A fast magnetic bead-based colorimetric immunoassay for the detection of tetrodotoxins in shellfish
Campàs, Mònica ; Reverté, Jaume ; Rambla-Alegre, Maria ; Campbell, Katrina ; Gerssen, Arjen ; Diogène, Jorge - \ 2020
Food and Chemical Toxicology 140 (2020). - ISSN 0278-6915
Immunoassay - Magnetic bead (MB) - Seafood poisoning - Shellfish - Tetrodotoxin (TTX)
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin responsible for many food poisoning incidents and some fatalities. Although mainly associated with the consumption of pufferfish, in recent years, TTX has been found in shellfish, particularly in Europe. In this work, a magnetic bead (MB)-based colorimetric immunoassay was applied to the detection of TTX in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), razor clams (Solen marginatus) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Effective LODs (eLODs) for TTX of 1 μg/kg in oysters and razor clams and 3.3 μg/kg in mussels, significantly below the EFSA guidance threshold (44 μg/kg), were obtained. The strategy was applied to the analysis of naturally-contaminated Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) from the Netherlands, and TTX was detected in all samples. The approach, which takes less than 1.5 h, proved to be useful as a rapid and simple method to detect TTX, support shellfish safety and protect consumers.
Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer–Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer
Archambault, Alexi N. ; Su, Yu Ru ; Jeon, Jihyoun ; Thomas, Minta ; Lin, Yi ; Conti, David V. ; Win, Aung Ko ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris ; Peterse, Elisabeth F.P. ; Zauber, Ann G. ; Duggan, David ; Holowatyj, Andreana N. ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Cotterchio, Michelle ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Edlund, Christopher K. ; Southey, Melissa C. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Song, Mingyang ; Cao, Yin ; Woods, Michael O. ; White, Emily ; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Bien, Stephanie A. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Li, Christopher I. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharoah, Paul D. ; Moreno, Victor ; Lindblom, Annika ; Wolk, Alicja ; Wu, Anna H. ; Li, Li ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Gsur, Andrea ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Pearlman, Rachel ; Bishop, D.T. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Moreira, Leticia ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Kampman, Ellen ; Giles, Graham G. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Buch, Stephan ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Severi, Gianluca ; Chirlaque, María Dolores ; Sánchez, Maria José ; Palli, Domenico ; Kühn, Tilman ; Murphy, Neil ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N. ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Easton, Douglas F. ; Elliott, Faye ; English, Dallas R. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; FitzGerald, Liesel M. ; Goodman, Phyllis J. ; Hopper, John L. ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Hunter, David J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Küry, Sébastien ; Markowitz, Sanford D. ; Milne, Roger L. ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Rennert, Gad ; Rennert, Hedy S. ; Schumacher, Fredrick R. ; Sandler, Robert S. ; Seminara, Daniela ; Tangen, Catherine M. ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Toland, Amanda E. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Visvanathan, Kala ; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Potter, John D. ; Männistö, Satu ; Weigl, Korbinian ; Figueiredo, Jane ; Martín, Vicente ; Larsson, Susanna C. ; Parfrey, Patrick S. ; Huang, Wen Yi ; Lenz, Heinz Josef ; Castelao, Jose E. ; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela ; Muñoz-Garzón, Victor ; Mancao, Christoph ; Haiman, Christopher A. ; Wilkens, Lynne R. ; Siegel, Erin ; Barry, Elizabeth ; Younghusband, Ban ; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Harlid, Sophia ; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne ; Liang, Peter S. ; Du, Mengmeng ; Casey, Graham ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Marchand, Loic Le; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Hampel, Heather ; Corley, Douglas A. ; Hsu, Li ; Peters, Ulrike ; Hayes, Richard B. - \ 2020
Gastroenterology 158 (2020)5. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 1274 - 1286.e12.
Colon Cancer - EOCRC - Penetrance - SNP
Background & Aims: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. Methods: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. Results: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28–4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80–3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10–5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61–5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70–3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. Conclusions: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
Circulating Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Associate With Risk of Colorectal Cancer Based on Serologic and Mendelian Randomization Analyses
Murphy, Neil ; Carreras-Torres, Robert ; Song, Mingyang ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Martin, Richard M. ; Papadimitriou, Nikos ; Dimou, Niki ; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K. ; Banbury, Barbara ; Bradbury, Kathryn E. ; Besevic, Jelena ; Rinaldi, Sabina ; Riboli, Elio ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Travis, Ruth C. ; Agnoli, Claudia ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Bishop, D.T. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Onland-Moret, N.C. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Casey, Graham ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chirlaque, María Dolores ; Chapelle, Albert de la; English, Dallas ; Figueiredo, Jane C. ; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Gsur, Andrea ; Hampe, Jochen ; Hampel, Heather ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hsu, Li ; Huang, Wen Yi ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Kühn, Tilman ; Kweon, Sun Seog ; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Christopher I. ; Li, Li ; Lindblom, Annika ; Martín, Vicente ; Milne, Roger L. ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Ogino, Shuji ; Ose, Jennifer ; Perduca, Vittorio ; Phipps, Amanda I. ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Conghui ; Rennert, Gad ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Tangen, Catherine M. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Visvanathan, Kala ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Vymetalkova, Veronika ; Wang, Hansong ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike ; Gunter, Marc J. - \ 2020
Gastroenterology 158 (2020)5. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 1300 - 1312.e20.
