Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The Impacts of Suboptimal Mobility in Pasture-based Dairy Systems
    O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2020
    In: WIAS Annual Conference 2020. - WIAS - p. 30 - 30.
    Suboptimal mobility refers to any abnormality to a cow’s gait which causes a deviation from the optimal walking pattern of a cow. Suboptimal mobility is an area of concern from an economic, environmental and animal welfare point of view. While the potentialrisk factors and impacts of suboptimal mobility in non-pasture-based systems are reported on throughout the literature, the same information is lacking for seasonal calving, pasture-based systems. The overall aim of this project was to determine the impacts of suboptimal mobility in a pasture-based dairy system. To achieve this we determined 1) the association between claw disorders and suboptimal mobility; 2) the cow and herd-level risk factors associated with suboptimal mobility; 3) the production and reproductive impacts associated with suboptimal mobility; 4) the economic and environmental consequences of suboptimal mobility. Data from 11,116 cows from 68 Irish pasture-based dairy herds were collected. Cows were mobility scored and body condition scored (BCS). Production data(milk, fat, and protein yields, and somatic cell count), reproductive data (calving dates,calving interval, and culling), and other cow-level data (breed type, and genetic transmitting abilities for health and production traits) were available for each cow. Herd-level data including cow path quality and maintenance practices, distances cows walk to and from pasture each day, and foot bathing regimes on farm were collected for each herd via an online survey completed by the herd owners. Our study showed that all severities of claw disorders (ranging from mild to severe), are associated with specific mobility scores. Furthermore,cows with higher yields, elevated SCC, less body condition, and cows with a genetic predisposition for lameness are all potential risk factors for suboptimal mobility. We also found that certain cow breeds such as Jersey type cows are associated with a reduced risk for having suboptimal mobility. At the herd-level, both the quality of cow paths and the distance cows must walk each day are associated with an increased proportion of suboptimal mobility. Finally, herds with higher proportions of suboptimal mobility have lower economic returns and higher total costs. These herds are also associated with increased greenhouse gas emissions per kg of fat and protein corrected milk yield.
    The Impacts of Suboptimal Mobility in Pasture-based Dairy Systems
    O'Connor, Aisling ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Boer, Imke de; Hogeveen, Henk ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2020
    Suboptimal mobility refers to any abnormality to a cow’s gait which causes a deviation
    from the optimal walking pattern of a cow. Suboptimal mobility is an area of concern
    from an economic, environmental and animal welfare point of view. While the potential
    risk factors and impacts of suboptimal mobility in non-pasture-based systems are reported
    on throughout the literature, the same information is lacking for seasonal calving, pasture-
    based systems. The overall aim of this project was to determine the impacts of suboptimal
    mobility in a pasture-based dairy system. To achieve this we determined 1) the
    association between claw disorders and suboptimal mobility; 2) the cow and herd-level risk
    factors associated with suboptimal mobility; 3) the production and reproductive impacts
    associated with suboptimal mobility; 4) the economic and environmental consequences
    of suboptimal mobility. Data from 11,116 cows from 68 Irish pasture-based dairy herds were
    collected. Cows were mobility scored and body condition scored (BCS). Production data
    (milk, fat, and protein yields, and somatic cell count), reproductive data (calving dates,
    calving interval, and culling), and other cow-level data (breed type, and genetic transmitting
    abilities for health and production traits) were available for each cow. Herd-level data
    including cow path quality and maintenance practices, distances cows walk to and from
    pasture each day, and foot bathing regimes on farm were collected for each herd via an
    online survey completed by the herd owners. Our study showed that all severities of claw
    disorders (ranging from mild to severe), are associated with specific mobility scores. Furthermore,
    cows with higher yields, elevated SCC, less body condition, and cows with a genetic
    predisposition for lameness are all potential risk factors for suboptimal mobility. We also
    found that certain cow breeds such as Jersey type cows are associated with a reduced
    risk for having suboptimal mobility. At the herd-level, both the quality of cow paths and the
    distance cows must walk each day are associated with an increased proportion of suboptimal
    mobility. Finally, herds with higher proportions of suboptimal mobility have lower economic
    returns and higher total costs. These herds are also associated with increased green house
    gas emissions per kg of fat and protein corrected milk yield.
    Different carbon sources result in differential activation of sigma B and stress resistance in Listeria monocytogenes
    Crespo Tapia, Natalia ; Dorey, Amber L. ; Gahan, Cormac G.M. ; Besten, Heidy M.W. den; O'Byrne, Conor P. ; Abee, Tjakko - \ 2020
    International Journal of Food Microbiology 320 (2020). - ISSN 0168-1605
    Acid stress - Adhesion assay - Biofilm - C2Bbe1 cell line - Carbon source - Glucose - Glycerol - Heat stress - Invasion assay - Lactose - Listeria monocytogenes - SigB - Sigma B - Stress - Stress response - Virulence

