Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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An E-Liquid Flavor Wheel: A Shared Vocabulary Based on Systematically Reviewing E-Liquid Flavor Classifications in Literature
Krüsemann, Erna J.Z. ; Boesveldt, Sanne ; Graaf, Kees de; Talhout, Reinskje - \ 2019
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 21 (2019)10. - ISSN 1462-2203 - p. 1310 - 1319.

INTRODUCTION: E-liquids are available in a high variety of flavors. A systematic classification of e-liquid flavors is necessary to increase comparability of research results. In the food, alcohol, and fragrance industry, flavors are classified using flavor wheels. We systematically reviewed literature on flavors related to electronic cigarette use, to investigate how e-liquid flavors have been classified in research, and propose an e-liquid flavor wheel to classify e-liquids based on marketing descriptions. METHODS: The search was conducted in May 2017 using PubMed and Embase databases. Keywords included terms associated with electronic cigarette, flavors, liking, learning, and wanting in articles. Results were independently screened and reviewed. Flavor categories used in the articles reviewed were extracted. RESULTS: Searches yielded 386 unique articles of which 28 were included. Forty-three main flavor categories were reported in these articles (eg, tobacco, menthol, mint, fruit, bakery/dessert, alcohol, nuts, spice, candy, coffee/tea, beverages, chocolate, sweet flavors, vanilla, and unflavored). Flavor classifications of e-liquids in literature showed similarities and differences across studies. Our proposed e-liquid flavor wheel contains 13 main categories and 90 subcategories, which summarize flavor categories from literature to find a shared vocabulary. For classification of e-liquids using our flavor wheel, marketing descriptions should be used. CONCLUSIONS: We have proposed a flavor wheel for classification of e-liquids. Further research is needed to test the flavor wheels' empirical value. Consistently classifying e-liquid flavors using our flavor wheel in research (eg, experimental, marketing, or qualitative studies) minimizes interpretation differences and increases comparability of results. IMPLICATIONS: We reviewed e-liquid flavors and flavor categories used in research. A large variation in the naming of flavor categories was found and e-liquid flavors were not consistently classified. We developed an e-liquid flavor wheel and provided a guideline for systematic classification of e-liquids based on marketing descriptions. Our flavor wheel summarizes e-liquid flavors and categories used in literature in order to create a shared vocabulary. Applying our flavor wheel in research on e-liquids will improve data interpretation, increase comparability across studies, and support policy makers in developing rules for regulation of e-liquid flavors.

Exploring consumers’ health perception across cultures in the early stages of new product development: Dried mango as a case study
Sulistyawati, Ita ; Sijtsema, Siet ; Dekker, Matthijs ; Verkerk, Ruud ; Steenbekkers, Bea - \ 2019
British Food Journal 121 (2019)9. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 2116 - 2131.
Consumer-oriented new product development - Dried fruit - Focus groups - Food perception - Health - Product and process design

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ health perception and demonstrate its relevance in product and process design in early stages of new product development. Design/methodology/approach: A dried mango was used as a case study involving three countries: Indonesia, China and the Netherlands. Data were collected from nine focus groups (n=53 participants) and were content-analysed to acquire in-depth insights. Findings: Four themes of health perception emerged, namely, nutrition, naturalness, taste and well-being, which were all expressed on different levels of abstractness. Participants’ health perception of dried mango varied, it is related to the product category it is compared with, e.g. candy or fresh fruit, and the eating context, e.g. position in the diet either as a snack or a meal. In extension participants mentioned product and process characteristics. Application of the insights into product and process design was performed through iterative interactions between consumer scientists and food technologists. The development of two product concepts was elaborated to transform the insights into technical product and process specifications for a natural dried mango product. Originality/value: This transformation suggests that iterative interactions are necessary to achieve relevant product and process characteristics in the simultaneous design of the technical product and process specifications based on consumer perceptions.

