Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Robustness of trait connections across environmental gradients and growth forms
Flores-Moreno, Habacuc ; Fazayeli, Farideh ; Banerjee, Arindam ; Datta, Abhirup ; Kattge, Jens ; Butler, Ethan E. ; Atkin, Owen K. ; Wythers, Kirk ; Chen, Ming ; Anand, Madhur ; Bahn, Michael ; Byun, Chaeho ; Cornelissen, Hans C. ; Craine, Joseph ; Gonzalez-Melo, Andres ; Hattingh, Wesley N. ; Jansen, Steven ; Kraft, Nathan J.B. ; Kramer, Koen ; Laughlin, Daniel C. ; Minden, Vanessa ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Onipchenko, Vladimir ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Dalrymple, Rhiannon L. ; Reich, Peter B. - \ 2019
Global Ecology and Biogeography (2019). - ISSN 1466-822X
leaf traits - plant functional traits - plant strategy integration - seed traits - stem traits - trait interdependence - trait networks

Aim: Plant trait databases often contain traits that are correlated, but for whom direct (undirected statistical dependency) and indirect (mediated by other traits) connections may be confounded. The confounding of correlation and connection hinders our understanding of plant strategies, and how these vary among growth forms and climate zones. We identified the direct and indirect connections across plant traits relevant to competition, resource acquisition and reproductive strategies using a global database and explored whether connections within and between traits from different tissue types vary across climates and growth forms. Location: Global. Major taxa studied: Plants. Time period: Present. Methods: We used probabilistic graphical models and a database of 10 plant traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, mass- and area-based leaf nitrogen and phosphorous content, leaf life span, plant height, stem specific density and seed mass) with 16,281 records to describe direct and indirect connections across woody and non-woody plants across tropical, temperate, arid, cold and polar regions. Results: Trait networks based on direct connections are sparser than those based on correlations. Land plants had high connectivity across traits within and between tissue types; leaf life span and stem specific density shared direct connections with all other traits. For both growth forms, two groups of traits form modules of more highly connected traits; one related to resource acquisition, the other to plant architecture and reproduction. Woody species had higher trait network modularity in polar compared to temperate and tropical climates, while non-woody species did not show significant differences in modularity across climate regions. Main conclusions: Plant traits are highly connected both within and across tissue types, yet traits segregate into persistent modules of traits. Variation in the modularity of trait networks suggests that trait connectivity is shaped by prevailing environmental conditions and demonstrates that plants of different growth forms use alternative strategies to cope with local conditions.

Impact hotspots of reduced nutrient discharge shift across the globe with population and dietary changes
Wang, Xu ; Daigger, Glen ; Vries, Wim de; Kroeze, Carolien ; Yang, Min ; Ren, Nan Qi ; Liu, Junxin ; Butler, David - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

Reducing nutrient discharge from wastewater is essential to mitigating aquatic eutrophication; however, energy- and chemicals-intensive nutrient removal processes, accompanied with the emissions of airborne contaminants, can create other, unexpected, environmental consequences. Implementing mitigation strategies requires a complete understanding of the effects of nutrient control practices, given spatial and temporal variations. Here we simulate the environmental impacts of reducing nutrient discharge from domestic wastewater in 173 countries during 1990–2050. We find that improvements in wastewater infrastructure achieve a large-scale decline in nutrient input to surface waters, but this is causing detrimental effects on the atmosphere and the broader environment. Population size and dietary protein intake have the most significant effects over all the impacts arising from reduction of wastewater nutrients. Wastewater-related impact hotspots are also shifting from Asia to Africa, suggesting a need for interventions in such countries, mostly with growing populations, rising dietary intake, rapid urbanisation, and inadequate sanitation.

Modeling the Sensitivity of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates to Chemicals Using Traits
Berg, Sanne J.P. Van Den; Baveco, Hans ; Butler, Emma ; Laender, Frederik De; Focks, Andreas ; Franco, Antonio ; Rendal, Cecilie ; Brink, Paul J. Van Den - \ 2019
Environmental Science and Technology 53 (2019)10. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 6025 - 6034.