CRC - GWAS - Risk Factors - Signal Transduction
Background & Aims: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development. Methods: Serum levels of IGF1 were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow-up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) Results: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio 1.08; 95% CI 1.03–1.12; P = 3.3 × 10–4). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI 1.06–1.18; P = 4.2 × 10–5). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in the IGFBP3 gene region (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2. Conclusions: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.
Eleven grand challenges in single-cell data science
Lähnemann, David ; Köster, Johannes ; Szczurek, Ewa ; McCarthy, Davis J. ; Hicks, Stephanie C. ; Robinson, Mark D. ; Vallejos, Catalina A. ; Campbell, Kieran R. ; Beerenwinkel, Niko ; Mahfouz, Ahmed ; Pinello, Luca ; Skums, Pavel ; Stamatakis, Alexandros ; Attolini, Camille Stephan Otto ; Aparicio, Samuel ; Baaijens, Jasmijn ; Balvert, Marleen ; Barbanson, Buys de; Cappuccio, Antonio ; Corleone, Giacomo ; Dutilh, Bas E. ; Florescu, Maria ; Guryev, Victor ; Holmer, Rens ; Jahn, Katharina ; Lobo, Thamar Jessurun ; Keizer, Emma M. ; Khatri, Indu ; Kielbasa, Szymon M. ; Korbel, Jan O. ; Kozlov, Alexey M. ; Kuo, Tzu Hao ; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P.F. ; Mandoiu, Ion I. ; Marioni, John C. ; Marschall, Tobias ; Mölder, Felix ; Niknejad, Amir ; Raczkowski, Lukasz ; Reinders, Marcel ; Ridder, Jeroen de; Saliba, Antoine Emmanuel ; Somarakis, Antonios ; Stegle, Oliver ; Theis, Fabian J. ; Yang, Huan ; Zelikovsky, Alex ; McHardy, Alice C. ; Raphael, Benjamin J. ; Shah, Sohrab P. ; Schönhuth, Alexander - \ 2020
Genome Biology 21 (2020)1. - ISSN 1474-7596
The recent boom in microfluidics and combinatorial indexing strategies, combined with low sequencing costs, has empowered single-cell sequencing technology. Thousands - or even millions - of cells analyzed in a single experiment amount to a data revolution in single-cell biology and pose unique data science problems. Here, we outline eleven challenges that will be central to bringing this emerging field of single-cell data science forward. For each challenge, we highlight motivating research questions, review prior work, and formulate open problems. This compendium is for established researchers, newcomers, and students alike, highlighting interesting and rewarding problems for the coming years.
Physical activity and risks of breast and colorectal cancer : a Mendelian randomisation analysis
Papadimitriou, Nikos ; Dimou, Niki ; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K. ; Banbury, Barbara ; Martin, Richard M. ; Lewis, Sarah J. ; Kazmi, Nabila ; Robinson, Timothy M. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Aleksandrova, Krasimira ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Timothy Bishop, D. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete ; Figueiredo, Jane C. ; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Giles, Graham G. ; Giovannucci, Edward ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Gsur, Andrea ; Hampe, Jochen ; Hampel, Heather ; Harlid, Sophia ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hopper, John L. ; Hsu, Li ; María Huerta, José ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Kühn, Tilman ; Vecchia, Carlo La; Marchand, Loic Le; Li, Christopher I. ; Li, Li ; Lindblom, Annika ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Lynch, Brigid ; Markowitz, Sanford D. ; Masala, Giovanna ; May, Anne M. ; Milne, Roger ; Monninkhof, Evelyn ; Moreno, Lorena ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Perduca, Vittorio ; Pharoah, Paul D.P. ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Potter, John D. ; Rennert, Gad ; Riboli, Elio ; Sánchez, Maria Jose ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Severi, Gianluca ; Sieri, Sabina ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Song, Mingyang ; Tangen, Catherine M. ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Travis, Ruth C. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Vodicka, Pavel ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Peters, Ulrike ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Murphy, Neil - \ 2020
Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723
Physical activity has been associated with lower risks of breast and colorectal cancer in epidemiological studies; however, it is unknown if these associations are causal or confounded. In two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses, using summary genetic data from the UK Biobank and GWA consortia, we found that a one standard deviation increment in average acceleration was associated with lower risks of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.98, P-value = 0.04) and colorectal cancer (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90, P-value = 0.01). We found similar magnitude inverse associations for estrogen positive (ER+ve) breast cancer and for colon cancer. Our results support a potentially causal relationship between higher physical activity levels and lower risks of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Based on these data, the promotion of physical activity is probably an effective strategy in the primary prevention of these commonly diagnosed cancers.