A specific synbiotic-containing amino acid-based formula restores gut microbiota in non-IgE mediated cow's milk allergic infants: A randomized controlled trial
Wopereis, Harm ; Ampting, Marleen T.J. Van; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, Aysun ; Slump, Rob ; Candy, David C.A. ; Butt, Assad M. ; Peroni, Diego G. ; Vandenplas, Yvan ; Fox, Adam T. ; Shah, Neil ; Roeselers, Guus ; Harthoorn, Lucien F. ; Michaelis, Louise J. ; Knol, Jan ; West, Christina E. - \ 2019
Clinical and Translational Allergy 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-7022
Cow's milk allergy - Gut microbiota - Pediatrics - Prebiotics - Probiotics

Background: Altered gut microbiota is implicated in cow's milk allergy (CMA) and differs markedly from healthy, breastfed infants. Infants who suffer from severe CMA often rely on cow's milk protein avoidance and, when breastfeeding is not possible, on specialised infant formulas such as amino-acid based formulas (AAF). Herein, we report the effects of an AAF including specific synbiotics on oral and gastrointestinal microbiota of infants with non-IgE mediated CMA with reference to healthy, breastfed infants. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study, infants with suspected non-IgE mediated CMA received test or control formula. Test formula was AAF with synbiotics (prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides and probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V). Control formula was AAF without synbiotics. Healthy, breastfed infants were used as a separate reference group (HBR). Bacterial compositions of faecal and salivary samples were analysed by 16S rRNA-gene sequencing. Faecal analysis was complemented with the analysis of pH, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and lactic acids. Results: The trial included 35 test subjects, 36 controls, and 51 HBR. The 16S rRNA-gene sequencing revealed moderate effects of test formula on oral microbiota. In contrast, the gut microbiota was substantially affected across time comparing test with control. In both groups bacterial diversity increased over time but was characterised by a more gradual increment in test compared to control. Compositionally this reflected an enhancement of Bifidobacterium spp. and Veillonella sp. in the test group. In contrast, the control-fed infants showed increased abundance of adult-like species, mainly within the Lachnospiraceae family, as well as within the Ruminococcus and Alistipes genus. The effects on Bifidobacterium spp. and Lachnospiraceae spp. were previously confirmed through enumeration by fluorescent in situ hybridization and were shown for test to approximate the proportions observed in the HBR. Additionally, microbial activity was affected as evidenced by an increase of l-lactate, a decrease of valerate, and reduced concentrations of branched-chain SCFAs in test versus control. Conclusions: The AAF including specific synbiotics effectively modulates the gut microbiota and its metabolic activity in non-IgE mediated CMA infants bringing it close to a healthy breastfed profile. Trial registration Registered on 1 May 2013 with Netherlands Trial Register Number NTR3979.

A specific synbiotic-containing amino acid-based formula in dietary management of cow's milk allergy : A randomized controlled trial
Fox, Adam T. ; Wopereis, Harm ; Ampting, Marleen T.J. van; Oude Nijhuis, Manon M. ; Butt, Assad M. ; Peroni, Diego G. ; Vandenplas, Yvan ; Candy, David C.A. ; Shah, Neil ; West, Christina E. ; Garssen, Johan ; Harthoorn, Lucien F. ; Knol, Jan ; Michaelis, Louise J. - \ 2019
Clinical and Translational Allergy 9 (2019)1. - ISSN 2045-7022
Bifidobacterium breve M-16V - Cow's milk allergy - Gut microbiota - Prebiotic - Probiotic - Symptoms