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen that is ubiquitous in the environment. It is able to utilize a variety of carbon sources, to produce biofilms on food-processing surfaces and to survive food preservation–associated stresses. In this study, we investigated the effect of three common carbon sources, namely glucose, glycerol and lactose, on growth and activation of the general stress response Sigma factor, SigB, and corresponding phenotypes including stress resistance. A fluorescent reporter coupled to the promoter of lmo2230, a highly SigB-dependent gene, was used to determine SigB activation via quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy. This approach, combined with Western blotting and fluorescence microscopy, showed the highest SigB activation in lactose grown cells and lowest in glucose grown cells. In line with this observation, lactose grown cells showed the highest resistance to lethal heat and acid stress, the highest biofilm formation, and had the highest adhesion/invasion capacity in Caco-2-derived C2Bbe1 cell lines. Our data suggest that lactose utilisation triggers a strong SigB dependent stress response and this may have implications for the resistance of L. monocytogenes along the food chain.

    DSM looks to reduce methane emissions in Brazilian beef sector
    Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2019
    Dutch dairy consortium evaluating effectiveness of DSM methane inhibitor
    Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2019
    Isohexide-based solvents: Conformationally induced differences in solvent properties
    Franciolus, David ; Byrne, Fergel ; Sherwood, James ; Vught-Lussenburg, Barbara van; Es, D.S. van - \ 2019
    - 1 p.
    Associating body condition score and parity with sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy cows
    O'Connor, A.H. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Boer, I.J.M. De; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
    In: Precision Livestock Farming 2019. - Teagasc (Precision Livestock Farming 2019 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming, ECPLF 2019 ) - ISBN 9781841706542 - p. 798 - 802.
    Body condition - Claw disorder - Grass-based system - Lameness - Parity

    Sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows can be broadly defined as abnormal gait which causes a deviation from the optimal walking pattern of a cow. Sub-optimal mobility is also associated with significant economic and environmental consequences, which have yet to be extensively researched or quantified in pasture-based systems. However, to quantify sub-optimal mobility in terms of its impacts economically and environmentally, and indeed to aid in the development of automated detection sensors for sub-optimal mobility, a clear understanding of the characteristics of a cow with sub-optimal mobility is required. So far, automated detection sensors have been successful for detecting moderate to severe forms of sub-optimal mobility. However, there is a need for a better understanding of the cow-level traits associated with all forms of sub-optimal mobility, including mild forms, to incorporate this into future development of automated detection sensors for sub-optimal mobility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the associations between hoof disorders (both type and presence), body condition score, and all levels of sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy cows using data from a large sample of Irish dairy farms. Mobility scores, body condition scores (BCS), claw disorder (presence and severity), and parity records were available for 6,927 dairy cows from 52 pasture-based herds. Binomial logistic regression analysis was completed to determine the associations between claw disorder (presence and severity), BCS, parity and sub-optimal mobility. The output variable was sub-optimal mobility (mobility score ≥ 1) and the predictor variables were specific claw disorders and their severities, BCS, and parity. Our results indicate that all severities of claw disorders, low BCS, and higher parity cows are all associated with an increased risk for sub-optimal mobility.

    Sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy systems
    O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Byrne, N. ; Sayers, R. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
    In: Teagasc National Dairy Open Day booklet. -
    Cow characteristics and sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy cows
    O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
    - p. 798 - 802.
    Sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows can be broadly defined as abnormal gait which causes a deviation from the optimal walking pattern of a cow. Sub-optimal mobility is also associated with significant economic and environmental consequences, which have yet to be extensively researched or quantified in pasture-based systems. However, to quantify sub-optimal mobility in terms of its impacts economically and environmentally, and indeed to aid in the development of automated detection sensors for sub-optimal mobility, a clear understanding of the characteristics of a cow with sub-optimal mobility is required. So far, automated detection sensors have been successful for detecting moderate to severe forms of sub-optimal mobility. However, there is a need for a better understanding of the cow-level traits associated with all forms of sub-optimal mobility, including mild forms, to incorporate this into future development of automated detection sensors for sub-optimal mobility. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the associations between hoof disorders (both type and presence), body condition score, and all levels of sub-optimal mobility in pasture-based dairy cows using data from a large sample of Irish dairy farms. Mobility scores, body condition scores (BCS), claw disorder (presence and severity), and parity records were available for 6,927 dairy cows from 52 pasture-based herds. Binomial logistic regression analysis was completed to determine the associations between claw disorder (presence and severity), BCS, parity and sub-optimal mobility. The output variable was sub-optimal mobility (mobility score ≥ 1) and the predictor variables were specific claw disorders and their severities, BCS, and parity. Our results indicate that all severities of claw disorders, low BCS, and higher parity cows are all associated with an increased risk for sub-optimal mobility.
    Associating cow characteristics with mobility scores in pasture-based dairy cows
    O'Connor, A.H. ; Bokkers, E.A.M. ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
    Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)9. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8332 - 8342.
    body condition - claw disorder - grass-based system - lameness - parity