Systematic meta-Analyses, field synopsis and global assessment of the evidence of genetic association studies in colorectal cancer
Montazeri, Zahra ; Li, Xue ; Nyiraneza, Christine ; Ma, Xiangyu ; Timofeeva, Maria ; Svinti, Victoria ; Meng, Xiangrui ; He, Yazhou ; Bo, Yacong ; Morgan, Samuel ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara ; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres ; Carracedo, Ángel ; Castells, Antoni ; Bishop, Timothy ; Buchanan, Daniel ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Lindblom, Annika ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. Van; Wu, Anna ; Farrington, Susan M. ; Dunlop, Malcolm G. ; Campbell, Harry ; Theodoratou, Evropi ; Zheng, Wei ; Little, Julian - \ 2020
Gut 69 (2020). - ISSN 0017-5749 - p. 1460 - 1471.
Objective: To provide an understanding of the role of common genetic variations in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we report an updated field synopsis and comprehensive assessment of evidence to catalogue all genetic markers for CRC (CRCgene2). Design: We included 869 publications after parallel literature review and extracted data for 1063 polymorphisms in 303 different genes. Meta-Analyses were performed for 308 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 158 different genes with at least three independent studies available for analysis. Scottish, Canadian and Spanish data from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) were incorporated for the meta-Analyses of 132 SNPs. To assess and classify the credibility of the associations, we applied the Venice criteria and Bayesian False-Discovery Probability (BFDP). Genetic associations classified as â € positive' and â € less-credible positive' were further validated in three large GWAS consortia conducted in populations of European origin. Results: We initially identified 18 independent variants at 16 loci that were classified as â € positive' polymorphisms for their highly credible associations with CRC risk and 59 variants at 49 loci that were classified as â € less-credible positive' SNPs; 72.2% of the â € positive' SNPs were successfully replicated in three large GWASs and the ones that were not replicated were downgraded to â € less-credible' positive (reducing the â € positive' variants to 14 at 11 loci). For the remaining 231 variants, which were previously reported, our meta-Analyses found no evidence to support their associations with CRC risk. Conclusion: The CRCgene2 database provides an updated list of genetic variants related to CRC risk by using harmonised methods to assess their credibility.
The impact of care farms on quality of life, depression and anxiety among different population groups: A systematic review
Murray, Jenni ; Wickramasekera, Nyantara ; Elings, Marjolein ; Bragg, Rachel ; Brennan, Cathy ; Richardson, Zoe ; Wright, Judy ; Llorente, Marina G. ; Cade, Janet ; Shickle, Darren ; Tubeuf, Sandy ; Elsey, Helen - \ 2019
Campbell Systematic Reviews 15 (2019)4. - ISSN 1891-1803
Care farming (also called social farming) is the therapeutic use of agricultural and farming practices. Service users and communities supported through care farming include people with learning disabilities, mental and physical health problems, substance misuse, adult offenders, disaffected youth, socially isolated older people and the long term unemployed. Care farming is growing in popularity, especially around Europe. This review aimed to understand the impact of care farming on quality of life, depression and anxiety, on a range of service user groups. It also aimed to explore and explain the way in which care farming might work for different groups. By reviewing interview studies we found that people valued, among other things, being in contact with each other, and feeling a sense of achievement, fulfilment and belonging. Some groups seemed to appreciate different things indicating that different groups may benefit in different ways but, it is unclear if this is due to a difference in the types of activities or the way in which people take different things from the same activity. We found no evidence that care farms improved people's quality of life and some evidence that they might improve depression and anxiety. Larger studies involving single service user groups and fully validated outcome measures are needed to prove more conclusive evidence about the benefits of care farming.
Critical assessment of recent trends related to screening and confirmatory analytical methods for selected food contaminants and allergens
Tsagkaris, A.S. ; Nelis, J.L.D. ; Ross, G.M.S. ; Jafari, S. ; Guercetti, J. ; Kopper, K. ; Zhao, Y. ; Rafferty, K. ; Salvador, J.P. ; Migliorelli, D. ; Salentijn, G. ; Campbell, K. ; Marco, M.P. ; Elliot, C.T. ; Nielen, M.W.F. ; Pulkrabova, J. ; Hajslova, J. - \ 2019
TrAC : Trends in Analytical Chemistry 121 (2019). - ISSN 0165-9936
Confirmatory methods - EU legal framework - Food contaminants - Inventory - Screening methods - Smartphones
Food contaminants monitoring is conducted in an intensive manner yet, there are still food safety scandals related to various chemical compounds. This fact highlights the need to review the requirements posed by the current legal framework on analytical methods performance and evaluate its application in published studies. Herein, we present an inventory including more than 470 publications on screening and confirmatory methods, which were used to control hazardous compounds such as pesticides, antibiotics, mycotoxins, aquatic toxins and allergens. Analytical performance characteristics, trends and state of the art, both merits and shortcomings, are critically discussed and summarized in excel tabulations. This repository highlights the ever-increasing use of screening methods and the necessity to confirm their performance by applying confirmatory methods. In conclusion, more effort is needed on validation and benchmarking, especially of newly developed technology such as smartphone-based methods, to avoid false-negative results and ensure that methods fit for purpose.