Background: Here we report follow-up data from a double-blind, randomized, controlled multicenter trial, which investigated fecal microbiota changes with a new amino acid-based formula (AAF) including synbiotics in infants with non-immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cow's milk allergy (CMA). Methods: Subjects were randomized to receive test product (AAF including fructo-oligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) or control product (AAF) for 8 weeks, after which infants could continue study product until 26 weeks. Fecal percentages of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group (ER/CC) were assessed at 0, 8, 12, and 26 weeks. Additional endpoints included stool markers of gut immune status, clinical symptoms, and safety assessments including adverse events and medication use. Results: The trial included 35 test subjects, 36 controls, and 51 in the healthy reference group. Study product was continued by 86% and 92% of test and control subjects between week 8-12, and by 71% and 80%, respectively until week 26. At week 26 median percentages of bifidobacteria were significantly higher in test than control [47.0% vs. 11.8% (p < 0.001)], whereas percentages of ER/CC were significantly lower [(13.7% vs. 23.6% (p = 0.003)]. Safety parameters were similar between groups. Interestingly use of dermatological medication and reported ear infections were lower in test versus control, p = 0.019 and 0.011, respectively. Baseline clinical symptoms and stool markers were mild (but persistent) and low, respectively. Symptoms reduced towards lowest score in both groups. Conclusion: Beneficial effects of this AAF including specific synbiotics on microbiota composition were observed over 26 weeks, and shown suitable for dietary management of infants with non-IgE-mediated CMA.

What influences mothers’ snack choices for their children aged 2–7?
Damen, Femke W.M. ; Luning, Pieternel A. ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Steenbekkers, Bea L.P.A. - \ 2019
Food Quality and Preference 74 (2019). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 10 - 20.
Child dietary behavior - Diary - First child - Food choice - Healthy snack - Maternal education

The increasing intake of energy dense snacks by children is one of the factors contributing to childhood overweight. Mothers are mainly responsible for the foods their young children consume. Therefore, this study aims to describe snack choices and the related considerations of mothers with young children in the home environment. The possibility that snack choices and considerations are related to maternal education, childbirth order, and age groups of the children was also investigated. A food and motivation diary study with 136 Dutch mothers of young children aged 2–7 years was conducted for 13 days. Mothers reported every snack they gave to their child. Fruits, cookies and candy were the most frequently provided snacks; healthiness of the snack and child preference were the most used considerations. Considerations were grouped in six overall categories: health-related, influence of the child, habit-related, strategies, external influence and other considerations. Higher educated mothers and mothers of first children showed more health-conscious behavior. Lower educated mothers more often justified their (unhealthy) snack choice. Next to insight into the number and type of snacks provided, the empirical findings in this study provide new understanding of the considerations of mothers while providing a snack to their young children.

The effect of agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies
Stevanovic, Jevrosima ; Stanimirovic, Zoran ; Simeunovic, Predrag ; Lakic, Nada ; Radovic, Ivica ; Sokovic, Marina ; Griensven, Leo J.L.D. van - \ 2018
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 90 (2018)1. - ISSN 0001-3765 - p. 219 - 229.
Apis mellifera - Colony strength - Medicinal mushroom ‘Cogumelo do Sol’ - Natural-based supplement

This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 singleuse plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/ day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