    The quality of dairy cow mobility can have significant welfare, economic, and environmental consequences that have yet to be extensively quantified for pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to characterize mobility quality by examining associations between specific mobility scores, claw disorders (both the type and severity), body condition score (BCS), and cow parity. Data were collected for 6,927 cows from 52 pasture-based dairy herds, including mobility score (0 = optimal mobility; 1, 2, or 3 = increasing severities of suboptimal mobility), claw disorder type and severity, BCS, and cow parity. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. The outcome variable was mobility score, and the predictor variables were BCS, type and severity of claw disorders, and cow parity. Three models were run, each with 1 reference category (mobility score 0, 1, or 2). Each model also included claw disorders (overgrown claw, sole hemorrhage, white line disease, sole ulcer, and digital dermatitis), BCS, and cow parity as predictor variables. The presence of most types of claw disorders had odds ratios >1, indicating an increased likelihood of a cow having suboptimal mobility. Low BCS (BCS <3.00) was associated with an increased risk of a cow having suboptimal mobility, and relatively higher parity was also associated with an increased risk of suboptimal mobility. These results confirm an association between claw disorders, BCS, cow parity, and dairy cow mobility score. Therefore, mobility score should be routinely practiced to identify cows with slight deviations from the optimal mobility pattern and to take preventive measures to keep the problem from worsening.

    High species diversity and turnover in granite inselberg floras highlight the need for a conservation strategy protecting many outcrops
    Yates, Colin J. ; Robinson, Todd ; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W. ; Keppel, Gunnar ; Hopper, Stephen D. ; Schut, Antonius G.T. ; Byrne, Margaret - \ 2019
    Ecology and Evolution 9 (2019)13. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 7660 - 7675.
    beta diversity - conservation strategy - generalized dissimilarity modeling - granite inselbergs - OCBIL theory - rock outcrops - species turnover - water availability

    Determining patterns of plant diversity on granite inselbergs is an important task for conservation biogeography due to mounting threats. However, beyond the tropics there are relatively few quantitative studies of floristic diversity, or consideration of these patterns and their environmental, biogeographic, and historical correlates for conservation. We sought to contribute broader understanding of global patterns of species diversity on granite inselbergs and inform biodiversity conservation in the globally significant Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). We surveyed floristics from 16 inselbergs (478 plots) across the climate gradient of the SWAFR stratified into three major habitats on each outcrop. We recorded 1,060 species from 92 families. At the plot level, local soil and topographic variables affecting aridity were correlated with species richness in herbaceous (HO) and woody vegetation (WO) of soil-filled depressions, but not in woody vegetation on deeper soils at the base of outcrops (WOB). At the outcrop level, bioclimatic variables affecting aridity were correlated with species richness in two habitats (WO and WOB) but, contrary to predictions from island biogeography, were not correlated with inselberg area and isolation in any of the three habitats. Species turnover in each of the three habitats was also influenced by aridity, being correlated with bioclimatic variables and with interplot geographic distance, and for HO and WO habitats with local site variables. At the outcrop level, species replacement was the dominant component of species turnover in each of the three habitats, consistent with expectations for long-term stable landscapes. Our results therefore highlight high species diversity and turnover associated with granite outcrop flora. Hence, effective conservation strategies will need to focus on protecting multiple inselbergs across the entire climate gradient of the region.