Nutrition in medical education: a systematic review
Crowley, Jennifer ; Ball, Lauren ; Hiddink, Gerrit Jan - \ 2019
The Lancet Planetary Health 3 (2019)9. - ISSN 2542-5196 - p. e379 - e389.
Background: In many countries, doctors are recommended to provide nutrition care to patients to improve the dietary behaviours of individuals and populations. Here, we present a systematic review that aims to critically synthesise literature on nutrition education provided to medical students. Methods: In this systematic review, a literature search was done between May 1 and July 1, 2018, for articles on medical students' nutrition knowledge, skills, and confidence to counsel patients, from Nov 1, 2012, to Dec 31, 2018. Search terms related to medical students included “nutrition in medical education”, “medical nutrition education”, and “undergraduate medical nutrition education”. Search terms for topic of interest included “nutrition”, “knowledge”, “skills”, “nutrition counselling”, “confidence”, “nutrition care”, or “nutrition education”. Included studies examined any aspect of recently graduated (ie, ≤4 years) or current medical students' nutrition knowledge, attitudes, skills, or confidence (or all three) in nutrition or nutrition counselling; evaluated nutrition curriculum initiatives for medical students; or assessed recently graduated or current medical students' perceptions of nutrition education. Quality assessment appraisal of the studies was done using a Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Curriculum initiatives were also appraised. Findings: 66 studies were identified by the search and 24 were eligible for full-text analysis. 16 quantitative studies, three qualitative studies, and five curriculum initiatives from the USA (n=11), Europe (n=4), the Middle East (n=1), Africa (n=1), and Australasia (n=7) met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis of these studies showed that nutrition is insufficiently incorporated into medical education, regardless of country, setting, or year of medical education. Deficits in nutrition education affect students' knowledge, skills, and confidence to implement nutrition care into patient care. A modest positive effect was reported from curriculum initiatives. Interpretation: Despite the centrality of nutrition to healthy lifestyle, medical students are not supported to provide high-quality, effective nutrition care. Medical education can be enhanced by institutional commitment to make nutrition education compulsory in medical training, establishment of nutrition competencies to provide a benchmark for nutrition knowledge and skills to be included in curricula, and supported by funding for innovative curriculum initiatives. These initiatives will improve nutrition in medical training to support future doctors for the 21st century. Funding: Sir John Logan Campbell Medical Fellowship 2017, and an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Fellowship.
Mapping European canker spatial pattern and disease progression in apples using GIS, Tasman, New Zealand
Iorio, Diletta Di ; Walter, Monika ; Lantinga, Egbert ; Kerckhoffs, Huub ; Campbell, Rebecca E. - \ 2019
New Zealand Plant Protection 72 (2019). - ISSN 1175-9003 - p. 176 - 184.
Apple - Disease progression - European canker - Geographical Information Systems - GIS - Hot-spots - Neonectria ditissima - Spatial - Temporal
European canker (EC), caused by Neonectria ditissima, is an important disease in apple-producing regions in New Zealand. In order to improve plant protection, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to map plant disease location and severity in agricultural settings. Data were compiled from apple growers in Tasman, New Zealand, to investigate EC distribution over 4 years, for the period 2015–2018. ArcGIS software, including the Spatial Analyst, Interpolation and Geospatial statistics toolboxes, was used to map EC incidence at the spatial scale of orchard blocks, which allowed the identification of disease hot-spots. A clustered spatial pattern of disease was detected every year and areas with higher risk of EC were identified within the region. The spatial patterns detected were related to disease pressure over time for different apple cultivars. The use of GIS provides a platform for analysing and visually communicating disease patterns over time. Investigating disease spatial pattern allows the inference of spatial processes and further hypothesis generation to understand the pathogen.
Macrophage-Specific NF-κB Activation Dynamics Can Segregate Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients
Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia ; Burkitt, Michael D. ; Bergey, François ; England, Hazel ; Hough, Rachael ; Schmidt, Lorraine ; Spiller, David G. ; White, Michael H.R. ; Paszek, Pawel ; Jackson, Dean A. ; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A.P. ; Sellge, Gernot ; Pritchard, D.M. ; Campbell, Barry J. ; Müller, Werner ; Probert, Chris S. - \ 2019
Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-3224 - 11 p.