In this study, a trait-based macroinvertebrate sensitivity modeling tool is presented that provides two main outcomes: (1) it constructs a macroinvertebrate sensitivity ranking and, subsequently, a predictive trait model for each one of a diverse set of predefined Modes of Action (MOAs) and (2) it reveals data gaps and restrictions, helping with the direction of future research. Besides revealing taxonomic patterns of species sensitivity, we find that there was not one genus, family, or class which was most sensitive to all MOAs and that common test taxa were often not the most sensitive at all. Traits like life cycle duration and feeding mode were identified as important in explaining species sensitivity. For 71% of the species, no or incomplete trait data were available, making the lack of trait data the main obstacle in model construction. Research focus should therefore be on completing trait databases and enhancing them with finer morphological traits, focusing on the toxicodynamics of the chemical (e.g., target site distribution). Further improved sensitivity models can help with the creation of ecological scenarios by predicting the sensitivity of untested species. Through this development, our approach can help reduce animal testing and contribute toward a new predictive ecotoxicology framework.

Volatile compounds as insect lures: factors affecting release from passive dispenser systems
Nielsen, Mette Cecilie ; Sansom, Catherine E. ; Larsen, Lesley ; Worner, Susan P. ; Rostás, Michael ; Chapman, Bruce ; Butler, Ruth C. ; Kogel, Willem J. de; Davidson, Melanie M. ; Perry, Nigel B. ; Teulon, David A.J. - \ 2019
New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science (2019). - ISSN 0114-0671
homologues - methyl isonicotinate - non-pheromone semiochemical - pest management - release rates - Thysanoptera

Knowledge about the behaviour of passive dispensers used to release semiochemicals for insect pest management is essential to ensure the efficacy of monitoring and control methods based on the use of the semiochemicals. The release characteristics of different passive dispenser types (commercial sachet, altered commercial sachet, polyethylene bags and cotton rolls) were investigated in the laboratory under various conditions. Using the volatile compound methyl isonicotinate (MI), a known lure for western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and two additional homologues ethyl and n-propyl isonicotinate the effect of loading amount (0.5, 1.0 or 2.5 ml), temperatures (15°C, 25°C or 35°C) and air flow (0.1–0.15 m/s or 0.25–0.3 m/s) were tested in a low-speed laminar-flow wind tunnel. The results showed zero-order release kinetics for all tested dispenser types. Release rate kinetics relies on the type of molecule, dispenser type, and the climatic conditions with temperature being a major determinant of release rate. The results of the release characteristics of the different dispensers are discussed in regards to their practical use under greenhouse and field conditions.

Application of Behavior Change Techniques in a Personalized Nutrition Electronic Health Intervention Study: Protocol for the Web-Based Food4Me Randomized Controlled Trial
Macready, Anna L. ; Fallaize, Rosalind ; Butler, Laurie T. ; Ellis, Judi A. ; Kuznesof, Sharron ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Celis-Morales, Carlos ; Livingstone, Katherine M. ; Araújo-Soares, Vera ; Fischer, Arnout R.H. ; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J. ; Mathers, John C. ; Lovegrove, Julie A. - \ 2018
JMIR Research Protocols 7 (2018)4. - ISSN 1929-0748 - p. e87 - e87.
Background: To determine the efficacy of behavior change techniques applied in dietary and physical activity intervention studies, it is first necessary to record and describe techniques that have been used during such interventions. Published frameworks used in dietary and smoking cessation interventions undergo continuous development, and most are not adapted for Web-based delivery. The Food4Me study (N=1607) provided the opportunity to use existing frameworks to describe standardized Web-based techniques employed in a large-scale, internet-based intervention to change dietary behavior and physical activity.
Objective: The aims of this study were (1) to describe techniques embedded in the Food4Me study design and explain the selection rationale and (2) to demonstrate the use of behavior change technique taxonomies, develop standard operating procedures for training, and identify strengths and limitations of the Food4Me framework that will inform its use in future studies.
Methods: The 6-month randomized controlled trial took place simultaneously in seven European countries, with participants receiving one of four levels of personalized advice (generalized, intake-based, intake+phenotype–based, and intake+phenotype+gene–based). A three-phase approach was taken: (1) existing taxonomies were reviewed and techniques were identified a priori for possible inclusion in the Food4Me study, (2) a standard operating procedure was developed to maintain consistency in the use of methods and techniques across research centers, and (3) the Food4Me behavior change technique framework was reviewed and updated post intervention. An analysis of excluded techniques was also conducted.
Results: Of 46 techniques identified a priori as being applicable to Food4Me, 17 were embedded in the intervention design; 11 were from a dietary taxonomy, and 6 from a smoking cessation taxonomy. In addition, the four-category smoking cessation framework structure was adopted for clarity of communication. Smoking cessation texts were adapted for dietary use where necessary. A posteriori, a further 9 techniques were included. Examination of excluded items highlighted the distinction between techniques considered appropriate for face-to-face versus internet-based delivery.
Conclusions: The use of existing taxonomies facilitated the description and standardization of techniques used in Food4Me. We recommend that for complex studies of this nature, technique analysis should be conducted a priori to develop standardized procedures and training and reviewed a posteriori to audit the techniques actually adopted. The present framework description makes a valuable contribution to future systematic reviews and meta-analyses that explore technique efficacy and underlying psychological constructs. This was a novel application of the behavior change taxonomies and was the first internet-based personalized nutrition intervention to use such a framework remotely.