A synbiotic-containing amino-acid-based formula improves gut microbiota in non-IgE-mediated allergic infants
Candy, David C.A. ; Ampting, Marleen T.J. Van; Oude Nijhuis, Manon M. ; Wopereis, Harm ; Butt, Assad M. ; Peroni, Diego G. ; Vandenplas, Yvan ; Fox, Adam T. ; Shah, Neil ; West, Christina E. ; Garssen, Johan ; Harthoorn, Lucien F. ; Knol, Jan ; Michaelis, Louise J. - \ 2018
Pediatric Research 83 (2018)3. - ISSN 0031-3998 - p. 677 - 686.
BackgroundPrebiotics and probiotics (synbiotics) can modify gut microbiota and have potential in allergy management when combined with amino-acid-based formula (AAF) for infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA).MethodsThis multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an AAF-including synbiotic blend on percentages of bifidobacteria and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group (ER/CC) in feces from infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA. Feces from age-matched healthy breastfed infants were used as reference (healthy breastfed reference (HBR)) for primary outcomes. The CMA subjects were randomized and received test or control formula for 8 weeks. Test formula was a hypoallergenic, nutritionally complete AAF including a prebiotic blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve M-16V. Control formula was AAF without synbiotics.ResultsA total of 35 (test) and 36 (control) subjects were randomized; HBR included 51 infants. At week 8, the median percentage of bifidobacteria was higher in the test group than in the control group (35.4% vs. 9.7%, respectively; P<0.001), whereas ER/CC was lower (9.5% vs. 24.2%, respectively; P<0.001). HBR levels of bifidobacteria and ER/CC were 55% and 6.5%, respectively.ConclusionAAF including specific synbiotics, which results in levels of bifidobacteria and ER/CC approximating levels in the HBR group, improves the fecal microbiota of infants with suspected non-IgE-mediated CMA.
Application of laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy and colorimetry for quantification of anthocyanin in hard boiled candy
Kovács, Mihály ; Dóka, Ottó ; Bicanic, Dane ; Ajtony, Zsolt - \ 2017
Microchemical Journal 135 (2017). - ISSN 0026-265X - p. 100 - 104.
Anthocyanin (E163) - Colorimetry - Hard boiled candy - Laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy - Non-destructive analysis - Spectrophotometry
The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and colorimetric method for quantification of anthocyanin (E163) in commercially available hard boiled candies are compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). Both LPAS and colorimetry are direct methods that unlike SP do not require the extraction of the analyte or some additional sample treatment. Results indicate that LPAS and colorimetry are both suitable for quickly screening content of anthocyanin in hard boiled candies. The correlation between the two methods and spectrophotometry is linear with R 2 = 0.9989 for LPAS and R 2 = 0.9570 for colorimetry.
Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population
Rompelberg, Cathy ; Heringa, Minne B. ; Donkersgoed, Gerda van; Drijvers, José ; Roos, Agnes ; Westenbrink, Susanne ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Bemmel, M.E.M. van; Brand, Walter ; Oomen, Agnes G. - \ 2016
food supplements - foodproducts - TiO 2 intake - Dutch population - Titanium dioxide - TiO 2 NPs - TiO 2 NPs ranges - bw - TiO 2 - TiO 2 ranges
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO2 NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2–6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO2 ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7–69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2–6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO2 NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7–69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO2 intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO2 NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.
Marker Wadden “candy-shop” for birds? Historic analysis of a degrading lake and options to increase production
Riel, Marielle van - \ 2016
Oral intake of added titanium dioxide and its nanofraction from food products, food supplements and toothpaste by the Dutch population
Rompelberg, Cathy ; Heringa, Minne B. ; Donkersgoed, Gerda van; Drijvers, José ; Roos, Agnes ; Westenbrink, Susanne ; Peters, Ruud ; Bemmel, Greet van; Brand, Walter ; Oomen, Agnes G. - \ 2016
Nanotoxicology 10 (2016)10. - ISSN 1743-5390 - p. 1404 - 1414.
Food additive E 171 - long-term dietary intake - nanomaterial - probabilistic modelling - TiO

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly applied to enhance the white colour and brightness of food products. TiO2 is also used as white pigment in other products such as toothpaste. A small fraction of the pigment is known to be present as nanoparticles (NPs). Recent studies with TiO2 NPs indicate that these particles can have toxic effects. In this paper, we aimed to estimate the oral intake of TiO2 and its NPs from food, food supplements and toothpaste in the Dutch population aged 2 to over 70 years by combining data on food consumption and supplement intake with concentrations of Ti and TiO2 NPs in food products and supplements. For children aged 2–6 years, additional intake via ingestion of toothpaste was estimated. The mean long-term intake to TiO2 ranges from 0.06 mg/kg bw/day in elderly (70+), 0.17 mg/kg bw/day for 7–69-year-old people, to 0.67 mg/kg bw/day in children (2–6 year old). The estimated mean intake of TiO2 NPs ranges from 0.19 μg/kg bw/day in elderly, 0.55 μg/kg bw/day for 7–69-year-old people, to 2.16 μg/kg bw/day in young children. Ninety-fifth percentile (P95) values are 0.74, 1.61 and 4.16 μg/kg bw/day, respectively. The products contributing most to the TiO2 intake are toothpaste (in young children only), candy, coffee creamer, fine bakery wares and sauces. In a separate publication, the results are used to evaluate whether the presence of TiO2 NPs in these products can pose a human health risk.

