Is nutrition science ready for the twenty-first century? Moving towards transdisciplinary impacts in a changing world
Tufford, Adèle R. ; Calder, Philip C. ; Van’t Veer, Pieter ; Feskens, Edith F. ; Ockhuizen, Theo ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Sikkema, Jan ; Vries, Jan de - \ 2020
European Journal of Nutrition 59 (2020). - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 1 - 10.
Malnutrition in an obese world was the fitting title of the 13th Federation of European Nutrition Societies (FENS) conference held in October 2019. Many individuals do not eat a healthy, well-balanced diet, and this is now understood to be a major driver of increased disease risk and illness. Moreover, both our current eating patterns and the food system as a whole are environmentally unsustainable, threatening the planetary systems we depend on for survival. As we attempt to feed a growing global population, food systems will increasingly be confronted with their environmental impacts, with the added challenge of climate change-induced threats to food production. As we move into the third decade of the twenty-first century, these challenges demand that the nutrition research community reconsider its scope, concepts, methods, and societal role. At a pre-meeting workshop held at the FENS conference, over 70 researchers active in the field explored ways to advance the discipline’s capacity to address cross-cutting issues of personal, public and planetary health. Using the world cafe method, four themed discussion tables explored (a) the breadth of scientific domains needed to meet the current challenges, (b) the nature and definition of the shifting concepts in nutrition sciences, (c) the next-generation methods required and (d) communication and organisational challenges and opportunities. As a follow-up to earlier work , here we report the highlights of the discussions, and propose the next steps to advance responsible research and innovation in the domain of nutritional science.
Towards "improved Standards in the Science of Nutrition" through the Establishment of Federation of European Nutrition Societies Working Groups
Calder, Philip C. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kraneveld, Aletta D. ; Plat, Jogchum ; 'T Veer, Pieter Van; Vries, Jan De - \ 2020
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 76 (2020)2. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 2 - 5.
Fish oil LC-PUFAs do not affect blood coagulation parameters and bleeding manifestations : Analysis of 8 clinical studies with selected patient groups on omega-3-enriched medical nutrition
Jeansen, Stephanie ; Witkamp, Renger F. ; Garthoff, Jossie A. ; Helvoort, Ardy van; Calder, Philip C. - \ 2018
Clinical Nutrition 37 (2018)3. - ISSN 0261-5614 - p. 948 - 957.
Bleeding - Coagulation - DHA - EPA - LC-PUFA - Omega-3
Background & aims: The increased consumption of fish oil enriched-products exposes a wide diversity of people, including elderly and those with impaired health to relatively high amounts of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs). There is an ongoing debate around the possible adverse effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on bleeding risk, particularly relevant in people with a medical history of cardiovascular events or using antithrombotic drugs. Methods: This analysis of 8 clinical intervention studies conducted with enteral medical nutrition products containing fish oil as a source of n-3 LC-PUFAs addresses the occurrence of bleeding-related adverse events and effects on key coagulation parameters (Prothrombin Time [PT], (activated) and Partial Thromboplastin Time [(a)PTT]). Results: In all the patients considered (over 600 subjects treated with the active product in total), with moderate to severe disease, with or without concomitant use of antithrombotic agents, at home or in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), no evidence of increased risk of bleeding with use of n-3 LC-PUFAs was observed. Furthermore there were no statistically significant changes from baseline in measured coagulation parameters. Conclusion: These findings further support the safe consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs, even at short-term doses up to 10 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) or consumed for up to 52 weeks above 1.5 g/day, in selected vulnerable and sensitive populations such as subjects with gastrointestinal cancer or patients in an ICU. We found no evidence to support any concern raised with regards to the application of n-3 LC-PUFAs and the potentially increased risk for the occurrence of adverse bleeding manifestations in these selected patient populations consuming fish oil enriched medical nutrition.
Impact of CFA and dietary protein supply on acute phase responses and nitrogen retention in pigs
Hoek, E. van de; Sakkas, P. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Peet-Schwering, C.M.C. van der; Beers, H. van; Jansman, A.J.M. - \ 2013
In: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Energy and Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, 9-12 September 2013, Sacramento, California, USA. - Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086862276 - p. 367 - 368.
