Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Data from: Taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled in European peat bogs
    Robroek, Bjorn J.M. ; Jassey, Vincent E.J. ; Payne, Richard J. ; Martí, Magalí ; Bragazza, Luca ; Bleeker, Albert ; Buttler, Alexandre ; Caporn, Simon J.M. ; Dise, Nancy B. ; Kattge, Jens ; Zajac, Katarzyna ; Svensson, Bo H. ; Ruijven, J. van; Verhoeven, Jos T.A. - \ 2017
    Utrecht University
    community ecology - species diversity - functional diversity - plant functional traits - peatland ecology - environmental gradients - climate change - Andromeda polifolia - Betula nana - Carex pauciflora - Drosera anglica - Drosera rotundifolia - Empetrum nigrum - Rubus chamaemorus - Scheuchzeria palustris - Vaccinium oxycoccus - Vaccinium uliginosum - Vaccinium microcarpon - Calluna vulgaris - Eriophorum angustifolium - Erica tetralix - Molinia caerulea - Narthecium ossifragum - Trichophorum cespitosum - Eriophorum vaginatum - Rhynchospora alba - Sphagnum angustifolium - Sphagnum balticum - Sphagnum fallax - Sphagnum fuscum - Sphagnum majus - Sphagnum rubellum - Sphagnum capillifolium - Sphagnum austinii - Sphagnum cuspidatum - Sphagnum flexuosum - Sphagnum papillosum - Sphagnum magellanicum - Sphagnum pulchrum - Sphagnum tenellum - Dicranales - Hypnales - Bryales - Cladonia spp. - Polytrichales
    In peatland ecosystems, plant communities mediate a globally significant carbon store. The effects of global environmental change on plant assemblages are expected to be a factor in determining how ecosystem functions such as carbon uptake will respond. Using vegetation data from 56 Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs across Europe, we show that in these ecosystems plant species aggregate into two major clusters that are each defined by shared response to environmental conditions. Across environmental gradients, we find significant taxonomic turnover in both clusters. However, functional identity and functional redundancy of the community as a whole remain unchanged. This strongly suggests that in peat bogs, species turnover across environmental gradients is restricted to functionally similar species. Our results demonstrate that plant taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled, which may allow these peat bogs to maintain ecosystem functioning when subject to future environmental change.
    Taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled in European peat bogs
    Robroek, Bjorn J.M. ; Jassey, Vincent E.J. ; Payne, Richard J. ; Martí, Magalí ; Bragazza, Luca ; Bleeker, Albert ; Buttler, Alexandre ; Caporn, Simon J.M. ; Dise, Nancy B. ; Kattge, Jens ; Zajac, Katarzyna ; Svensson, Bo H. ; Ruijven, Jasper van; Verhoeven, Jos T.A. - \ 2017
    Nature Communications 8 (2017). - ISSN 2041-1723 - 9 p.

    In peatland ecosystems, plant communities mediate a globally significant carbon store. The effects of global environmental change on plant assemblages are expected to be a factor in determining how ecosystem functions such as carbon uptake will respond. Using vegetation data from 56 Sphagnum-dominated peat bogs across Europe, we show that in these ecosystems plant species aggregate into two major clusters that are each defined by shared response to environmental conditions. Across environmental gradients, we find significant taxonomic turnover in both clusters. However, functional identity and functional redundancy of the community as a whole remain unchanged. This strongly suggests that in peat bogs, species turnover across environmental gradients is restricted to functionally similar species. Our results demonstrate that plant taxonomic and functional turnover are decoupled, which may allow these peat bogs to maintain ecosystem functioning when subject to future environmental change.

    Snow cover manipulation effects on microbial community structure and soil chemistry in a mountain bog
    Robroek, B.J.M. ; Heijboer, A. ; Jassey, V.E.J. ; Hefting, M.M. ; Rouwenhorst, T.G. ; Buttler, A. ; Bragazza, L. - \ 2013
    Plant and Soil 369 (2013). - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 151 - 164.
