Beneficial Role of Replacing Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Sarcopenia: Findings from the NU-AGE Cohort
Montiel-Rojas, Diego ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Nilsson, Andreas ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Capri, Miriam ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Bialecka-Debek, Agata ; Surala, Olga ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Capel, Frederic ; Kadi, Fawzi - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)10. - ISSN 2072-6643
Dietary fat subtypes may play an important role in the regulation of muscle mass and function during ageing. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of isocaloric macronutrient substitutions, including different fat subtypes, on sarcopenia risk in older men and women, while accounting for physical activity (PA) and metabolic risk. A total of 986 participants, aged 65–79 years, completed a 7-day food record and wore an accelerometer for a week. A continuous sex-specific sarcopenia risk score (SRS), including skeletal muscle mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and handgrip strength, was derived. The impact of the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) by either mono- (MUFAs) or poly-unsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids on SRS was determined using regression analysis based on the whole sample and stratified by adherence to a recommended protein intake (1.1 g/BW). Isocaloric reduction of SFAs for the benefit of PUFAs was associated with a lower SRS in the whole population, and in those with a protein intake below 1.1 g/BW, after accounting for age, smoking habits, metabolic disturbances, and adherence to PA guidelines. The present study highlighted the potential of promoting healthy diets with optimised fat subtype distribution in the prevention of sarcopenia in older adults.
Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria
Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.
Gender-specific association of body composition with inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans from the NU-AGE study
Santoro, Aurelia ; Guidarelli, Giulia ; Ostan, Rita ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Fabbri, Cristina ; Bertarelli, Claudia ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Kadi, Fawzi ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith ; Berendsen, Agnes ; Brzozowska, Anna ; Januszko, Olga ; Kozlowska, Katarzyna ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Jennings, Amy ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Caumon, Elodie ; Napoli, Alessandro ; Mercatelli, Daniele ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Capri, Miriam ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Bazzocchi, Alberto - \ 2019
European Radiology 29 (2019)9. - ISSN 0938-7994 - p. 4968 - 4979.
ObjectivesThe aim of this work was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between body composition (BC) markers for adipose and lean tissue and bone mass, and a wide range of specific inflammatory and adipose-related markers in healthy elderly Europeans. Methods A whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was made in 1121 healthy (65–79 years) women and men from five European countries of the “New dietary strategies addressing the specific needs of elderly population for a healthy aging in Europe” project (NCT01754012) cohort to measure markers of adipose and lean tissue and bone mass. Pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-6Rα, TNF-α, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, pentraxin 3, CRP, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, albumin) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, TGF-β1) molecules as well as adipose-related markers such as leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and resistin were measured by magnetic bead-based multiplex-specific immunoassays and biochemical assays. Results BC characteristics were different in elderly women and men, and more favorable BC markers were associated with a better adipose-related inflammatory profile, with the exception of skeletal muscle mass index. No correlation was found with the body composition markers and circulating levels of some standard pro- and anti-inflammatory markers like IL-6, pentraxin 3, IL-10, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-6Rα, glycoprotein 130, TNF-α-R1, and TNF-α-R2.Conclusions The association between BC and inflammatory and adipose-related biomarkers is crucial in decoding aging and pathophysiological processes, such as sarcopenia. DXA can help in understanding how the measurement of fat and muscle is important, making the way from research to clinical practice.
The potential role of producer and consumer food policies in the EU to sustainable food and nutrition security
Latka, Catharina ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Batka, Miroslav ; Boere, Esther ; Chang, Chiao-Ya ; Cui, David ; Geleijnse, Marianne ; Havlík, Petr ; Kuijsten, Anneleen ; Kuiper, Marijke ; Leip, Adrian ; ’t Veer, Pieter van; Witzke, Heinz-Peter ; Ziegler, Friederike - \ 2018
Wageningen : SUSFANS - 123
EU sustainable food and nutrition security is no sure-fire success. The future of
the agro-food system is uncertain and subject to different macro-level trends.
Previous analysis revealed the role of food system drivers creating challenges and
opportunities for dietary and environmental improvements under certain future
constellations. However, these challenges and opportunities need to be addressed by policies to allow for actual improvements in the sustainability
performance of EU food systems, for people, planet and profit. In this deliverable,
an assessment and pre-test of potential policy measures is carried out. The policy
analyses are contrasted to a ‘business-as-usual’ baseline scenario with current
trends of food system drivers. We apply the SUSFANS modelling toolbox in order
to test relevant policy measures in four distinct aqua-agro-food policy sectors.