Total, free, and added Sugar consumption and adherence to guidelines: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010
Sluik, D. ; Lee, L. van; Engelen, A.I.P. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2016
Nutrients 8 (2016)2. - ISSN 2072-6643 - 14 p.
A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7–69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7–18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.
Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer
Sluik, D. ; Atkinson, Fiona S. ; Brand-Miller, J. ; Fogelholm, M. ; Raben, A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2016
The British journal of nutrition 115 (2016)7. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1218 - 1225.
Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007–2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (sd 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3 % inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4–5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet.
Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards
Wijnhoven, T.M.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pieter van 't Veer, co-promotor(en): Joop van Raaij. - Wageningen - ISBN 9789462574656 - 265
overgewicht - obesitas - quetelet index - lichaamsgewicht - schoolkinderen - kinderen - kwantitatieve analyse - who - gezondheid van kinderen - risicoschatting - kindervoeding - lichamelijke activiteit - kleding - overweight - obesity - body mass index - body weight - school children - children - quantitative analysis - who - child health - risk assessment - child nutrition - physical activity - clothing

Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards.

Background

As a follow-up to the European Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity convened in 2006 in Turkey, the European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) was launched by the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO). COSI, a collaboration between WHO and interested Member States, aims to monitor the magnitude of overweight and obesity among primary-school children in European countries, to allow intercountry comparisons and to identify regional differences for informed policy-making. It collects at regular intervals data on weight and height of primary-school children and on their nutrition and physical activity behaviours, as well as on school environmental characteristics supportive to healthy nutrition and physical activity.

Methods

The research described in this PhD thesis is based on the data collected in the first two COSI rounds by 12 European countries in school year 2007/2008 and by 13 European countries in school year 2009/2010. Nationally representative samples of children aged 6–9 years were drawn, whereby a majority of the countries applied a two-stage school-based cluster sampling approach.

A total of 168 832 children in school year 2007/2008 and 224 920 children in school year 2009/2010 were included in the anthropometric intercountry data analyses. Children's weight and height were measured by trained examiners using standardized procedures. Participating countries were allowed to adhere to their local legal requirements by specified deviations from standardized procedures, such as in types of clothing worn by the children during weight and height measurements. For each country, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were computed.

The characteristics included in the analyses on the school environment referred to the frequency of physical education lessons, the availability of school playgrounds, the possibility to obtain food items and beverages on the school premises, and the organization of school initiatives to promote a healthy lifestyle. The school form was usually completed by the school principal or the teachers involved with the sampled classes. Data from 1831 schools in school year 2007/2008 and from 2045 schools in school year 2009/2010 were used. For each school, a school nutrition environment score (range: 0–1) was determined whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment and the mean of the children's BMI-for-age Z-scores calculated.

Five countries in school year 2007/2008 provided children's data on 13 health-risk behaviours related to breakfast and food consumption frequency, physical activity, screen time and sleep duration (n = 15 643). These data were reported by the caregivers alone or jointly with their child. For each country, the prevalence of the risk behaviours was estimated, and associations between them and overweight and obesity examined by multilevel logistic regression analyses.

Results

In both school years, a wide range in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates was found that differed significantly by country, as well as by European region. In all countries, the percentage of overweight children was about 20% or more (range: 18–57%), and the percentage of obese children was 5% or more (range: 5–31%). The findings suggest the presence of a north–south gradient with the highest overweight and obesity prevalence estimates found in southern European countries. Furthermore, changes in mean BMI-for-age Z-scores (range: from –0.21 to +0.14) and prevalence of overweight (range: from –9.0% to +6.2%) from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010 varied significantly among countries, whereas a period of two years is considered too short to identify these developments. The clothes-adjusted overweight prevalence estimates were lower by as much as 12% than the unadjusted estimates. Monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values within countries did not show systematic seasonal effects.