    freeze-thaw cycles - rv-coefficient - climate-change - tundra soils - forest soil - nitrogen - dynamics - biomass - variability - trends
    Background and Aims Alterations in snow cover driven by climate change may impact ecosystem functioning, including biogeochemistry and soil (microbial) processes. We elucidated the effects of snow cover manipulation (SCM) on above-and belowground processes in a temperate peatland. Methods In a Swiss mountain-peatland we manipulated snow cover (addition, removal and control), and assessed the effects on Andromeda polifolia root enzyme activity, soil microbial community structure, and leaf tissue and soil biogeochemistry. Results Reduced snow cover produced warmer soils in our experiment while increased snow cover kept soil temperatures close-to-freezing. SCM had a major influence on the microbial community, and prolonged ‘close-to-freezing’ temperatures caused a shift in microbial communities toward fungal dominance. Soil temperature largely explained soil microbial structure, while other descriptors such as root enzyme activity and pore-water chemistry interacted less with the soil microbial communities. Conclusions We envisage that SCM-driven changes in the microbial community composition could lead to substantial changes in trophic fluxes and associated ecosystem processes. Hence, we need to improve our understanding on the impact of frost and freeze-thaw cycles on the microbial food web and its implications for peatland ecosystem processes in a changing climate; in particular for the fate of the sequestered carbon.
    Soil Microbial Community Changes in Wooded Mountain Pastures due to Simulated Effects of Cattle Grazing
    Kohler, F. ; Hamelin, J. ; Gillet, F. ; Gobat, J.M. ; Buttler, A. - \ 2005
    Plant and Soil 278 (2005)1-2. - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 327 - 340.
    substrate utilization patterns - level physiological profiles - nitrogen mineralization - calcareous grassland - vegetation dynamics - plant - compaction - biomass - forest - ecosystems
    The effect of cattle activity on pastures can be subdivided into three categories of disturbances: herbage removal, dunging and trampling. The objective of this study was to assess separately or in combination the effect of these factors on the potential activities of soil microbial communities and to compare these effects with those of soil properties and plant composition or biomass. Controlled treatments simulating the three factors were applied in a fenced area including a light gradient (sunny and shady situation): (i) repeated mowing; (ii) trampling; (iii) fertilizing with a liquid mixture of dung and urine. In the third year of the experiment, community level physiological profiles (CLPP) (Biolog Ecoplates¿) were measured for each plots. Furthermore soil chemical properties (pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus), plant species composition and plant biomass were also assessed. Despite differences in plant communities and soil properties, the metabolic potential of the microbial community in the sunny and in the shady situations were similar. Effects of treatments on microbial communities were more pronounced in the sunny than in the shady situation. In both cases, repeated mowing was the first factor retained for explaining functional variations. In contrast, fertilizing was not a significant factor. The vegetation explained a high proportion of variation of the microbial community descriptors in the sunny situation, while no significant variation appeared under shady condition. The three components of cattle activities influenced differently the soil microbial communities and this depended on the light conditions within the wooded pasture. Cattle activities may also change spatially at a fine scale and short-term and induce changes in the microbial community structure. Thus, the shifting mosaic that has been described for the vegetation of pastures may also apply for below-ground microbial communities.
    Raised atmospheric CO2 levels and increased N deposition cause shifts in plant species composition and production in Sphagnum bogs
    Berendse, F. ; Breemen, N. van; Rydin, H. ; Buttler, A. ; Heijmans, M. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lee, J.A. ; Mitchell, E. ; Saarinen, T. ; Vasander, H. ; Wallen, B. - \ 2001
    Global Change Biology 7 (2001). - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 591 - 598.
    broeikaseffect - emissie - kooldioxide - nitraten - veenplanten - greenhouse effect - emission - carbon dioxide - nitrates - bog plants
    Part of the missing sink in the global CO2 budget has been attributed to the positive effects of CO2 fertilization and N deposition on carbon sequestration in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ecosystems. The genus Sphagnum is one of the most important groups of plant species sequestrating carbon in temperate and northern bog ecosystems, because of the low decomposability of the dead material it produces. The effects of raised CO2 and increased atmospheric N deposition on growth of Sphagnum and other plants were studied in bogs at four sites across Western Europe. Contrary to expectations, elevated CO2 did not significantly affect Sphagnum biomass growth. Increased N deposition reduced Sphagnum mass growth, because it increased the cover of vascular plants and the tall moss Polytrichum strictum. Such changes in plant species composition may decrease carbon sequestration in Sphagnum-dominated bog ecosystems
    Testate amoebae (protozoa) and other micro-organisms in sphagnum peatlands : biogeography, ecology and effect of elevated CO2
    Mitchell, E.A.D. ; Gilbert, D. ; Buttler, A. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Albinsson, C. ; Rydin, H. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Greenup, A. ; Foot, J.P. ; Saarinen, T. ; Vasander, H. ; Gobat, J.M. - \ 2000
    In: Sustaining Our Peatlands : 11th International Peat Congress, Canada 2000 / Rochefort, L., Daigle, J.Y., Canada : Gerry Hood - ISBN 9789519774442 - p. 1087 - 1087.