    Effects of sub-optimal mobility on production performance of pasture-based dairy cows
    O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2019
    In: Advances in Animal Biosciences. - - p. 73 - 73.
    Sub-optimal mobility has been identified as the third most important health-related economic loss, after
    fertility and mastitis (Bruijnis et al., 2010, Alawneh et al., 2011, Huxley, 2013). It is well known that severe forms of suboptimal
    mobility cause losses in terms of milk yield (Enting et al., 1997); however, less is known about the effects of mild
    forms of sub-optimal mobility on milk yield and other production performance parameters. Therefore, the objective of this
    study was to investigate the effect of sub-optimal mobility on production performance in pasture-based dairy cows.
    Black spot partial resistance in diploid roses : QTL discovery and linkage map creation
    Yan, M. ; Byrne, D.H. ; Klein, P.E. ; Weg, W.E. van de; Yang, J. ; Cai, L. - \ 2019
    Acta Horticulturae 1232 (2019). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 135 - 141.
    Consensus map - Genotyping-by-sequencing - Phenotyping - QTL - SNP

    Black spot disease (Diplocarpon rosae) is the most important leaf disease of garden roses in warm humid areas. Although partial resistance to black spot has been shown to be moderately heritable, the responsible quantitative trait loci (QTL) remain unidentified. Because of the interspecific nature and high heterozygosity in commercial roses, as well as the relatively small research input compared to row crops, the genomic resources available for rose are limited. To effectively identify markers associated with QTL controlling black spot resistance, abundant markers across the genome and careful phenotyping are required. Fifteen inter-related diploid rose populations with black spot resistant cultivar R. wichuraiana ‘Basye’s Thornless’ in the genetic background were assessed based on the percent of total foliage covered with lesions in June, October and November of 2016 in College Station. Broad sense heritability was estimated at 0.51 which indicates black spot partial resistance is a moderately heritable trait. Genotyping-by-sequencing technology was used to generate SNP markers for linkage map construction. Previous anchor SSR markers were used to designate the linkage group number. The final consensus map used for black spot QTL detection contained 791 SNP covering 430 cM with the biggest gap being 6.6 cM on LG4. One major black spot QTL was discovered on LG3 explaining ~13% of the total phenotypic variance (equaling approximately 26% of the genetic variation) using pedigree-based analysis among all fifteen populations.

    Associating hoof disorders with sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows in pasture-based systems
    O'Connor, A. ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2018
    - 1 p.
    This analysis confirms an association between MS and HD. The results indicate that any form of HD presence is a relevant predictor of MS. From the results, it is clear that more severe type HD, for example; ulcers and digital dermatitis have a significantly greater impact on MS. Based on HD presence, the results also indicate the thresholds wherein MS is likely to be suboptimal (MS>0) thus causing a deviation from the optimal walking pattern of a cow.
    Accounting for Water: Questions of Environmental Representation in a Nonmodern World
    Zwarteveen, M.Z. ; Smit, H.C. ; Dominguez Guzman, C. ; Fantini, E. ; Rap, E.R. ; Zaag, P. van der; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2018
    In: Rethinking Environmentalism / Lele, S., Brondizio, E.S., Byrne, J., Mace, G.M., Martinez-Alier, J., MIT Press (Strüngmann Forum Reports ) - ISBN 9780262038966 - p. 227 - 250.
    Integrating breeding, diet, additives and hygiene key to on-farm antibiotic reduction, says Professor den Hartog
    Hartog, Leonard den - \ 2018
    Associating types of hoof disorders with mobility score of dairy cows in pasture-based systems
    O'Connor, Aisling ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2018
    In: Book of abstracts of the 69th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Book of abstracts 24) - ISBN 9789086863235 - p. 242 - 242.

    Associating cow characteristics with sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows in Irish pasture-based systems
    O'Connor, Aisling ; Bokkers, Eddie ; Boer, I.J.M. de; Hogeveen, H. ; Sayers, R. ; Byrne, N. ; Ruelle, E. ; Shalloo, L. - \ 2018
    In: Sustainable meat and milk production from grasslands. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Grassland Science in Europe ) - ISBN 9781841706436 - p. 765 - 768.
    Sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows has significant economic and environmental consequences which have yet to be extensively researched or quantified for pasture-based systems. While traditionally lameness was defined by a requirement to treat individual cows, sub-optimal mobility is now being used to identify lameness in pasture-based systems. Compared to cows in confinement systems, cows in pasture-based systems are exposed to different types of mobility issues. While cows in confinement systems are at risk to infectious hoof disorders such as mortellaro, cows in pasture-based systems are vulnerable to noninfectious hoof disorders, such as overgrown claws and whiteline disease. To precisely quantify suboptimal mobility in terms of its impacts economically and environmentally, a clear understanding of the characteristics of a sub-optimal mobility cow is required. Mobility score (MS), hoof disorders prevalence
    and body condition score (BCS) were recorded for 7,649 dairy cows and were examined in this study in order to characterise a cow with sub-optimal mobility. Cows with more severe type hoof disorders were significantly more at risk to having sub-optimal mobility; this study shows that both hoof disorders and
    BCS are useful indicators of sub-optimal mobility in dairy cows.
    Spatial and risk factor analysis of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus after the first-year compulsory phase of BVD eradication programme in Northern Ireland
    Charoenlarp, W. ; Frankena, K. ; Strain, S.A.J. ; Guelbenzu-Gonzalo, M. ; Graham, J. ; Byrne, A.W. - \ 2018
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 157 (2018). - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 34 - 43.
    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus - Northern Ireland - Risk factors - Spatial analysis - Spatial autocorrelation - Spatial risk factors