Large between-country differences were observed in both school years in the availability of food items or beverages on the school premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12–95% of schools) and in the organization of initiatives to promote a healthy lifestyle in the selected classes (range: 42–97%). The provision of physical education lessons and the availability of school playgrounds were more uniformly present across the countries (range: 76–100%). A large variation was also seen in school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30–0.93) whereby countries with a low score (< 0.70) graded less than three out of five characteristics as supportive. High-score countries showed more often than low-score countries a combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks on the school premises.

The prevalence of all 13 health-risk behaviours differed significantly across countries. For instance, the percentage of children who ate ‘foods like candy bars or chocolate’ > 3 days/week ranged from 2.2% to 63.4%; this figure ranged from 1.1% to 46.5% for those who ate ‘foods like potato chips (crisps), corn chips, popcorn or peanuts’ > 3 days/week. The range for children who did not have breakfast every day was between 4.4% and 32.5%, and from 4.8% to 35.0% for those who did not play outside ≥ 1 hour/day. Not having breakfast daily and spending screen time ≥ 2 hours/day were clearly positively associated with obesity. The same was true for eating ‘foods like pizza, French fries, hamburgers, sausages or meat pies’ > 3 days/week and playing outside < 1 hour/day. While a combination of multiple less favourable physical activity behaviours was clearly positively associated with obesity, a combination of the presence of multiple unhealthy eating behaviours did not lead to higher odds of obesity.

Conclusions

The results found in both COSI school years show that overweight and obesity among 6–9-year-old children are a serious public health concern, especially in southern European countries, and show the need for accelerated efforts to prevent excess body weight early in life by all participating countries. It was possible to detect relevant changes within a period of two years but to identify clear trends within countries, a longer time interval is necessary. The data on the school nutrition environment and the children's health-risk behaviours may assist policy-makers in monitoring their national policies targeting school settings and childhood obesity. In particular, promoting physical activity-related and discouraging sedentary behaviours among schoolchildren in the context of obesity preventive interventions seem to be essential.

