason to add to informed consent other more substantive ethical components in a more encompassing code of conduct.

    Living and dying with incurable cancer : A qualitative study on older patients' life values and healthcare professionals' responsivity
    Gurp, Jelle L.P. Van; Ebenau, Anne ; Burg, Simone van der; Hasselaar, Jeroen - \ 2020
    BMC Palliative Care 19 (2020). - ISSN 1472-684X
    Advanced cancer - Life values - Older persons - Palliative care - Patient outlooks on life - Patient perspective

    Background: In ageing Western societies, many older persons live with and die from cancer. Despite that present-day healthcare aims to be patient-centered, scientific literature has little knowledge to offer about how cancer and its treatment impact older persons' various outlooks on life and underlying life values. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to: 1) describe outlooks on life and life values of older people (≥ 70) living with incurable cancer; 2) elicit how healthcare professionals react and respond to these. Methods: Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 12 older persons with advanced cancer and two group interviews with healthcare professionals were held and followed by an analysis with a grounded theory approach. Results: Several themes and subthemes emerged from the patient interview study: a) handling incurable cancer (the anticipatory outlook on "a reduced life", hope and, coping with an unpredictable disease) b) being supported by others ("being there", leaving a legacy, and having reliable healthcare professionals) and; c) making end-of-life choices (anticipatory fears, and place of death). The group interviews explained how healthcare professionals respond to the abovementioned themes in palliative care practice. Some barriers for (open) communication were expressed too by the latter, e.g., lack of continuity of care and advance care planning, and patients' humble attitudes. Conclusions: Older adults living with incurable cancer showed particular outlooks on life and life values regarding advanced cancer and the accompanying last phase of life. This paper could support healthcare professionals and patients in jointly exploring and formulating these outlooks and values in the light of treatment plans.

    Food safety during seaweed cultivation at offshore wind farms : An exploratory study in the North Sea
    Banach, J.L. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2020
    Marine Policy 120 (2020). - ISSN 0308-597X
    Legislation - Multi-use - Offshore wind farm - Policy - Private standards - Stakeholders

    Multi-use in ocean space, and seas, entails the co-location of different industries or technologies and their corresponding activities that take place at the same time in a specific location. This concept focuses on finding solutions to tackle global challenges in food security. However, the effects that seaweed cultivation at offshore wind farms may have on food and feed safety are less readily addressed. This study examined whether currently available food and feed safety standards for seaweed can be applied to multi-use activities at sea. The focus was on the combined use of seaweed cultivation at an offshore wind farm in the North Sea. Literature regarding hazards in seaweed was screened, and standards were evaluated. Expert elicitation on seaweed cultivation was retrieved via in-depth interviews and a workshop. Results showed that although some food safety hazards may be more apparent for seaweed cultivation such as toxic metals (e.g., arsenic, cadmium) and iodine, others may become relevant when considering multi-use (e.g., allergens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxic metabolites). Key factors for food safety include the location of seaweed cultivation, handling and processing of seaweed, and seaweed testing. Public standards, the Food Safety System Certification 22000 standard, and the Marine Stewardship Council/Aquaculture Stewardship Council standard are recommended for the food and marine sectors to consider when determining standards to implement. This case study provides an example of how to address seaweed food and feed safety in a multi-use scenario in the North Sea. We recommend additional case studies for other multi-use at sea scenarios.

    Autonomous collaborative robots for agri-food processes
    Bairam, Uldanay ; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Burg, Simone van der; Chauhan, A. ; Elburg, Eline van; Kool, Janne ; Lokhorst, C. ; Hemming, J. ; Mencarelli, A. ; Nieuwenhuizen, A.T. ; Ouweltjes, W. ; Riviere, I.J. la - \ 2020
    Endocrine activities of phthalate alternatives; Assessing the safety profile of furan dicarboxylic acid esters using a panel of human cell based reporter gene assays
    Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara M.A. Van; Es, Daan S. Van; Naderman, Matthijs ; Notre, Jerome Le; Klis, Frits Van Der; Brouwer, Abraham ; Burg, Bart Van Der - \ 2020
    Green Chemistry 22 (2020)6. - ISSN 1463-9262 - p. 1873 - 1883.