During immune system activation, an increased competition occurs between amino acids (AA) for body protein deposition and for immune system functioning (Klasing and Johnstone, 1991; Sandberg et al., 2007). The production of acute phase proteins (APP) has been suggested to increase the demand for especially aromatic AA (Reeds et al., 1994). When muscle protein is mobilized to supply AA for APP production, this leads to an imbalance in AA available for body protein deposition, as the AA composition of APP differs largely from the composition of muscle protein (Reeds et al., 1994). As a consequence, increased AA oxidation and N loss via urine occur. It is hypothesized that the competition between AA increases when dietary protein supply is reduced. In addition, there is increasing evidence that the dietary protein or AA supply can modulate the inflammatory response during immune system activation (Grimble, 2001; Calder and Yaqoob, 2012). The aim of the present study was to quantify the interaction between acute phase protein (APP) responses, induced by immune system activation, and dietary protein supply on nitrogen (N) metabolism.
|Immunomodulatory effects of mushroom B-glucans
Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Chanput, W. ; Wichers, H.J. - \ 2013
In: Diet, immunity and inflammation, woodhead publishing series in food science, technology and nutrition no. 232 / Calder, P.C., Yaqoob, P., Woodhead Publishing (Woodhead publishing series in food science, technology and nutrition 232) - ISBN 9780857090379 - p. 416 - 434.
Monitoring immune modulation by nutrition in the general population: identifying and substantiating effects on human health.
Albers, R. ; Bourdet-Sicard, R. ; Braun, D. ; Calder, P.C. ; Herz, U. ; Lambert, C. ; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I. ; Meheust, A. ; Ouwehand, A. ; Phothirath, P. ; Sako, T. ; Salminen, S. ; Siemensma, A. ; Loveren, H. van; Sack, U. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 110 (2013)S2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. S1 - S30.
c-reactive protein - regulatory t-cells - coronary-heart-disease - atopy patch test - randomized controlled-trial - inflammatory-bowel-disease - respiratory symptom survey - hymenoptera venom allergy - basophil activation test - hepatitis-b vaccination
Optimal functioning of the immune system is crucial to human health, and nutrition is one of the major exogenous factors modulating different aspects of immune function. Currently, no single marker is available to predict the effect of a dietary intervention on different aspects of immune function. To provide further guidance on the assessment and interpretation of the modulation of immune functions due to nutrition in the general population, International Life Sciences Institute Europe commissioned a group of experts from academia, government and the food industry to prepare a guidance document. A draft of this paper was refined at a workshop involving additional experts. First, the expert group defined criteria to evaluate the usefulness of immune function markers. Over seventy-five markers were scored within the context of three distinct immune system functions: defence against pathogens; avoidance or mitigation of allergy; control of low-grade (metabolic) inflammation. The most useful markers were subsequently classified depending on whether they by themselves signify clinical relevance and/or involvement of immune function. Next, five theoretical scenarios were drafted describing potential changes in the values of markers compared with a relevant reference range. Finally, all elements were combined, providing a framework to aid the design and interpretation of studies assessing the effects of nutrition on immune function. This stepwise approach offers a clear rationale for selecting markers for future trials and provides a framework for the interpretation of outcomes. A similar stepwise approach may also be useful to rationalise the selection and interpretation of markers for other physiological processes critical to the maintenance of health and well-being.
A consideration of biomarkers to be used for evaluation of inflammation in human nutritional studies
Calder, P.C. ; Ahluwalia, N. ; Albers, R. ; Bosco, N. ; Bourdet-Sicard, R. ; Haller, D. ; Holgate, S.T. ; Jönsson, L.S. ; Latulippe, M.E. ; Marcos, A. ; Moreines, J. ; M'Rini, C. ; Müller, M.R. ; Pawelec, G. ; Neerven, R.J.J. van; Watzl, B. ; Zhao, J. - \ 2013
The British journal of nutrition 109 (2013)S1. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. S1 - S34.