Avoiding pitfalls in interdisciplinary education
Holt, R.E. ; Woods, P.J. ; Ferreira, A.S.A. ; Bardarson, H. ; Bonanomi, S. ; Boonstra, W.J. ; Butler, W.E. ; Diekert, F.K. ; Fouzai, N. ; Holma, M. ; Kokkalis, A. ; Kvile, K. ; Macdonald, J.I. ; Malanski, E. ; Nieminen, E. ; Ottosen, K.M. ; Pedersen, M.W. ; Richter, A. ; Rogers, L. ; Romagnoni, G. ; Snickars, M. ; Törnroos, A. ; Weigel, B. ; Whittington, J.D. ; Yletyinen, J. - \ 2017
Climate Research 74 (2017)2. - ISSN 0936-577X - p. 121 - 129.
Climate change - Education - Interdisciplinarity - Learning mechanisms - Research network
As the world's social-environmental problems increasingly extend across boundaries, both disciplinary and political, there is a growing need for interdisciplinarity, not only in research per se, but also in doctoral education. We present the common pitfalls of interdisciplinary research in doctoral education, illustrating approaches towards solutions using the Nordic Centre for Research on Marine Ecosystems and Resources under Climate Change (NorMER) research network as a case study. We provide insights and detailed examples of how to overcome some of the challenges of conducting interdisciplinary research within doctoral studies that can be applied within any doctoral/postdoctoral education programme, and beyond. Results from a selfevaluation survey indicate that early-career workshops, annual meetings and research visits to other institutions were the most effective learning mechanisms, whereas single discipline-focused courses and coursework were among the least effective learning mechanisms. By identifying the strengths and weaknesses of components of NorMER, this case study can inform the design of future programmes to enhance interdisciplinarity in doctoral education, as well as be applied to science collaboration and academic research in general.
Mapping local and global variability in plant trait distributions
Butler, Ethan E. ; Datta, Abhirup ; Flores-Moreno, Habacuc ; Chen, Ming ; Wythers, Kirk R. ; Fazayeli, Farideh ; Banerjee, Arindam ; Atkin, Owen K. ; Kattge, Jens ; Amiaud, Bernard ; Blonder, Benjamin ; Boenisch, Gerhard ; Bond-Lamberty, Ben ; Brown, Kerry A. ; Byun, Chaeho ; Campetella, Giandiego ; Cerabolini, Bruno E.L. ; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. ; Craine, Joseph M. ; Craven, Dylan ; Vries, Franciska T. De; Díaz, Sandra ; Domingues, Tomas F. ; Forey, Estelle ; González-Melo, Andrés ; Gross, Nicolas ; Han, Wenxuan ; Hattingh, Wesley N. ; Hickler, Thomas ; Jansen, Steven ; Kramer, Koen ; Kraft, Nathan J.B. ; Kurokawa, Hiroko ; Laughlin, Daniel C. ; Meir, Patrick ; Minden, Vanessa ; Niinemets, Ülo ; Onoda, Yusuke ; Peñuelas, Josep ; Read, Quentin ; Sack, Lawren ; Schamp, Brandon ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Spasojevic, Marko J. ; Sosinski, Enio ; Thornton, Peter E. ; Valladares, Fernando ; Bodegom, Peter M. Van; Williams, Mathew ; Wirth, Christian ; Reich, Peter B. ; Schlesinger, William H. - \ 2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114 (2017)51. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E10937 - E10946.
Bayesian modeling - Climate - Global - Plant traits - Spatial statistics
Our ability to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to a changing environment depends on quantifying vegetation functional diversity. However, representing this diversity at the global scale is challenging. Typically, in Earth system models, characterization of plant diversity has been limited to grouping related species into plant functional types (PFTs), with all trait variation in a PFT collapsed into a single mean value that is applied globally. Using the largest global plant trait database and state of the art Bayesian modeling, we created fine-grained global maps of plant trait distributions that can be applied to Earth system models. Focusing on a set of plant traits closely coupled to photosynthesis and foliar respiration - specific leaf area (SLA) and dry mass-based concentrations of leaf nitrogen (Nm) and phosphorus (Pm), we characterize how traits vary within and among over 50,000 ∼50×50-km cells across the entire vegetated land surface. We do this in several ways - without defining the PFT of each grid cell and using 4 or 14 PFTs; each model's predictions are evaluated against out-of-sample data. This endeavor advances prior trait mapping by generating global maps that preserve variability across scales by using modern Bayesian spatial statistical modeling in combination with a database over three times larger than that in previous analyses. Our maps reveal that the most diverse grid cells possess trait variability close to the range of global PFT means.
Validation of a mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle for cows with different estrous cycle characteristics
Boer, H.M.T. ; Butler, S.T. ; Stötzel, C. ; Pas, M.F.W. te; Veerkamp, R.F. ; Woelders, H. - \ 2017
Animal 11 (2017)11. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1991 - 2001.
bovine - estrous cycle - mathematical model - parameter identification - validation