The heterogeneous nature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents challenges, particularly when choosing therapy. Activation of the NF-κB transcription factor is a highly regulated, dynamic event in IBD pathogenesis. Using a lentivirus approach, NF-κB-regulated luciferase was expressed in patient macrophages, isolated from frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. Following activation, samples could be segregated into three clusters based on the NF-κB-regulated luciferase response. The ulcerative colitis (UC) samples appeared only in the hypo-responsive Cluster 1, and in Cluster 2. Conversely, Crohn's disease (CD) patients appeared in all Clusters with their percentage being higher in the hyper-responsive Cluster 3. A positive correlation was seen between NF-κB-induced luciferase activity and the concentrations of cytokines released into medium from stimulated macrophages, but not with serum or biopsy cytokine levels. Confocal imaging of lentivirally-expressed p65 activation revealed that a higher proportion of macrophages from CD patients responded to endotoxin lipid A compared to controls. In contrast, cells from UC patients exhibited a shorter duration of NF-κB p65 subunit nuclear localization compared to healthy controls, and CD donors. Analysis of macrophage cytokine responses and patient metadata revealed a strong correlation between CD patients who smoked and hyper-activation of p65. These in vitro dynamic assays of NF-κB activation in blood-derived macrophages have the potential to segregate IBD patients into groups with different phenotypes and may therefore help determine response to therapy.
Correction to: Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
Bien, Stephanie A. ; Su, Yu Ru ; Conti, David V. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Qu, Conghui ; Guo, Xingyi ; Lu, Yingchang ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Auer, Paul L. ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chen, Sai ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Gallinger, Steven ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Kühn, Tilman ; Küry, Sébastien ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Marchand, Loic Le; Milne, Roger L. ; Li, Li ; Li, Christopher I. ; Lindblom, Annika ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Martín, Vicente ; McNeil, Caroline E. ; Melas, Marilena ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharaoh, Paul D.P. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Chenxu ; Riboli, Elio ; Rennert, Gad ; Sala, Núria ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Scacheri, Peter C. ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Severi, Gianluca ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Tumino, Rosario ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Abeçasis, Goncalo R. ; Casey, Graham ; Nickerson, Deborah A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Hsu, Li ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike - \ 2019
Human Genetics 138 (2019)7. - ISSN 0340-6717 - p. 789 - 791.
Every author has erroneously been assigned to the affiliation “62”. The affiliation 62 belongs to the author Graham Casey.
Disentangling the genetics of lean mass
Karasik, David ; Zillikens, M.C. ; Hsu, Yi Hsiang ; Aghdassi, Ali ; Akesson, Kristina ; Amin, Najaf ; Barroso, Inês ; Bennett, David A. ; Bertram, Lars ; Bochud, Murielle ; Borecki, Ingrid B. ; Broer, Linda ; Buchman, Aron S. ; Byberg, Liisa ; Campbell, Harry ; Campos-Obando, Natalia ; Cauley, Jane A. ; Cawthon, Peggy M. ; Chambers, John C. ; Chen, Zhao ; Cho, Nam H. ; Choi, Hyung Jin ; Chou, Wen Chi ; Cummings, Steven R. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Jager, Phillip L. De; Demuth, Ilja ; Diatchenko, Luda ; Econs, Michael J. ; Eiriksdottir, Gudny ; Enneman, Anke W. ; Eriksson, Joel ; Eriksson, Johan G. ; Estrada, Karol ; Evans, Daniel S. ; Feitosa, Mary F. ; Fu, Mao ; Gieger, Christian ; Grallert, Harald ; Gudnason, Vilmundur ; Lenore, Launer J. ; Hayward, Caroline ; Hofman, Albert ; Homuth, Georg ; Huffman, Kim M. ; Husted, Lise B. ; Illig, Thomas ; Ingelsson, Erik ; Ittermann, Till ; Jansson, John Olov ; Johnson, Toby ; Biffar, Reiner ; Jordan, Joanne M. ; Jula, Antti ; Karlsson, Magnus ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. ; Klopp, Norman ; Kloth, Jacqueline S.L. ; Koller, Daniel L. ; Kooner, Jaspal S. ; Kraus, William E. ; Kritchevsky, Stephen ; Kutalik, Zoltán ; Kuulasmaa, Teemu ; Kuusisto, Johanna ; Laakso, Markku ; Lahti, Jari ; Lang, Thomas ; Langdahl, Bente L. ; Lerch, Markus M. ; Lewis, Joshua R. ; Lill, Christina ; Lind, Lars ; Lindgren, Cecilia ; Liu, Yongmei ; Livshits, Gregory ; Ljunggren, Östen ; Loos, Ruth J.F. ; Lorentzon, Mattias ; Luan, Jian An ; Luben, Robert N. ; Malkin, Ida ; McGuigan, Fiona E. ; Medina-Gomez, Carolina ; Meitinger, Thomas ; Melhus, Håkan ; Mellström, Dan ; Michaëlsson, Karl ; Mitchell, Braxton D. ; Morris, Andrew P. ; Mosekilde, Leif ; Nethander, Maria ; Newman, Anne B. ; Oconnell, Jeffery R. ; Oostra, Ben A. ; Orwoll, Eric S. ; Palotie, Aarno ; Peacock, Munro ; Perola, Markus ; Peters, Annette ; Prince, Richard L. ; Psaty, Bruce M. ; Räikkönen, Katri ; Ralston, Stuart H. ; Ripatti, Samuli ; Rivadeneira, Fernando ; Robbins, John A. ; Rotter, Jerome I. ; Rudan, Igor ; Salomaa, Veikko ; Satterfield, Suzanne ; Schipf, Sabine ; Shin, Chan Soo ; Smith, Albert V. ; Smith, Shad B. ; Soranzo, Nicole ; Spector, Timothy D. ; StanÄ Áková, Alena ; Stefansson, Kari ; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth ; Stolk, Lisette ; Streeten, Elizabeth A. ; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur ; Swart, Karin M.A. ; Thompson, Patricia ; Thomson, Cynthia A. ; Thorleifsson, Gudmar ; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur ; Tikkanen, Emmi ; Tranah, Gregory J. ; Uitterlinden, André G. ; Duijn, Cornelia M. Van; Schoor, Natasja M. Van; Vandenput, Liesbeth ; Vollenweider, Peter ; Völzke, Henry ; Wactawski-Wende, Jean ; Walker, Mark ; J Wareham, Nicholas ; Waterworth, Dawn ; Weedon, Michael N. ; Wichmann, H.E. ; Widen, Elisabeth ; Williams, Frances M.K. ; Wilson, James F. ; Wright, Nicole C. ; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M. ; Yu, Lei ; Zhang, Weihua ; Zhao, Jing Hua ; Zhou, Yanhua ; Nielson, Carrie M. ; Harris, Tamara B. ; Demissie, Serkalem ; Kiel, Douglas P. ; Ohlsson, Claes - \ 2019
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 109 (2019)2. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 276 - 278.