c-reactive protein - necrosis-factor-alpha - low-grade inflammation - coronary-artery-disease - blood mononuclear-cells - ischemic-heart-disease - plasma il-6 levels - obstructive pulmonary-disease - endoplasmic-reticulum stress - systemic-lupus-erythematosus
To monitor inflammation in a meaningful way, the markers used must be valid: they must reflect the inflammatory process under study and they must be predictive of future health status. In 2009, the Nutrition and Immunity Task Force of the International Life Sciences Institute, European Branch, organized an expert group to attempt to identify robust and predictive markers, or patterns or clusters of markers, which can be used to assess inflammation in human nutrition studies in the general population. Inflammation is a normal process and there are a number of cells and mediators involved. These markers are involved in, or are produced as a result of, the inflammatory process irrespective of its trigger and its location and are common to all inflammatory situations. Currently, there is no consensus as to which markers of inflammation best represent low-grade inflammation or differentiate between acute and chronic inflammation or between the various phases of inflammatory responses. There are a number of modifying factors that affect the concentration of an inflammatory marker at a given time, including age, diet and body fatness, among others. Measuring the concentration of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream under basal conditions is probably less informative compared with data related to the concentration change in response to a challenge. A number of inflammatory challenges have been described. However, many of these challenges are poorly standardised. Patterns and clusters may be important as robust biomarkers of inflammation. Therefore, it is likely that a combination of multiple inflammatory markers and integrated readouts based upon kinetic analysis following defined challenges will be the most informative biomarker of inflammation.
Thermal Plasma Synthesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles
Lei, P.Y. ; Boies, A.M. ; Calder, S.A. ; Girshick, S.L. - \ 2012
Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing 32 (2012)3. - ISSN 0272-4324 - p. 519 - 531.
multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles - gamma-fe2o3 nanoparticles - biomedical applications - particle-size - flow reactor - rf plasma - flame - arc - pressure - functionalization
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by injecting ferrocene vapor and oxygen into an argon/helium DC thermal plasma. Size distributions of particles in the reactor exhaust were measured online using an aerosol extraction probe interfaced to a scanning mobility particle sizer, and particles were collected on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids and glass fiber filters for off-line characterization. The morphology, chemical and phase composition of the nanoparticles were characterized using TEM and X-ray diffraction, and the magnetic properties of the particles were analyzed with a vibrating sample magnetometer and a magnetic property measurement system. Aerosol at the reactor exhaust consisted of both single nanocrystals and small agglomerates, with a modal mobility diameter of 8-9 nm. Powder synthesized with optimum oxygen flow rate consisted primarily of magnetite (Fe3O4), and had a room-temperature saturation magnetization of 40.15 emu/g, with a coercivity and remanence of 26 Oe and 1.5 emu/g, respectively
Hybrids of Organic Molecules and Flat, Oxide-Free Silicon: High-Density Monolayers, Electronic Properties, and Functionalization
Li, Y. ; Calder, S.A. ; Yaffe, O. ; Cahen, D. ; Haick, H. ; Kronik, L. ; Zuilhof, H. - \ 2012
Langmuir 28 (2012)26. - ISSN 0743-7463 - p. 9920 - 9929.
hydrogen-terminated si(111) - mixed methyl/allyl monolayers - alkyl monolayers - porous silicon - si surfaces - carrier lifetime - label-free - interfaces - hydrosilylation - passivation
Since the first report of Si–C bound organic monolayers on oxide-free Si almost two decades ago, a substantial amount of research has focused on studying the fundamental mechanical and electronic properties of these Si/molecule surfaces and interfaces. This feature article covers three closely related topics, including recent advances in achieving high-density organic monolayers (i.e., atomic coverage >55%) on oxide-free Si(111) substrates, an overview of progress in the fundamental understanding of the energetics and electronic properties of hybrid Si/molecule systems, and a brief summary of recent examples of subsequent functionalization on these high-density monolayers, which can significantly expand the range of applicability. Taken together, these topics provide an overview of the present status of this active area of research.
Hyperhomocysteinemia - Which body tissues contribute to plasma homocysteine entry and removal?
Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Wilson, F.A. ; Calder, A.G. ; O'Kennedy, N. ; Holtrop, G. ; Rees, W.D. ; Lobley, G.E. - \ 2009
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63 (2009)Suppl. 3. - ISSN 0954-3007 - p. S15 (P25) - S16.