A recently developed mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle was parameterized to fit empirical data sets collected during one estrous cycle of 31 individual cows, with the main objective to further validate the model. The a priori criteria for validation were (1) the resulting model can simulate the measured data correctly (i.e. goodness of fit), and (2) this is achieved without needing extreme, probably non-physiological parameter values. We used a least squares optimization procedure to identify parameter configurations for the mathematical model to fit the empirical in vivo measurements of follicle and corpus luteum sizes, and the plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH for each cow. The model was capable of accommodating normal variation in estrous cycle characteristics of individual cows. With the parameter sets estimated for the individual cows, the model behavior changed for 21 cows, with improved fit of the simulated output curves for 18 of these 21 cows. Moreover, the number of follicular waves was predicted correctly for 18 of the 25 two-wave and three-wave cows, without extreme parameter value changes. Estimation of specific parameters confirmed results of previous model simulations indicating that parameters involved in luteolytic signaling are very important for regulation of general estrous cycle characteristics, and are likely responsible for differences in estrous cycle characteristics between cows.

The BROWSE model for predicting exposures of residents and bystanders to agricultural use of pesticides : Comparison with experimental data and other exposure models
Butler Ellis, M.C. ; Berg, Erik van den; Zande, Jan C. van de; Kennedy, Marc C. ; Charistou, Agathi N. ; Arapaki, Niki S. ; Butler, Alistair H. ; Machera, Kyriaki A. ; Jacobs, Cor M. - \ 2017
Biosystems Engineering 154 (2017). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 122 - 136.
Exposure assessment - Spray drift - Vapour
A new suite of models has been developed for assessing the exposure of bystanders, residents, operators and workers to pesticides used in agricultural applications. The aim of these 'BROWSE' models was to improve regulatory exposure assessment by including recent data, and changes in current knowledge and application practice. The new models for bystander and resident exposure focused on spray drift from boom and orchard sprayers, and vapour emissions from treated crops.The structure of the resident and bystander models is reported elsewhere, together with a description and discussion of model inputs. This paper describes model outputs, model validation where experimental data are available, a sensitivity analysis for some model components and compares predictions with other European regulatory models, including the recently developed European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) calculator.Because BROWSE models can simulate a range of scenarios, there is a wide range of possible outputs. When using recommended default inputs, the resident and bystander models predict higher exposures than existing regulatory models. This is because the model incorporates more exposure routes and defaults are based on a reasonable worst case scenario. However, the probabilistic nature of the BROWSE models results in lower predicted exposures than the new EFSA calculator.Validation of sections of the model suggests that it is not overly conservative. Sensitivity analysis of the vapour exposure component showed that the interaction between temperature and vapour pressure, which is not taken account of in other models, can result in lower exposures for higher vapour pressures in warmer climates.
Wind tunnel measurements and model predictions for estimating spray drift reduction under field conditions
Butler Ellis, M.C. ; Alanis, R. ; Lane, A.G. ; Tuck, C.R. ; Nuyttens, D. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2017
Biosystems Engineering (2017). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 154 - 154.
Aquatic exposure - Buffer zone - Drift deposits