body composition - body fat - meta-Analysis of genome-wide association studies - metabolic profile - skeletal muscle
Background Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age 2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.
Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer
Bien, Stephanie A. ; Su, Yu-Ru ; Conti, David V. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Qu, Conghui ; Guo, Xingyi ; Lu, Yingchang ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Auer, Paul L. ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Brenner, Hermann ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chen, Sai ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Gallinger, Steven ; Giles, Graham G. ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Kampman, Ellen ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Kühn, Tilman ; Küry, Sébastien ; Lejbkowicz, Flavio ; Marchand, Loic Le; Milne, Roger L. ; Li, Christopher I. ; Lindblom, Annika ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Martín, Vicente ; McNeil, Caroline E. ; Melas, Marilena ; Moreno, Victor ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharaoh, Paul D.P. ; Potter, John D. ; Qu, Chenxu ; Riboli, Elio ; Rennert, Gad ; Sala, Núria ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Scacheri, Peter C. ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Severi, Gianluca ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Tumino, Rosario ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Duijnhoven, Fränzel J.B. van; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; White, Emily ; Wolk, Alicja ; Woods, Michael O. ; Wu, Anna H. ; Abecasis, Goncalo R. ; Casey, Graham ; Nickerson, Deborah A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Hsu, Li ; Zheng, Wei ; Peters, Ulrike - \ 2019
Human Genetics 138 (2019)4. - ISSN 0340-6717 - p. 307 - 326.
Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10− 4, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10− 4, replication P = 6.7 × 10− 4). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.
Tools and Technologies for the Monitoring, Control and Surveillance of Unwanted Catches
James, Kelly M. ; Campbell, Neill ; Viðarsson, Jónas R. ; Vilas, Carlos ; Plet-Hansen, Kristian S. ; Borges, Lisa ; González, Óscar ; Helmond, A.T.M. van; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I. ; Antelo, Luis Taboada ; Pérez-Bouzada, Jorge ; Ulrich, Clara - \ 2019
In: The European Landing Obligation / Uhlmann, Sven Sebastian, Ulrich, Clara, Kennelly, Steven J., Springer International Publishing - ISBN 9783030033071 - p. 363 - 382.
A key requirement for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation is the need to monitor and regulate unwanted catches at sea. This issue is
particularly challenging because of the large number of vessels and trips that need to be monitored and the remoteness of vessels at sea. Several options exist in theory, ranging from patrol vessels to onboard observers and self-sampling. Increasingly though, technology is developing to provide remote Electronic Monitoring (EM) with cameras at lower costs. This chapter first provides an overall synthesis of the pro’s and con’s of several monitoring tools and technologies. Four EM technologies already trialled in EU fisheries are then summarised. We conclude that it is now possible to conduct reliable and cost-effective monitoring of unwanted catches at sea, especially if various options are used in combination. However, effective monitoring is a necessary condition for the successful implementation of the Landing Obligation but insufficient unless it is implemented with a high level of coverage and with the support of the fishing industry.
A review of environmental enrichment for laying hens during rearing in relation to their behavioral and physiological development
Campbell, D.L.M. ; Haas, E.N. de; Lee, Caroline - \ 2019
Poultry Science 98 (2019)1. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 9 - 28.