Regarding health and nutrition of the EU population, we provide a ranking of
potential dietary policies and interventions based on their effectiveness,
implementation costs and restrictiveness for consumers and producers. Based on
this overview, options for health and nutrition policy are designed containing a
mixture of different policy instruments. These apply – in line with the allocation
of policy responsibilities in the EU - at the level of individual member states and
not at the realms of an EU policy. In the context of the Common AgriculturalPolicy (CAP), we assess the impact of a livestock density restriction on EU Agricultural areas. Results indicate a reduction of soil nutrient surpluses (-9 to -13%) and of greenhouse gas emissions (-9%) at EU average and considerably stronger in the livestock density and over-fertilization hotspots. Trade openness restricts the impact on food consumption and dietary change of EU consumers. Three Common Fisheries Policies (CFP) are tested with the newly developed fish modules of GLOBIOM and CAPRI: Directing capture in EU waters to levels that keep fish stocks at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY), or at the maximum economic yield (MEY), and the implementation of national aquaculture growth plans composed by EU member states. Our results show limited policy impacts due to the rlatively small size of the EU fish producing sector with some trade but
limited consumption changes. Finally, different storage policies are tested with the new short-term volatility module of GLOBIOM. The scenarios reveal that storage availability and intervention prices reduce price volatility caused by yield shocks. The assessments illustrate that individual, yet unaligned policy measures can already contribute significantly to reaching sustainable food and nutrition
security. On the way to the final foresight assessment extensions are require regarding a) metrics quantifiability, b) the harmonization of metrics computation
approaches, and c) smaller model improvements
Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Correlation Between Daily Nutrient Intake Assessed by 7-Day Food Records and Biomarkers of Dietary Intake Among Participants of the NU-AGE Study
Ostan, Rita ; Guidarelli, Giulia ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Lanzarini, Catia ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Januszko, Olga ; Jennings, Amy ; Lyon, Noëlle ; Caumon, Elodie ; Gillings, Rachel ; Sicinska, Ewa ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Capri, Miriam ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Santoro, Aurelia - \ 2018
Frontiers in Physiology 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-042X
Methods for measuring diet composition and quantifying nutrient intake with sufficient validity are essential to study the association between nutrition and health outcomes and risk of diseases. 7-day food records provides a quantification of food actually and currently consumed and is interesting for its use in intervention studies to monitor diet in a short-term period and to guide participants toward changing their intakes. The objective of this study is to analyze the correlation/association between the daily intake of selected nutrients (collected by a 7-day food records plus a mineral/vitamin supplementation questionnaire) and estimates of energy expenditure as well as blood and urine biomarkers of dietary intakes in 1,140 healthy elderly subjects (65–79 years) at baseline of the NU-AGE intervention study (NCT01754012, clinicaltrials.gov). The results show that: the daily intake of energy correlated significantly with predicted total energy expenditure (pTEE) (ρ = 0.459, p < 0.001, and q < 0.001); protein intake correlated significantly with the ratio of 24 h urinary urea to creatinine excretion (ρ = 0.143 for total protein intake, ρ = 0.296 for animal protein intake, and ρ = 0.359 for protein intake/body weight, p < 0.001 and q < 0.001 for each correlation); vitamin B12 and folate intakes correlated significantly with their serum concentrations (ρ = 0.151 and ρ = 0.363, respectively; p < 0.001 and q < 0.001 for each correlation); sodium and potassium intakes correlated significantly with their 24 h urinary excretion (ρ = 0.298 and ρ = 0.123, respectively; p < 0.001 and q < 0.001 for each correlation); vitamin B12 and folate intakes were negatively associated with plasma homocysteine measure (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively); stratifying subjects by gender, the correlations between energy intake and pTEE and between potassium intake and its 24 h urinary excretion lost their significance in women. Even if the plasma and urinary levels of these nutrients depend on several factors, the significant correlations between daily reported intake of nutrients (protein, vitamin B12, folate, and sodium) and their blood/urinary markers confirmed that the 7-day food records (plus a supplementation questionnaire) provides reliable data to evaluate short-term current dietary intake in European elderly subjects and it can be exploited to guide and monitor NU-AGE participants through the shift of their diet according NU-AGE recommendations.