    FDCA esters are highly relevant biobased alternatives for currently used benzene dicarboxylic acid esters. Despite all the developments on 2,5-FDCA applications, to the best of our knowledge thus far no toxicological data were available for 2,5-FDCA esters. In the present study we aimed to fill this gap, by using an in vitro reporter gene assay approach to compare the activity profile of commonly used phthalates to that of their furan-based counterparts. The assay selection was aimed at the detection of endocrine activity, since several phthalates are heavily scrutinised for their endocrine disrupting properties. However, to avoid missing other relevant toxicological endpoints, several assays able to detect various forms of cellular stress were also included in the panel. The results showed that the (ortho)benzene dicarboxylic acid esters were predominantly active on several of the endocrine assays. In comparison, six of the seven furan dicarboxylic acid based diesters tested here showed no activity in any of the 13 assays used. Only the isobutyl derivative DIBF showed moderate estrogenic activity on one assay, compared to much more pronounced activities on four assays for the ortho-phthalate analogue. Overall, the results presented in this paper are a strong indication that 2,5-FDCA based diesters in general are not only technically viable alternatives to phthalates, but also offer significant toxicological benefits, which supports a non-regrettable substitution.

    Governing Risks of Multi-Use: Seaweed Aquaculture at Offshore Wind Farms
    Burg, Sander W.K. van den; Röckmann, Christine ; Banach, Jennifer L. ; Hoof, Luc van - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Marine Science 7 (2020). - ISSN 2296-7745
    multi-use at sea - private standards - public regulation - risk governance - seaweed

    Spatial claims concerning the rapidly growing European offshore wind sector give rise to various ideas for the multi-use application of wind farms. Seaweed is considered a promising feedstock for food and feed that could be produced at offshore wind farms. Concerns about risks resulting in liability claims and insurance premiums are often seen as show-stoppers to multi-use at offshore wind farms. In this study, key environmental risks of seaweed cultivation at offshore wind farms, identified through literature review, are characterized based on stakeholder consultation. The current approach to risk governance is evaluated to assess how it can handle the uncertain, complex, and/or ambiguous risks of multi-use. It is concluded that current risk governance for multi-use is poorly equipped to deal with the systemic nature of risks. Risk governance should be a joint effort of governments and private regulators. It can improve if it is based on an adaptive framework for risk assessment that can deal with complex, systemic risks. Furthermore, it should be flexible and inclusive, i.e., open to new incoming information and stakeholder input, and taking into account and communicate about the different stakes and values of the various parties involved. The importance of communication and inclusion must be recognized, which promotes participation of concerned stakeholders.

    Financiering van natuurinclusieve klimaatadaptie vergt een nieuw verhaal
    Burg, S.W.K. van den; Michels, R. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2020
    H2O online
    Bridging youth and gender studies to analyse rural young women and men's livelihood pathways in Central Uganda
    Rietveld (Anne), A.M. ; Burg, M. van der; Groot, J.C.J. - \ 2020
    Journal of Rural Studies 75 (2020). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 152 - 163.
    Agriculture - Gender norms - Intersectionality - Migration - Opportunity space - Rural economy - Young people

    Many development countries are currently undergoing major demographic shifts as the percentage of young people of the total population rapidly increases. This shift is associated with high rates of migration, unemployment and instability. In policy discourses, engaging youth in commercial agricultural is often presented as a measure to control or even counter these trends. In Uganda, a country with one of the youngest populations in the world, we investigated whether young people themselves see a career in farming as an option. We studied the livelihood pathways of rural-born young men and women from Central Uganda and in particular; 1) their aspirations, 2) the extent to which these aspirations are associated with agriculture, and 3) the importance of gender in shaping their opportunity spaces. Data consisted of in-depth interviews with 8 young men and 8 young women originating from the same rural community in Central Uganda (2017) and was supported by three additional datasets collected between 2010 and 2014; one qualitative case-study conducted in the same site (2014) and two survey datasets collected in three rural sites in Central Uganda in 2010 (N = 199) and 2012 (N = 54). Our findings suggest a large proportion of youth out-migrating from the rural communities, with young women migrating more often than young men. Farming was seldom an aspiration but irrespective of sex or residence most young men and women did remain engaged in agriculture in some way. The nature of the engagement was different for men and women though, with young women specifically refraining from commercial agriculture. By analyzing the opportunity space of young men and women, we uncovered how their livelihood pathways were linked to a set of normative and structural constraints maintaining gender inequality. Examples were young women's weaker resource base (land) and gender norms which discourage young women's independent commercial (agricultural) activities. To advance the engagement of young men and especially women in commercial agriculture, it is important to acknowledge these patterns and their underlying structural gender differences.