Globally, laying hen production systems are a focus of concern for animal welfare. Recently, the impacts of rearing environments have attracted attention, particularly with the trend toward more complex production systems including aviaries, furnished cages, barn, and free-range. Enriching the rearing environments with physical, sensory, and stimulatory additions can optimize the bird's development but commercial-scale research is limited. In this review, “enrichment” is defined as anything additional added to the bird's environment including structurally complex rearing systems. The impacts of enrichments on visual development, neurobehavioral development, auditory stimulation, skeletal development, immune function, behavioral development of fear and pecking, and specifically pullets destined for free-range systems are summarized and areas for future research identified. Visual enrichment and auditory stimulation may enhance neural development but specific mechanisms of impact and suitable commercial enrichments still need elucidating. Enrichments that target left/right brain hemispheres/behavioral traits may prepare birds for specific types of adult housing environments (caged, indoor, outdoor). Similarly, structural enrichments are needed to optimize skeletal development depending on the adult layer system, but specific physiological processes resulting from different types of exercise are poorly understood. Stimulating appropriate pecking behavior from hatch is critical but producers will need to adapt to different flock preferences to provide enrichments that are utilized by each rearing group. Enrichments have potential to enhance immune function through the application of mild stressors that promote adaptability, and this same principle applies to free-range pullets destined for variable outdoor environments. Complex rearing systems may have multiple benefits, including reducing fear, that improve the transition to the layer facility. Overall, there is a need to commercially validate positive impacts of cost-effective enrichments on bird behavior and physiology.
Conflict, disaster and changing gender roles in Nepal: women’s everyday experiences
Luna, K.C. - \ 2019
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): G. van der Haar; L. Campbell. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463433891 - 183
Nepal suffered from the civil conflict from 1996 to 2006 as the Communist party of Nepal (so-called Maoist) sought to end the monarchical system that had been in place for 240 years and establish a People’s Republic. The Maoist-party ideology was highly focused upon the structural transformation of the country and had a strong message about women’s empowerment. The conflict brought a dramatic shift in the social, economic, and the political situation of Nepal. In November 2006, the peace agreement was signed, the country then started the post-conflict reconstruction process, such as writing a new constitution, constitution assembly election, state restructuring, and the policy formation.
The Maoist conflict produced multiple gendered effects upon women’s everyday lives. One category of women joined as Maoist combatants in search of equality and empowerment and performed roles equal to men in the war. Another category of women stayed behind when the men fled from the war to the cities or neighbouring countries, and their husbands, fathers or sons were killed, or became rebels or disappeared in the war. Women non-combatants experienced a situation where men’s work shifted onto their shoulders and they performed dual roles; at home and outside.
After the earthquake happened on 25 April 2015 in Nepal, women were impacted in a different way. When men were killed or became disabled, were away, or lost income in the earthquake, women took over men’s roles and responsibilities, such as rescued their family members, searched for the food, accommodation, financial support, jobs, health care, including took care of the children and elderly people. At the same time, women were also involved in a multiple role during post-earthquake settings.
The conflict/post-conflict/disaster period produces gendered effects; thus, gender analysis becomes fundamental during this time to understand how women and men deal with the rapid gender role change in the context of crisis and its aftermath, when there is a certain return to the normal situation.
This thesis is about women and changing gender roles in Nepal. The study traces the gendered effects of the Maoist war and the earthquake on women’s everyday lives. It examines how women experience the impact of the Maoist war and the post-conflict era in relation to shifting gender roles, responsibilities, challenges, and new openings. The thesis then asks similar questions about women affected by the earthquake, that happened while the country was still struggling with post-conflict issues.
Chapter 1 presents the introduction, which offers an overview of the main concern of the thesis and the theoretical perspectives (the sexual division of labour and power, ideology of gender, structural factors, and the role of the policy) that inform it. Chapter 2 outlines the methodology (in-depth interview, focuses group discussion, participant observation, and key informant interview) applied to conduct this study.
Chapter 3 examined how the Maoist conflict in Nepal affected women ex-combatants and non-combatants, looking at changes in gender roles during and after the conflict particularly from the standpoint of livelihood challenges in the post-war period. Major findings indicate that changing gender roles largely depend upon everyday practice of sexual division of labour and power as it evolved during and after the conflict. It also shows that the conflict produced different and contradictory effects on both categories of women who experienced shifts in gender roles. In post-war settings, these changes were partly reversed, and especially ex-combatant women faced severe livelihood challenges and returned to traditional gender roles.
Chapter 4 investigated how the Maoist armed conflict in Nepal was a struggle for the emancipation of women and it particularly looked at how women ex-combatants were engaged with ideas of gender equality and women’s empowerment during the Maoist war and afterwards. It further explores what happens to women’s ideological drive as gender roles ‘shift back’ after the war. The results demonstrate that in the Maoist war women ex-combatants were strongly committed to the Maoist gender ideology and experienced empowerment through this process, as they adopted non-traditional roles and crossed gender as well as caste lines. However, in the post-war, they felt ambivalent empowerment because there was a lack of commitment from the Maoist party to issues of gender equality and at the same time the patriarchal structures continued intact and, in some ways, even strengthened, and women faced multiple exclusions.
Chapter 5 looked at how women ex-combatants experienced the reintegration process in the aftermath of war. The study found that the reintegration programming of Nepal lack gender framework due to which woman encountered a range of challenges in the post-war period. Mainly, the challenges were two-fold: At the societal level; they struggled to gain recognition, and at the family level they negotiated/renegotiated to rebuild relationships and safety-nets.