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) causes bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD), which is a contagious pathogen that can have a significant economic impact on cattle industries. In Northern Ireland (NI), the compulsory phase of a BVD eradication programme was implemented in 2016. The aim of this retrospective population based study was to utilize herd-level data after the first year of the compulsory phase (March 2016–March 2017) to determine the spatial distribution and variation of BVDV, to identify clusters of infection, and to quantify some risk factors associated with BVD in NI. Global spatial clustering (autocorrelation) and local spatial hot-spot analyses were used to specify the clustering areas (hot- and cold-spot). A suite of multivariable logistic analyses was performed to estimate the associations of spatial and non-spatial factors (relating to herd characteristics) with the risk of being a BVDV positive herd. Final models were compared by evaluating the model fit and the ability to account for spatial autocorrelation in the study area. There were 17,186 herds included in the analysis. The herd-level prevalence of BVDV was 11.31%. Significant spatial clustering of BVDV positive herds was presented in the central region of NI. A mixed effects logistic model, with a spatial random effect term, was considered the best model. The final model showed that a positive BVDV status during the voluntary phase prior to the compulsory phase started (OR = 2.25; CI 95% = 1.85–2.73), larger herd size (OR = 6.19; CI 95% = 5.22–7.34 for herd size > 100 animals) and a larger number of positive nearest neighbours within 4 km radius (OR = 1.24; CI 95% = 1.05–1.47 for 8–9 neighbours and OR = 1.41; CI 95% = 1.20–1.65 for 10–12 neighbours) were significantly related to the risk of a herd being tested positive for BVDV. The clear spatial pattern from the local spatial clustering analyses could be used for targeted surveillance and control measures by focusing on the central region of NI.

    Effects of soil type and depth on carbon distribution within soil macroaggregates from temperate grassland systems
    Torres-Sallan, Gemma ; Creamer, Rachel E. ; Lanigan, Gary J. ; Reidy, Brian ; Byrne, Kenneth A. - \ 2018
    Geoderma 313 (2018). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 52 - 56.
    Grassland - Soil aggregation - Soil organic carbon - Subsoil

    Grassland soils have been highlighted as a global soil carbon (C) sink, and have the potential to sequester additional C. Sequestration of C can occur through incorporation of soil organic carbon (SOC) within microaggregates and the silt and clay fractions. The distribution of SOC within macroaggregate fractions gives an insight into both SOC dynamics and its incorporation into the soil. Research to date on soil C has tended to focus on the topsoil (0–30 cm). While many studies have assessed the changes in aggregation and SOC dynamics after land use or management change, this paper assesses aggregation and SOC dynamics in the topsoil and subsoil of twenty-one temperate grassland sites covering four soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Haplic Stagnosol, Haplic Cambisol, Stagnic Cambisol). Results show that there are no differences in SOC between soil types in the surface 0–30 cm, except a decrease in the quantity of microaggregates within macroaggregates in Haplic Stagnosols. In the subsoil, the silt and clay fraction of clay-illuviated soils had a lower percentage of SOC. Soils with clay illuviation and reducing conditions had a decreased proportion of SOC in microaggregates and silt plus clay within small macroaggregates in the subsoil. This could be caused by a combination of (i) reduced incorporation of SOC into smaller fractions, because POM inputs could be limited due to soil saturation limiting root growth, and (ii) reduced mineralisation and subsequent incorporation of POM into microaggregates and silt plus clay within macroaggregates. These results enable elucidation of the mechanisms driving aggregate formation (and thus C sequestration in microaggregates and silt plus clay fractions) in topsoil and subsoil. This study shows that the dynamics of SOC in subsoil horizons is soil-type dependant and that differences between soil types cannot be elucidated when the sampling is limited to 30 cm. This suggests that the IPCC guidelines for SOC measurements should also include the sampling of subsoil horizons in order to get valuable information that allows discerning between soil types.

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