    Statement on advancing the assessment of chemical mixtures and their risks for human health and the environment
    Drakvik, Elina ; Altenburger, Rolf ; Aoki, Yasunobu ; Backhaus, Thomas ; Bahadori, Tina ; Barouki, Robert ; Brack, Werner ; Cronin, Mark T.D. ; Demeneix, Barbara ; Hougaard Bennekou, Susanne ; Klaveren, Jacob van; Kneuer, Carsten ; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike ; Lebret, Erik ; Posthuma, Leo ; Reiber, Lena ; Rider, Cynthia ; Rüegg, Joëlle ; Testa, Giuseppe ; Burg, Bart van der; Voet, Hilko van der; Warhurst, Michael ; Water, Bob van de; Yamazaki, Kunihiko ; Öberg, Mattias ; Bergman, Åke - \ 2020
    Environment International 134 (2020). - ISSN 0160-4120
    Chemical mixtures - Combined exposure - Environmental chemicals - Mixture risk assessment - Risk management

    The number of anthropogenic chemicals, manufactured, by-products, metabolites and abiotically formed transformation products, counts to hundreds of thousands, at present. Thus, humans and wildlife are exposed to complex mixtures, never one chemical at a time and rarely with only one dominating effect. Hence there is an urgent need to develop strategies on how exposure to multiple hazardous chemicals and the combination of their effects can be assessed. A workshop, “Advancing the Assessment of Chemical Mixtures and their Risks for Human Health and the Environment” was organized in May 2018 together with Joint Research Center in Ispra, EU-funded research projects and Commission Services and relevant EU agencies. This forum for researchers and policy-makers was created to discuss and identify gaps in risk assessment and governance of chemical mixtures as well as to discuss state of the art science and future research needs. Based on the presentations and discussions at this workshop we want to bring forward the following Key Messages: • We are at a turning point: multiple exposures and their combined effects require better management to protect public health and the environment from hazardous chemical mixtures. • Regulatory initiatives should be launched to investigate the opportunities for all relevant regulatory frameworks to include prospective mixture risk assessment and consider combined exposures to (real-life) chemical mixtures to humans and wildlife, across sectors. • Precautionary approaches and intermediate measures (e.g. Mixture Assessment Factor) can already be applied, although, definitive mixture risk assessments cannot be routinely conducted due to significant knowledge and data gaps. • A European strategy needs to be set, through stakeholder engagement, for the governance of combined exposure to multiple chemicals and mixtures. The strategy would include research aimed at scientific advancement in mechanistic understanding and modelling techniques, as well as research to address regulatory and policy needs. Without such a clear strategy, specific objectives and common priorities, research, and policies to address mixtures will likely remain scattered and insufficient.

    Can multi-use of the sea be safe? A framework for risk assessment of multi-use at sea
    Hoof, L. van; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Banach, J.L. ; Röckmann, C. ; Goossen, M. - \ 2020
    Ocean & Coastal Management 184 (2020). - ISSN 0964-5691
    Multi-use at sea - Risk assessment - Risk governance - Seaweed production - Wind farms