A UK scheme to enable the protection of surface water from spray drift allows farmers to reduce the size of a buffer zone according to the drift-reducing capability of the sprayer. Recent changes to UK regulations have allowed buffer zones greater than 6 m to be included, providing that 75% drift reduction conditions are used. However, there is an implicit assumption that the level of drift reduction is independent of distance downwind, so that measurements relating to a 6 m buffer zone can be applied to 20 m.An investigation of the relationship between wind tunnel and field data was carried out with the purpose of establishing if drift reduction measured between 2 and 7 m in the Silsoe wind tunnel can be extrapolated to 20 m in the field. A computer-based spray drift model was used to explore some of the factors influencing downwind spray drift to support this extrapolation.It was concluded that spray drift reduction is dependent on distance downwind, but that wind tunnel measurements can be used to estimate this at least up to 20 m downwind. Improvements to the wind tunnel protocol were identified, which will need to take account of how the data will be used in the regulatory process before implementing. Further discussions are needed to harmonise methods for determining spray drift reduction across EU member states, but this approach of mapping the wind tunnel data onto field data is one that should be possible with other methods.
The BROWSE model for predicting exposures of residents and bystanders to agricultural use of plant protection products: An overview
Butler Ellis, M.C. ; De Zande, Jan C. Van; Berg, Frederik Van Den; Kennedy, Marc C. ; O'sullivan, Christine M. ; Jacobs, Cor M. ; Fragkoulis, Georgios ; Spanoghe, Pieter ; Gerritsen-ebben, Rianda ; Frewer, Lynn J. ; Charistou, Agathi - \ 2017
Biosystems Engineering 154 (2017). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 92 - 104.
New models have been developed, with the aim of improving the estimate of exposure of residents and bystanders to agricultural pesticides for regulatory purposes. These are part of a larger suite of models also covering operators and workers. The population that is modelled for residents and bystanders relates to people (both adults and children) who have no association with the application (i.e. not occupational exposure) but are adjacent to the treated area during and/or after the application process. The scenarios that the models aim to describe are based on consideration of both best practice and of real practice, as shown in surveys and from expert knowledge obtained in stakeholder consultations.

The work has focused on three causes of exposure identified as having potential for improvement: boom sprayers, orchard sprayers and vapour emissions.

An overview of the models is given, and a description of model input values and proposed defaults. The main causes of uncertainty in the models are also discussed. There are a number of benefits of the BROWSE model over current models of bystander and resident exposure, which includes the incorporation of mitigation measures for reducing exposure and the use of probabilistic modelling to avoid an over-conservative approach.

It is expected that the levels of exposure that the BROWSE model predicts will, in some cases, be higher than those predicted by the current UK regulatory model. This is largely because the modelled scenarios have been updated to account for current practice and current scientific knowledge.
Assessing uncertainties in land cover projections
Alexander, Peter ; Prestele, Reinhard ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Arneth, Almut ; Baranzelli, Claudia ; Batista e Silva, Filipe ; Brown, Calum ; Butler, Adam ; Calvin, Katherine ; Dendoncker, Nicolas ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Dunford, Robert ; Engström, Kerstin ; Eitelberg, David ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Harrison, Paula A. ; Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Havlik, Petr ; Holzhauer, Sascha ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Jacobs-Crisioni, Chris ; Jain, Atul K. ; Krisztin, Tamás ; Kyle, Page ; Lavalle, Carlo ; Lenton, Tim ; Liu, Jiayi ; Meiyappan, Prasanth ; Popp, Alexander ; Powell, Tom ; Sands, Ronald D. ; Schaldach, Rüdiger ; Stehfest, Elke ; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Meijl, Hans van; Wise, Marshall A. ; Rounsevell, Mark D.A. - \ 2017
Global Change Biology 23 (2017)2. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 767 - 781.
Cropland - Land cover - Land use - Model inter-comparison - Uncertainty