Comparing impacts of climate change and mitigation on global agriculture by 2050
Meijl, Hans van; Havlik, Petr ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Stehfest, Elke ; Witzke, Peter ; Domínguez, Ignacio P. ; Bodirsky, Benjamin L. ; Dijk, Michiel van; Doelman, Jonathan ; Fellmann, Thomas ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Koopman, Jason F.L. ; Müller, Christoph ; Popp, Alexander ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Valin, Hugo ; Zeist, Willem J. van - \ 2018
Environmental Research Letters 13 (2018)6. - ISSN 1748-9318
adaptation - agriculture - climate change - economic models - mitigation - shared socioeconomic pathways
Systematic model inter-comparison helps to narrow discrepancies in the analysis of the future impact of climate change on agricultural production. This paper presents a set of alternative scenarios by five global climate and agro-economic models. Covering integrated assessment (IMAGE), partial equilibrium (CAPRI, GLOBIOM, MAgPIE) and computable general equilibrium (MAGNET) models ensures a good coverage of biophysical and economic agricultural features. These models are harmonized with respect to basic model drivers, to assess the range of potential impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector by 2050. Moreover, they quantify the economic consequences of stringent global emission mitigation efforts, such as non-CO2 emission taxes and land-based mitigation options, to stabilize global warming at 2 °C by the end of the century under different Shared Socioeconomic Pathways. A key contribution of the paper is a vis-à-vis comparison of climate change impacts relative to the impact of mitigation measures. In addition, our scenario design allows assessing the impact of the residual climate change on the mitigation challenge. From a global perspective, the impact of climate change on agricultural production by mid-century is negative but small. A larger negative effect on agricultural production, most pronounced for ruminant meat production, is observed when emission mitigation measures compliant with a 2 °C target are put in place. Our results indicate that a mitigation strategy that embeds residual climate change effects (RCP2.6) has a negative impact on global agricultural production relative to a no-mitigation strategy with stronger climate impacts (RCP6.0). However, this is partially due to the limited impact of the climate change scenarios by 2050. The magnitude of price changes is different amongst models due to methodological differences. Further research to achieve a better harmonization is needed, especially regarding endogenous food and feed demand, including substitution across individual commodities, and endogenous technological change.
Existing modeling platforms for biomass supply in Europe
Elbersen, B.S. ; Forsell, Nicklas ; Leduc, S. ; Staritsky, I.G. ; Witzke, P. ; Ramirez Almeyda, Jacqueline - \ 2017
In: Modelling and Optimisation of Biomass Supply Chains / Panoutsou, C., Academic Press - ISBN 9780128123034 - p. 25 - 54.
Biomass availability is related to the prevailing land use patterns in a region as these deliver different types and quantities of feedstocks. Robust modeling frameworks are required to predict future land use changes and biomass availability for given demands in terms of the production of crops, livestock, timber, bioenergy, biochemical, and biomaterials. This chapter presents two important modeling frameworks, CAPRI, and GLOBIOM and explains how they are used respectively to assess cost supply of domestic biomass potential from agriculture and forestry in Europe and cost-supply potential for biomass imports from the rest of the world. Recent work demonstrates that both model structure and consistency in input data are imperative to ensure the validity of biomass assessments but there are also limitations deriving from the inconsistency of statistical databases, the increasingly complex assumptions, variable feedstock types, and geographical levels. Regular updates and model improvements will be necessary to internalize further the evolving key issues determining biomass supply for biobased economy in Europe.
Model linkage between CAPRI and MAGNET : An exploratory assessment
Philippidis, George ; Helming, J.F.M. ; Tabeau, A.A. - \ 2017
European Commission (JRC technical reports ) - ISBN 9789279691010 - 33 p.
Optimizing legume cropping : The policy questions
Kuhlman, Tom ; Helming, John ; Linderhof, Vincent - \ 2017
In: Legumes in Cropping Systems / Murphy-Bokern, D., Stoddard, F., Watson, C., CABI International - ISBN 9781780646749 - p. 226 - 243.