    High N deposition affects competition between sphagnum and other bog plant species
    Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Berendse, F. ; Breemen, N. van; Rydin, H. ; Buttler, A. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Lee, J.A. ; Mitchell, E.A.D. ; Saarnio, S. ; Vasander, H. ; Wallen, B. - \ 2000
    In: Sustaining Our Peatlands : 11th International Peat Congress, Canada 2000 / Rochefort, L., Daigle, J.Y., Canada : Gerry Hood - ISBN 9789519774442 - p. 1085 - 1085.
    Relationships among testate amoebae (Protozoa), vegetation and water chemistry in five Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Europe
    Mitchell, E.A.D. ; Buttler, A. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Rydin, H. ; Albinsson, C. ; Greenup, A.L. ; Heijmans, M.M.P.D. ; Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Saarinen, T. - \ 2000
    New Phytologist 145 (2000). - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 95 - 106.
    turf - hoogveengronden - veengronden - grondanalyse - vegetatie - amoeba - grondwater - peat - bog soils - peat soils - soil analysis - vegetation - amoeba - groundwater
    To study the relationships between groups of organisms and the degree to which these relationships are consistent across major climatic gradients, we analysed the testate amoeba (Protozoa) communities, vegetation and water chemistry of one peatland in five countries: Switzerland, The Netherlands, Great Britain, Sweden and Finland, as part of the BERI (Bog Ecosystem Research Initiative) project. The relationships between the different data sets and subsets were investigated by means of detrended correspondence analysis, canonical correspondence analysis and Mantel permutation tests. The comparison of data on vegetation and testate amoebae showed that inter-site differences are more pronounced for the vegetation than for the testate amoebae species assemblage. Testate amoebae are a useful tool in multi-site studies and in environmental monitoring of peatlands because: (1) the number of species in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is much higher than for mosses or vascular plants; (2) most peatland species are cosmopolitan in their distributions and therefore less affected than plants by biogeographical distribution patterns, thus differences in testate amoeba assemblages can be interpreted primarily in terms of ecology; (3) they are closely related to the ecological characteristics of the exact spot where they live, therefore they can be used to analyse small-scale gradients that play a major role in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. This study revealed the existence of small-scale vertical gradients within the vegetation and life-form niche separation in response to water chemistry. The deep-rooted plants such as Carex spp. and Eriophorum spp. are related to the chemistry of water sampled at or near the ground water table, whereas the mosses are not. Testate amoebae were shown to be ecologically more closely related to the chemistry of water sampled at or near the water table level and to the mosses than to the deep-rooted plants.
    BERI: Bog ecosystem research initiative - objectives, hypotheses and methods to investigate the influence of elevated CO2 and nitrogen on Sphagnum.
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Breemen, N. van; Wallen, B. ; Rydin, H. ; Lee, J.A. ; Silvolda, J. ; Vasander, H. ; Berendse, F. ; Kuiper, P.J.C. ; Heijden, E. van der; Buttler, A. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Miglietta, F. - \ 1996
    In: IAB 2nd Int. Symp. on Biology of Sphagnum, Québec, Canada - p. 32 - 33.
    BERI: Bog ecosystem research initiative - objectives, hypotheses and research methods.
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Breemen, N. van; Wallen, B. ; Rydin, H. ; Lee, J.A. ; Silvolda, J. ; Vasander, H. ; Berendse, F. ; Kuiper, P.J.C. ; Heijden, E. van der; Buttler, A. ; Grosvernier, P. ; Miglietta, F. - \ 1995
    In: Proc. Int. workshop: SILMU, Northern peatlands in global climatic change. Hyytiälä, Finland - p. 300 - 305.
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