‘Kunstbloem’ in finale Bio-Art & Design
Kleis, R. ; Kleijn, D. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 9 (2015)18. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 10 - 10.
landschap - kunst - apidae - bestuiving - prijzen (competitie) - landscape - arts - pollination - prizes
Hoe ziet het landschap eruit als bijen op een kunstbloem met gekleurde pollen foerageren? Als een Van Gogh? Het idee levert onderzoeker David Kleijn een plek op in de finale van de Bio-Art & Design competitie. Synthetic Pollinizer heet het project dat Kleijn samen met de Australische kunstenaar Michael Candy uit wil voeren. En die ‘Kunstbloem’ komt er als het duo bij de eerste drie van de BAD-Award eindigt. Dan ligt er 25.000 euro te wachten om het bestuivingsproject daadwerkelijk uit te voeren.
The Development of a Diet Quality Score for Preschool Children and Its Validation and Determinants in the Generation R Study
Voortman, T. ; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C. ; Geelen, A. ; Villamor, G.B. ; Moll, H.A. ; Jongste, J.C. de; Raat, H. ; Hofman, A. ; Jaddoe, V.W.V. ; Franco, O.H. ; Hooven, E.H. van den - \ 2015
The Journal of Nutrition 145 (2015)2. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 306 - 314.
healthy eating index - multiple imputation - measurement error - pattern-analysis - food - adolescents - associations - childhood - nutrition - validity
Background: Although many studies have examined health effects of infant feeding, studies on diet quality shortly after the weaning and lactation period are scarce. Objectives: Our aims were to develop and evaluate a diet score that measures overall diet quality in preschool children and to examine the sociodemographic and lifestyle determinants of this score. Methods: On the basis of national and international dietary guidelines for young children, we developed a diet score containing 10 components: intake of vegetables; fruit; bread and cereals; rice, pasta, potatoes, and legumes; dairy; meat and eggs; fish; oils and fats; candy and snacks; and sugar-sweetened beverages. The total score ranged from 0 to 10 on a continuous scale and was standardized to an energy intake of 1200 kcal/d with the residual method. The score was evaluated in 3629 children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. Food consumption was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at a median age of 13 mo. Results: The mean +/- SD diet score was 4.1 +/- 1.3. The food-based diet score was positively associated with intakes of many nutrients, including n-3 (omega-3)-31 fatty acids [FAs; 0.25 SD increase 195% CI: 0.22, 0.27) per 1 point increase in the diet score], dietary fiber [0.32 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.34)], and calcium [0.13 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.16)], and was inversely associated with intakes of sugars [-0.28(95% CI: -0.31, -0.26)] and saturated fat [-0.03 (95% CI: -0.05, -0.01)]. A higher diet score was associated with several health-conscious behaviors, such as maternal folic acid supplement use during pregnancy, no smoking during pregnancy, and children watching less television. Conclusion: We developed a novel food-based diet score for preschool children that could be applied in future studies to compare diet quality in early childhood and to investigate associations between diet in early childhood and growth, health, and development.
Reconstructing Early Pleistocene (1.3 Ma) terrestrial environmental change in western Anatolia: Did it drive fluvial terrace formation?
Veldkamp, A. ; Candy, I. ; Jongmans, A.G. ; Maddy, D. ; Demir, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Schreve, D. ; Stemerdink, C. ; Schriek, T. van der - \ 2015
Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 417 (2015). - ISSN 0031-0182 - p. 91 - 104.
paleoenvironmental significance - volcanic disruption - gediz river - turkey - climate - paleosols - genesis - record - variability - carbonates
A terrestrial environmental reconstruction of an Early Pleistocene landscape from western Anatolia is presented. The basis of this reconstruction is a sedimentary stack comprising fluvial and colluvial slope deposits. Contained within this stack is a sequence comprising two massive laminar calcretes alternating with three reddish palaeosols. This evolutionary sequence is situated on top of a fluvial terrace staircase capped by a 1.3 Ma (40Ar/39Ar plateau age) lava flow. The micro-morphological properties of the observed calcretes and reddish palaeosols combined with the stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of the carbonates suggest the alternation of three stable relatively warm–humid (vegetation rich) and two stable relatively arid–cool (bare surface) cycles. In addition, there is also ample evidence for landscape instability in between these phases causing local soil truncation and slope instability in an open grassland–shrub environment. These landscape instability phases match well with known fluvial incisional phases of the Gediz during this period. This suggests that climate-forced landscape environmental dynamics were of sufficient magnitude to drive fluvial terrace formation of the Early Pleistocene Gediz.
The influence of olfactory impairment in vital, independently living older persons on their eating behaviour and foodliking
Kremer, S. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Boesveldt, S. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 38 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 30 - 39.
age-related-changes - flavor amplification - nutritional-status - functional foods - salt reduction - taste - smell - malnutrition - consumption - perception