The cultivation of legumes is low in Europe. Public policy incentives and/or regulations have a role to play in changing this. This chapter examines six such policies. The CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact) model, a partial equilibrium model for the agricultural sector, is used to simulate the effects of these policies and compare them to what would happen if no policy action were taken. Five of these policy scenarios are aimed at grain legumes (pulses and soybean), and one at forage legumes (in particular, clover). Three of the policies could be incorporated into the Common Agricultural Policy, whereas the other three are more general in nature: related to consumption, international trade and climate-change mitigation. It is the latter two that are likely to have the most significant effect on the cultivation of grain legumes.
|Integrated assessment of farm level adaptation in Flevoland, the Netherlands: what did we learn from multiple methods and model chains? : what did we learn from multiple methods and model chains?
Reidsma, P. ; Kanellopoulos, A. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2017
In: Book of abstracts. - - p. 48 - 48.
Climate change impact assessment requires farming systems analysis and integrated assessment. However, multiple models can be used to assess changes in drivers. In addition, farms are complex systems and many assumptions need to be made regarding objectives and constraints. Here, we evaluate the impact of different models and assumptions on impacts of climate change on arable agriculture in Flevoland, the Netherlands. We performed three studies. Firstly, we used the crop model WOFOST, market model CAPRI, and bio-economic farm model FSSIM. Secondly, we used the crop model SIMPLACE, an adapted version of CAPRI, and a different set up of FSSIM. Thirdly, we used the crop model WOFOST, estimates of impacts of extreme events by the Agro Climate Calender, and the bio-economic farm model FarmDesign. In general, climate change is
projected to have positive impacts. The first two studies however showed that impacts of technology and price changes are larger. But while changes in gross margins are more influenced by results from crop and market models, changes in farm plans are more influenced by assumptions regarding resources and constraints. Assumptions regarding the available land for rent largely influence results. The third study showed that when policy constraints are neglected, impacts on gross margin are more positive. Positive impacts of average climate change may however be counterbalanced by negative impacts of extreme events, but adaptation measures are available. When considering soil quality as important objective, adaptation at farm level will be different: instead of more potato or sugar beet, farms will grow more wheat. We conclude that climate change impacts depend on assumptions, but when making this transparent, it can inform adaptation.
Assessing the impact of changes in land-use intensity and climate on simulated trade-offs between crop yield and nitrogen leaching
Blanke, Jan Hendrik ; Olin, Stefan ; Stürck, Julia ; Sahlin, Ullrika ; Lindeskog, Mats ; Helming, John ; Lehsten, Veiko - \ 2017
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 239 (2017). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 385 - 398.
Climate change - Fertilization - Land-use intensity projections - LPJ-GUESS - Nitrogen leaching - Trade-offs
In this study, a global vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) is forced with spatial information (Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) 2 level) of land-use intensity change in the form of nitrogen (N) fertilization derived from a model chain which informed the Common Agricultural Policy Regionalized Impact (CAPRI) model. We analysed the combined role of climate change and land-use intensity change for trade-offs between agricultural yield and N leaching in the European Union under two plausible scenarios up until 2040. Furthermore, we assessed both driver importance and uncertainty in future trends based on an alternative land-use intensity dataset derived from an integrated assessment model. LPJ-GUESS simulated an increase in wheat and maize yield but also N leaching for most regions when driven by changes in land-use intensity and climate under RCP 8.5. Under RCP 4.5, N leaching is reduced in 53% of the regions while there is a trade-off in crop productivity. The most important factors influencing yield were CO2 (wheat) and climate (maize), but N application almost equaled these in importance. For N leaching, N application was the most important factor, followed by climate. Therefore, using a constant N application dataset in the absence of future projections has a substantial effect on simulated ecosystem responses, especially for maize yield and N leaching. This study is a first assessment of future N leaching and yield responses based on projections of climate and land-use intensity. It further highlights the importance of accounting for changes in future N applications and land-use intensity in general when evaluating environmental impacts over long time periods.
Combined analysis of climate, technological and price changes on future arable farming systems in Europe
Wolf, J. ; Kanellopoulos, Argyris ; Kros, J. ; Webber, H. ; Zhao, G. ; Britz, W. ; Reinds, G.J. ; Ewert, F. ; Vries, W. de - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 140 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 56 - 73.