Understanding uncertainties in land cover projections is critical to investigating land-based climate mitigation policies, assessing the potential of climate adaptation strategies and quantifying the impacts of land cover change on the climate system. Here, we identify and quantify uncertainties in global and European land cover projections over a diverse range of model types and scenarios, extending the analysis beyond the agro-economic models included in previous comparisons. The results from 75 simulations over 18 models are analysed and show a large range in land cover area projections, with the highest variability occurring in future cropland areas. We demonstrate systematic differences in land cover areas associated with the characteristics of the modelling approach, which is at least as great as the differences attributed to the scenario variations. The results lead us to conclude that a higher degree of uncertainty exists in land use projections than currently included in climate or earth system projections. To account for land use uncertainty, it is recommended to use a diverse set of models and approaches when assessing the potential impacts of land cover change on future climate. Additionally, further work is needed to better understand the assumptions driving land use model results and reveal the causes of uncertainty in more depth, to help reduce model uncertainty and improve the projections of land cover.

Spray drift: An investigation of the relationship between field, wind tunnel measurements and model predictions for determining drift reduction. : International Advances in Pesticide Application, Aspects of Applied Biology 132
Butler Ellis, M.C. ; Alanis, R. ; Lane, A. ; Tuck, C.R. ; Nuyttens, D. ; Zande, J.C. van de - \ 2016
Aspects of Applied Biology 132 (2016). - ISSN 0265-1491 - p. 207 - 216.
Modelling exposure of workers, residents and bystanders to vapour of plant protection products after application to crops
Berg, F. van den; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Butler Ellis, M.C. ; Spanoghe, P. ; Doan Ngoc, K. ; Fragkoulis, G. - \ 2016
Science of the Total Environment 573 (2016). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1010 - 1020.
Modelling - OPS - PEARL - Pesticide volatilisation - Scenario development - Vapour exposure

Agricultural use of plant protection products can result in exposure of bystanders, residents, operators and workers. Within the European Union (EU) FP7 project BROWSE, a tool based on a set of models and scenarios has been developed, aiming to assess the risk of exposure of humans to these products. In the present version of the tool only a first conservative tier is available for outdoor vapour exposure assessment. In the vapour exposure evaluation, the target concentrations in air at 10 m distance from the edge of a treated field are calculated for specific scenarios for each EU regulatory zone. These scenarios have been selected to represent reasonable worst case volatilisation conditions. The exposure assessment is based on a series of weekly applications in a five year period to cover a wide range of meteorological conditions. The volatilisation from the crop is calculated using the PEARL model and this PEARL output provides the emission strength used as input for the short term version of the atmospheric transport model OPS. The combined PEARL-OPS model is tested against measurements from a field experiment. First results of this test show that the mean concentration level was predicted fairly well. However, sometimes the differences between observations and simulations were found to be substantial. Improvements are suggested for the vapour exposure scenarios as well as for further model development. In the current version of the BROWSE tool a simplified procedure is used to assess single and multiple applications. The actual period of application and the time of application during the day are fixed, and the growth stage of the crop cannot be taken into account. Moreover, competing processes such as penetration of the substance into the plant tissue are not considered. The effect of these factors on the target exposure concentrations is discussed.

Volatilisation of pesticides under field conditions : Inverse modelling and pesticide fate models
Houbraken, Michael ; Berg, F. van den; Ellis, Clare Butler M. ; Dekeyser, Donald ; Nuyttens, David ; Schampheleire, Mieke De; Spanoghe, Pieter - \ 2016
Pest Management Science 72 (2016)7. - ISSN 1526-498X - p. 1309 - 1321.
Atmospheric dispersion modelling system - Formulation - PEARL - Pesticides - Volatilisation

BACKGROUND: A substantial fraction of the applied crop protection products on crops is lost to the atmosphere. Models describing the prediction of volatility and potential fate of these substances in the environment have become an important tool in the pesticide authorisation procedure at the EU level. The main topic of this research is to assess the rate and extent of volatilisation of ten pesticides after application on field crops. RESULTS: For eight of the ten pesticides, the volatilisation rates modelled with PEARL (Pesticide Emission Assessment at Regional and Local scales) corresponded well to the calculated rates modelled with ADMS (Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System). For the other pesticides, large differences were found between the models. Formulation might affect the volatilisation potential of pesticides. Increased leaf wetness increased the volatilisation of propyzamide and trifloxystrobin at the end of the field trial. The reliability of pesticide input parameters, in particular the vapour pressure, is discussed. CONCLUSION: Volatilisation of propyzamide, pyrimethanil, chlorothalonil, diflufenican, tolylfluanid, cyprodinil and E- and Z-dimethomorph from crops under realistic environmental conditions can be modelled with the PEARL model, as corroborated against field observations. Suggested improvements to the volatilisation component in PEARL should include formulation attributes and leaf wetness at the time of pesticide application.