These two studies investigated eating behaviour and food liking of independently living Dutch older people with and without olfactory impairment. In the first study, an internet survey was conducted in relation to their olfactory status (n = 512; age 55–91). Hyposmic older people reported eating the same meal more often within a week than their unimpaired peers, and they also differed in some of the types of foods they reported eating as snacks (i.e. fewer cookies and nuts, more candy). In the second study, various strategies to increase food liking among older consumers were investigated, as well as their liking of reformulated foods with an expected reduced palatability. The strategies included (1) combined visual enrichment and flavour enrichment of mashed potatoes, (2) enhancement of taste intensity and thickness of gravy, and (3) flavour enrichment of stews. The reformulation encompassed (1) salt reduction of meatballs and (2) protein enrichment of bread. Thirty-eight young consumers (age 32.3 ± 8.9 y), 41 normosmic older consumers (age 65.1 ± 5.2 y), and 43 hyposmic older consumers (age 68.5 ± 5.9 y) assessed food liking on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Both older groups increased their food liking in response to the changes made in the mashed potatoes and gravies, decreased their food liking in response to the salt reduction in the meatball and increased their product liking once information was given on the reduction. In conclusion, older persons – regardless of their olfactory status – may respond positively to multi-sensory enrichment in warm meal components. At the same time, certain types of foods may still appeal more or less to hyposmic older persons which in turn may lead to the development of different dietary intake patterns.
Species identification of gelatines in yoghurt and dairy desserts by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS
Nessen, M.A. ; Zoontjes, P.W. ; Wubs, K.L. ; Blokland, M.H. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2012
analytische methoden - gelatine - yoghurt - desserts - voedselallergieën - analytical methods - gelatin - food allergies
Introduction: The use of unspecified gelatines in food products is a problem for people with specific diet wishes, such as people with an allergy, a specific religious background or a vegetarian diet. Accurate and truthful labelling of the source of gelatin is therefore needed and this requires a robust method that can identify and discriminate between the gelatines derived from different animal species. Methods: In this study a generic ultra performance liquid chromatography - electrospray - time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QToF-MS) method for protein identification was used to identify gelatines in fruit yogurt and (dairy) desserts. The amino acid sequence of collagen differs between species, which allows identification of the source of the gelatin used in food products. Gelatin was extracted and enriched from the dairy products and subjected to trypsin digestion. After reversed solid phase extraction of the peptide mixture, samples were analysed by UPLC-ESI-QToF-MS/MS. Identification of the gelatines was done by data analysis using Mascot. Results: Fifteen yogurts, obtained from various retailers in the Netherlands, declared with and without gelatin, were analysed for gelatin content. It was found that six products did contain the gelatin as was declared on the product: two contained bovine gelatin, one contained porcine gelatin and three did not contain gelatin. Out of the nine products with unspecified gelatin, six contained gelatin from bovine source, two from porcine source and in one product no gelatin could be detected. Conclusion: This study shows the applicability of an LC-MS/MS method for the identification of gelatin from porcine or bovine source in dairy products. Further research on the gelatin extraction from different (processed) food products might allow extension of the method to other gelatin containing (food) products, such as different types of candy, (canned) meat products or pharmaceuticals, allowing accurate control of product authenticity.
Volcanic disruption and drainage diversion of the palaeo-Hudut River, a tributary of the Early Pleistocene Gediz River, Western Turkey
Maddy, D. ; Veldkamp, A. ; Jongmans, A.G. ; Candy, I. ; Demir, T. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Schriek, T. van der; Stemerdink, C. ; Scaife, R.G. ; Gorp, W. van - \ 2012
Geomorphology 165-166 (2012). - ISSN 0169-555X - p. 62 - 77.
se spain - terrace staircase - 2-stage extension - sorbas basin - graben - pliocene - uplift - evolution - capture - gordes
The importance of extrinsic drivers of fluvial system behaviour (climate, tectonics, eustatic sea level) over Quaternary timescales is well documented. However, comparatively fewer studies have been reported concerning the significance of more localised changes at reach to sub-catchment scale, over these extended (10exp4–10exp6 years) timescales. In this paper we examine the Early Pleistocene sedimentary record of the palaeo-Hudut River and compare it with the record from the trunk river into which it drains, the Gediz River of Western Turkey. Both the Gediz River and the Hudut River were subjected to major localised disruption during the Early Pleistocene as a consequence of volcanism but their respective responses to these events appear to differ. Observations are reported from the sedimentary sequence buried beneath the lavas which cap the Burgaz plateau. These sediments record a remarkable amount of detail for a significant period of the Early Pleistocene. These suggest that the palaeo-Hudut system responded largely to the creation and failure of downstream lava dams, both through channel incision and subsequent filling, and via route diversions around lava dams and their associated lakes. In contrast, the Gediz terrace record appears to demonstrate a river which was able to accommodate these changes more readily and hence, continue to undergo sedimentation–incision cycles consistent with a climate forcing.
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