Chapter 6 investigated what challenges women faced in the wake of the earthquake and how these were related to their gender position. It asks how gender roles changed in relation to the earthquake in Nepal. Findings illustrate that different categories of women faced the effects of earthquake differently, especially with regards to the intersectionality of gender and migration and family composition. The earthquake provided women a window of opportunity to change gender roles. On the other hand, women encountered great difficulties in addressing their everyday needs and experienced gender-based exclusion.
Chapter 7 synthesises the outcomes of the four substantive chapters, discusses the findings, and offers four recommendations for policy implications.
Using eye tracking to account for attribute non-attendance in choice experiments
Loo, Ellen J. Van; Nayga, Rodolfo M. ; Campbell, Danny ; Seo, Han Seok ; Verbeke, Wim - \ 2018
European Review of Agricultural Economics 45 (2018)3. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 333 - 365.
Attribute non-attendance - Decision-making - Eye tracking - Food choice - Sustainability labelling
This study uses eye-tracking measures to account for attribute non-attendance (ANA) in choice experiments. Using the case of sustainability labelling on coffee, we demonstrate various approaches to account for ANA based on the fixation count cut-offs, definitions for detecting ignored attributes, and methods for modelling ANA. Some of the sustainability attributes identified through eye-tracking measures as being ‘visually ignored’ were truly ignored, whereas in none of the tested approaches was price truly ignored. The adequacy of eye tracking as a visual ANA measure might thus depend on the type of attribute. Further, the study unveiled inconsistencies in identifying non-attenders using visual ANA and the coefficient of variation. Based on our results, we cannot conclude that eye tracking always adequately identifies ANA. However, we identified several major challenges that can assist in further optimising the use of eye tracking in the context of ANA.
Food systems for sustainable development : proposals for a profound four-part transformation
Caron, Patrick ; Ferrero y de Loma-Osorio, Gabriel ; Nabarro, David ; Hainzelin, Etienne ; Guillou, Marion ; Andersen, Inger ; Arnold, Tom ; Astralaga, Margarita ; Beukeboom, Marcel ; Bickersteth, Sam ; Bwalya, Martin ; Caballero, Paula ; Campbell, Bruce M. ; Divine, Ntiokam ; Fan, Shenggen ; Frick, Martin ; Friis, Anette ; Gallagher, Martin ; Halkin, Jean Pierre ; Hanson, Craig ; Lasbennes, Florence ; Ribera, Teresa ; Rockstrom, Johan ; Schuepbach, Marlen ; Steer, Andrew ; Tutwiler, Ann ; Verburg, Gerda - \ 2018
Agronomy for Sustainable Development 38 (2018)4. - ISSN 1774-0746
Agriculture - Climate change - Food systems - Koronivia - Nexus - Sustainable development - Transformation
Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative. Our starting point is that agriculture and food systems’ policies should be aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This calls for deep changes in comparison with the paradigms that prevailed when steering the agricultural change in the XXth century. We identify the comprehensive food systems transformation that is needed. It has four parts: first, food systems should enable all people to benefit from nutritious and healthy food. Second, they should reflect sustainable agricultural production and food value chains. Third, they should mitigate climate change and build resilience. Fourth, they should encourage a renaissance of rural territories. The implementation of the transformation relies on (i) suitable metrics to aid decision-making, (ii) synergy of policies through convergence of local and global priorities, and (iii) enhancement of development approaches that focus on territories. We build on the work of the “Milano Group,” an informal group of experts convened by the UN Secretary General in Milan in 2015. Backed by a literature review, what emerges is a strategic narrative linking climate, agriculture and food, and calling for a deep transformation of food systems at scale. This is critical for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. The narrative highlights the needed consistency between global actions for sustainable development and numerous local-level innovations. It emphasizes the challenge of designing differentiated paths for food systems transformation responding to local and national expectations. Scientific and operational challenges are associated with the alignment and arbitration of local action within the context of global priorities.
Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Bien, Stephanie A. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Kang, Hyun Min ; Chen, Sai ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Conti, David V. ; Qu, Conghui ; Jeon, Jihyoun ; Edlund, Christopher K. ; Greenside, Peyton ; Wainberg, Michael ; Schumacher, Fredrick R. ; Smith, Joshua D. ; Levine, David M. ; Nelson, Sarah C. ; Sinnott-armstrong, Nasa A. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Alonso, M.H. ; Anderson, Kristin ; Arnau-Collell, Coral ; Arndt, Volker ; Bamia, Christina ; Banbury, Barbara L. ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Bishop, D.T. ; Boehm, Juergen ; Boeing, Heiner ; Brenner, Hermann ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Buch, Stephan ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Burnett-hartman, Andrea ; Butterbach, Katja ; Caan, Bette J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Carlson, Christopher S. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores ; Cho, Sang Hee ; Connolly, Charles M. ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Li, Li ; Huang, Wen-Yi - \ 2018
Nature Genetics 51 (2018). - ISSN 1061-4036 - p. 76 - 87.
To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10−8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.