Toward Scalable Fabrication of Hierarchical Silica Capsules with Integrated Micro-, Meso-, and Macropores
Zhou, Weizheng ; Tong, Gangsheng ; Wang, Dali ; Zhu, Bangshang ; Ren, Yu ; Butler, Michael ; Pelan, Eddie ; Yan, Deyue ; Zhu, Xinyuan ; Stoyanov, Simeon D. - \ 2016
Small 12 (2016)13. - ISSN 1613-6810 - p. 1797 - 1805.
Hierarchical materials - Multi-templating - Pickering emulsions - Porous structures - Silica capsules

Hierarchical porous structures are ubiquitous in biological organisms and inorganic systems. Although such structures have been replicated, designed, and fabricated, they are often inferior to naturally occurring analogues. Apart from the complexity and multiple functionalities developed by the biological systems, the controllable and scalable production of hierarchically porous structures and building blocks remains a technological challenge. Herein, a facile and scalable approach is developed to fabricate hierarchical hollow spheres with integrated micro-, meso-, and macropores ranging from 1 nm to 100 μm (spanning five orders of magnitude). (Macro)molecules, micro-rods (which play a key role for the creation of robust capsules), and emulsion droplets have been successfully employed as multiple length scale templates, allowing the creation of hierarchical porous macrospheres. Thanks to their specific mechanical strength, these hierarchical porous spheres could be incorporated and assembled as higher level building blocks in various novel materials.

Trends in marine climate change research in the Nordic region since the first IPCC report
Pedersen, M.W. ; Kokkalis, A. ; Bardarson, H. ; Bonanomi, S. ; Boonstra, W.J. ; Butler, W.E. ; Diekert, F.K. ; Fouzai, N. ; Holma, M. ; Holt, R.E. ; Kvile, K. ; Nieminen, E. ; Ottosen, K.M. ; Richter, A.P. ; Rogers, L.A. ; Romagnoni, G. ; Snickars, M. ; Tornroos, A. ; Weigel, B. ; Whittington, J.D. ; Yletyinen, J. ; Ferreira, A.S.A. - \ 2016
Climatic Change 134 (2016)1. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 147 - 161.
Oceans are exposed to anthropogenic climate change shifting marine systems toward potential instabilities. The physical, biological and social implications of such shifts can be assessed within individual scientific disciplines, but can only be fully understood by combining knowledge and expertise across disciplines. For climate change related problems these research directions have been well-established since the publication of the first IPCC report in 1990, however it is not well-documented to what extent these directions are reflected in published research. Focusing on the Nordic region, we evaluated the development of climate change related marine science by quantifying trends in number of publications, disciplinarity, and scientific focus of 1362 research articles published between 1990 and 2011. Our analysis showed a faster increase in publications within climate change related marine science than in general marine science indicating a growing prioritisation of research with a climate change focus. The composition of scientific disciplines producing climate change related publications, which initially was dominated by physical sciences, shifted toward a distribution with almost even representation of physical and biological sciences with social sciences constituting a minor constant proportion. These trends suggest that the predominantly model-based directions of the IPCC have favoured the more quantitatively oriented natural sciences rather than the qualitative traditions of social sciences. In addition, despite being an often declared prerequisite to successful climate science, we found surprisingly limited progress in implementing interdisciplinary research indicating that further initiatives nurturing scientific interactions are required.
Olfactory responses of western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) populations to a non-pheromone lure
Nielsen, M.C. ; Worner, S.P. ; Rostás, M. ; Chapman, R.B. ; Butler, R.C. ; Kogel, W.J. de; Teulon, D.A.J. - \ 2015
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 156 (2015)3. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 254 - 262.
Attractant - Feeding history - Genotype - Host plant - Kairomone - Methyl isonicotinate - Rearing conditions - Semiochemicals - Thripidae - Thysanoptera - Y-tube olfactometer

Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major pest of horticultural crops worldwide. The search for alternative pest management techniques has resulted in increasing interest in the use of kairomones and other behaviour-modifying chemicals to mitigate the impact of this pest. In this study, we determined whether the origin of populations, feeding history, and/or genotype influence the response of WFT to the thrips kairomone lure methyl isonicotinate (MI) in a Y-tube olfactometer study. Four New Zealand thrips populations were tested: (1) from a commercial glasshouse capsicum crop, (2) from a long-established laboratory colony (>222 generations) kept on chrysanthemums, (3) from a laboratory colony (6-9 generations) kept on French dwarf beans, and (4) thought to be a separate cryptic non-pest species from outdoor yellow tree lupins, Lupinus arboreus Sims (Fabaceae). In the laboratory tests, significantly more WFT from all four populations chose the MI-laden arm of a Y-tube olfactometer when it contained 1 μl methyl isonicotinate (61.3-73.2%) compared with the blank no-odour arm. No differences in response to MI were found between the two laboratory and the one glasshouse WFT populations. Both laboratory populations and the greenhouse population belonged to the 'glasshouse pest' genotype of WFT. However, the cryptic non-pest WFT genotype responded more strongly to MI than any of the other populations, although the response was only significantly stronger than that of the long-established laboratory population. Significant differences were also found among populations in the average time taken for thrips to make a choice to enter either arm of the Y-tube olfactometer, with the cryptic non-pest lupin genotype taking the shortest time, followed by thrips from the capsicum glasshouse. The results are discussed with respect to the variability in olfactory perception and olfactory behaviour within a species and the relevance to the use of such a kairomone lure in pest management programmes.

Field survey based models for exploring nitrogen and acidity effects on plant species diversity and assessing long-term critical loads
Rowe, E.C. ; Wamelink, G.W.W. ; Smart, S.M. ; Butler, A. ; Henrys, P.A. ; Dobben, H.F. van; Reinds, G.J. ; Evans, C. ; Kros, J. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
In: Critical Loads and Dynamic Risk Assessments: Nitrogen, Acidity and Metals in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems, Environmental Pollution / de Vries, W., Hettelingh, J.P., Posch, M., Springer Verlag - ISBN 9789401795081 - p. 297 - 326.
Empirical critical loads are based on current evidence for relationships between the rate of pollutant deposition and changes to ecosystems observed in experiments and surveys. When considering longer-term change and effects of changes in deposition rate after periods of deposition in excess of the critical load, dynamic modelling approaches are useful. This chapter describes two soil-vegetation-floristics model chains, similar in concept, that are being applied in the Netherlands and the UK to explore pollution scenarios and calculate long-term critical loads for acidity and nutrient-N. These model chains consist of dynamic models of soil and vegetation biogeochemistry, combined with environmental suitability models that define the realised niche for the species or assemblage. The environmental suitability models described in this chapter are based on empirical relationships between species (MOVE, PROPS, MultiMOVE) or assemblage (NTM3) occurrence and environmental conditions, defined on multiple axes. They are driven by different biogeochemical models, forming the model chains SMART2-(SUMO2)-PROPS/NTM3 and MADOC-MultiMOVE. In this chapter these model chains are described in detail, and applications to scenario exploration and setting critical loads are demonstrated.
Analysis of bio-anode performance through electrochemical
Heijne, A. ter; Schaetzle, O.C. ; Gimenez, S. ; Navarro, L. ; Hamelers, B. ; Fabregat-Santiago, F. - \ 2015
Bioelectrochemistry 106 (2015)part A. - ISSN 1567-5394 - p. 64 - 72.
In this paper we studied the performance of bioanodes under different experimental conditions using polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy. We have identified that the large capacitances of up to 1 mF·cm- 2 for graphite anodes have their origin in the nature of the carbonaceous electrode, rather than the microbial culture. In some cases, the separate contributions of charge transfer and diffusion resistance were clearly visible, while in other cases their contribution was masked by the high capacitance of 1 mF·cm- 2. The impedance data were analyzed using the basic Randles model to analyze ohmic, charge transfer and diffusion resistances. Increasing buffer concentration from 0 to 50 mM and increasing pH from 6 to 8 resulted in decreased charge transfer and diffusion resistances; lowest values being 144 O·cm2 and 34 O·cm2, respectively. At acetate concentrations below 1 mM, current generation was limited by acetate. We show a linear relationship between inverse charge transfer resistance at potentials close to open circuit and saturation (maximum) current, associated to the Butler–Volmer relationship that needs further exploration.
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