    By 2050 the world population is expected to reach 10 billion people. This population needs food, water and energy. Increasingly, opportunities are sought out at sea to accommodate these needs. As there is already competition for space, especially in the near-shore, opportunities for multi-use, including the combination of, for example, food and energy production in a single location, are sought. One issue that needs to be addressed to allow for multi-use at sea is safety. Existing frameworks for (marine) risk assessment tend to be rather sector specific and, although existing models and frameworks for risk analysis provide useful elements for an integrated analysis, none of the approaches fully caters for the need of having a framework based on a cyclical process of stakeholder input in all steps of the process of risk identification, risk management and risk evaluation and communication, identifying actions to be taken and providing tools useful in each of the steps, while integrating the three perspectives of maritime safety, food (and feed) safety, and environmental impact assessment and the different perspectives of the actors involved. This study developed a common framework for the risk assessment of multi-use at sea, consisting of six steps (Exploring, Understanding, Appraising, Deciding, Implementing and Evaluating & Communication). The framework encompasses and integrates an analysis of food and feed safety aspects, the safety of people and equipment, and environmental safety aspects. For each step, actions are defined, tools that can be of help to stakeholders are presented, and stakeholder participation measures are described. The framework is iterative and dynamic in its nature; with constant communication and evaluation of progress, decisions can be taken to either take a step forward or back. The framework is developed to assist operators and producers, policymakers, and other stakeholders in assessing and managing risks of multi-use at sea.

    Are we restoring functional fens? – The outcomes of restoration projects in fens re-analysed with plant functional traits
    Klimkowska, Agata ; Goldstein, Klara ; Wyszomirski, Tomasz ; Kozub, Łukasz ; Wilk, Mateusz ; Aggenbach, Camiel ; Bakker, Jan P. ; Belting, Heinrich ; Beltman, Boudewijn ; Blüml, Volker ; Vries, Yzaak De; Geiger-udod, Beate ; Grootjans, Ab P. ; Hedberg, Petter ; Jager, Henk J. ; Kerkhof, Dick ; Kollmann, Johannes ; Pawlikowski, Paweł ; Pleyl, Elisabeth ; Reinink, Warner ; Rydin, Hakan ; Schrautzer, Joachim ; Sliva, Jan ; Stańko, Robert ; Sundberg, Sebastian ; Timmermann, Tiemo ; Wołejko, Lesław ; Burg, Rob F. Van Der; Hoek, Dick Van Der; Diggelen, Jose M.H. Van; Heerden, Adrie Van; Tweel, Loekie Van; Vegelin, Kees ; Kotowski, Wiktor ; Guo, Xiao - \ 2019
    PLoS ONE 14 (2019)4. - ISSN 1932-6203
    In peatland restoration we often lack an information whether re-established ecosystems are functionally similar to non-degraded ones. We re-analysed the long-term outcomes of restoration on vegetation and plant functional traits in 38 European fens restored by rewetting (18 sites) and topsoil removal (20 sites). We used traits related to nutrient acquisition strategies, competitiveness, seed traits, and used single- and multi-trait metrics. A separate set of vegetation records from near-natural fens with diverse plant communities was used to generate reference values to aid the comparisons. We found that both restoration methods enhanced the similarity of species composition to non-degraded systems but trait analysis revealed differences between the two approaches. Traits linked to nutrient acquisition strategies indicated that topsoil removal was more effective than rewetting. After topsoil removal competitive species in plant communities had decreased, while stress-tolerant species had increased. A substantial reduction in nutrient availability ruled out the effect of initial disturbance. An ability to survive and grow in anoxic conditions was enhanced after restoration, but the reference values were not achieved. Rewetting was more effective than topsoil removal in restricting variation in traits values permitted in re-developing vegetation. We found no indication of a shift towards reference in seed traits, which suggested that dispersal constraint and colonization deficit can be a widespread phenomena. Two functional diversity indices: functional richness and functional dispersion showed response to restoration and shifted values towards reference mires and away from the degraded systems.

    We concluded that targeting only one type of environmental stressor does not lead to a recovery of fens, as it provides insufficient level of stress to restore a functional ecosystem. In general, restoration efforts do not ensure the re-establishment and long-term persistence of fens. Restoration efforts result in recovery of fen ecosystems, confirmed with our functional trait analysis, although more rigid actions are needed for restoring fully functional mires, by achieving high and constant levels of anoxia and nutrient stresses.
    A nature-based future for the Netherlands in 2120
    Baptist, Martin ; Hattum, Tim van; Reinhard, Stijn ; Buuren, Michaël van; Rooij, Bertram de; Hu, Xiaolu ; Rooij, Sabine van; Polman, Nico ; Burg, Sander van den; Piet, Gerjan ; Ysebaert, Tom ; Walles, Brenda ; Veraart, Jeroen ; Wamelink, Wieger ; Bregman, Bram ; Bos, Bram ; Selnes, Trond - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 19
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