Impaired transfer of methyl groups, as occurs during folate and choline deficiency, leads to plasma hyperhomocysteinemia and increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. Tissue sources of plasma homocysteine in vivo have not been quantified and it has not been elucidated whether hyperhomocysteinemia is due increased entry into or decreased removal from blood. These issues were addressed in rats offered diets with either adequate or inadequate folate and choline for 5 wk. A new model was used for measuring tissue metabolism based on isotopomer analysis after continuous intravenous infusion with [U-13C]methionine (massþ5) plus [1-13C]homocysteine (massþ1). Folate and choline deficiency led to hyperhomocysteinemia. Decreased clearance from plasma did not contribute to the high plasma homocysteine as most tissues increased the fraction of intracellular homocysteine derived by importation from plasma by 33–106%. Methylation rates were highest in liver and pancreas, but the liver did not play a dominant role as the source of plasma homocysteine. Much of the homocysteine generated within the liver was (re)methylated and the enrichment of hepatic homocysteine derived from demethylation was less than that observed in plasma. In pancreas, the enrichment of massþ4 homocysteine was highest and exceeded that of plasma. Enrichment of massþ1 methionine was highest in the heart, indicating substantial import and methylation of plasma [1-13C]homocysteine. In conclusion, plasma hyperhomocysteinemia results from increased entry rather than decreased removal. The pancreas, rather than liver, is a major exporter of homocysteine, whereas much intracellular homo- cysteine is imported from plasma in tissues such as heart, which may affect cardiovascular function
Tissue methionine cycle activity and homocysteine metabolism in female rats: impact of dietary methionine and folate plus choline
Wilson, F.A. ; Borne, J.J.G.C. van den; Calder, A.G. ; O'Kennedy, N. ; Holtrop, G. ; Rees, W.D. ; Lobley, G.E. - \ 2009
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 296 (2009)4. - ISSN 0193-1849 - p. E702 - E713.
amino-acids - plasma homocysteine - kinetics - methylation - insulin - disease - humans - deficiency - liver - methyltransferase
Impaired transfer of methyl groups via the methionine cycle leads to plasma hyperhomocysteinemia. The tissue sources of plasma homocysteine in vivo have not been quantified nor whether hyperhomocysteinemia is due to increased entry or decreased removal. These issues were addressed in female rats offered diets with either adequate or excess methionine (additional methyl groups) with or without folate and choline (impaired methyl group transfer) for 5 wk. Whole body and tissue metabolism was measured based on isotopomer analysis following infusion with either [1-13C,methyl-2H3]methionine or [U-13C]methionine plus [1-13C]homocysteine. Although the fraction of intracellular methionine derived from methylation of homocysteine was highest in liver (0.18–0.21), most was retained. In contrast, the pancreas exported to plasma more of methionine synthesized de novo. The pancreas also exported homocysteine to plasma, and this matched the contribution from liver. Synthesis of methionine from homocysteine was reduced in most tissues with excess methionine supply and was also lowered in liver (P <0.01) with diets devoid of folate and choline. Plasma homocysteine concentration (P <0.001) and flux (P = 0.001) increased with folate plus choline deficiency, although the latter still represented
|Identification of alien chromosomes through GISH and RFLP analysis and the potential for establishing potato lines with monosomic additions of tomato chromosomes.
Garriga Calder, F. ; Huigen, D.J. ; Filotico, F. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Ramanna, M.S. - \ 1997
Genome 40 (1997). - ISSN 0831-2796
|Retarded embryo growth and early degeneration of sporophytic tissue are associated with embryo abortion in the interspecific cross Alstroemeria pelegrina x Alstroemeria aurea.
Jeu, M.J. de; Garriga Calder, F. - \ 1997
Canadian Journal of Botany 75 (1997). - ISSN 0008-4026 - p. 916 - 924.
|Report on the results of the ICES/IOC/OSPARCOM intercomparison programme on the analysis of chlorobiphenyl congeners in marine media - step 2 and the Inter comparison Programme on the Analysis of PAHs in Marine Media-Stage 1
Boer, J. de; Reutergardh, L. ; Meer, J. van der; Calder, J.A. - \ 1995
Voorspellingen in de Akkerbouw
Wit, C.T. de - \ 1990
In: Scientific Europe : research and technology in 20 countries / Calder, N., Maastricht : Foundation Scientific Europe - ISBN 9789073035065 - p. 188 - 191.