In this study, we compare the relative importance of climate change to technological, management, price and policy changes on European arable farming systems. This required linking four models: the SIMPLACE crop growth modelling framework to calculate future yields under climate change for arable crops; the CAPRI model to estimate impacts on global agricultural markets, specifically product prices; the bio-economic farm model FSSIM to calculate the future changes in cropping patterns and farm net income at the farm and regional level; and the environmental model INTEGRATOR to calculate nitrogen (N) uptake and losses to air and water. First, the four linked models were applied to analyse the effect of climate change only or a most likely baseline (i.e. B1) scenario for 2050 as well as for two alternative scenarios with, respectively, strong (i.e. A1-b1) and weak economic growth (B2) for five regions/countries across Europe (i.e. Denmark, Flevoland, Midi Pyrenées, Zachodniopomorski and Andalucia). These analyses were repeated but assuming in addition to climate change impacts, also the effects of changes in technology and management on crop yields, the effects of changes in prices and policies in 2050, and the effects of all factors together. The outcomes show that the effects of climate change to 2050 result in higher farm net incomes in the Northern and Northern-Central EU regions, in practically unchanged farm net incomes in the Central and Central-Southern EU regions, and in much lower farm net incomes in Southern EU regions compared to those in the base year. Climate change in combination with improved technology and farm management and/or with price changes towards 2050 results in a higher to much higher farm net incomes. Increases in farm net income for the B1 and A1-b1 scenarios are moderately stronger than those for the B2 scenario, due to the smaller increases in product prices and/or yields for the B2 scenario. Farm labour demand slightly to moderately increases towards 2050 as related to changes in cropping patterns. Changes in N2O emissions and N leaching compared to the base year are mainly caused by changes in total N inputs from the applied fertilizers and animal manure, which in turn are influenced by changes in crop yields and cropping patterns, whereas NH3 emissions are mainly determined by assumed improvements in manure application techniques. N emissions and N leaching strongly increase in Denmark and Zachodniopomorski, slightly decrease to moderately increase in Flevoland and Midi-Pyrenées, and strongly decrease in Andalucia, except for NH3 emissions which zero to moderately decrease in Flevoland and Denmark.
Scientific opinion on the effect assessment for pesticides on sediment organisms in edge-of-field surface water
Aagaard, A. ; Brock, T.C.M. ; Capri, E. ; Duquesne, S. ; Filipic, M. ; Tiktak, A. ; Linden, T. van der - \ 2015
EFSA Journal 13 (2015)7. - ISSN 1831-4732 - 145 p.
The EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR Panel) was tasked to revise the Guidance Document (GD) on Aquatic Ecotoxicology under Council Directive 91/414/EEC (SANCO/3268/2001 rev. 4 (final), 17 October 2002). This scientific opinion of the PPR Panel is the second of three requested deliverables within this mandate. The scientific background for the risk assessment on sediment organisms in edge-of-field surface waters is provided, with reference to benthic ecology and ecotoxicology, available test protocols and current knowledge on exposure and effects of sediment-bound plant protection products (PPPs). The scientific opinion provides approaches on how to derive regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) for sediment organisms and exposure to active substances of PPPs and transformation products of these substances, and how to link them in a tiered approach to predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) for the sediment compartment. A list of uncertainties in relation to such approaches is given.
An economics assessment of GHG mitigation policy options for EU agriculture
Doorslaer, B. van; Witzke, P. ; Huck, I. ; Weiss, F. ; Fellmann, T. ; Salputra, G. ; Jansson, T. ; Drabik, D. ; Leip, A. - \ 2015
Luxembourg : Publications Office of the European Union (JRC technical reports JC 3434) - ISBN 9789279454165
europees parlement - europees fonds voor regionale ontwikkeling - landbouwbeleid - mitigatie - landbouwkundig onderzoek - emissiereductie - agrarische economie - european parliament - european regional development fund - agricultural policy - mitigation - agricultural research - emission reduction - agricultural economics
The report presents an overview of the historical and projected development of agricultural GHG emissions in the EU. The major objective of the report is to present the improvements made in the CAPRI modelling system with respect to GHG emission accounting and especially regarding the implementation of endogenous technological mitigation options. Furthermore, the CAPRI model was applied to provide a quantitative assessment of illustrative GHG mitigation policy options in the agricultural sector, and their production and economic implications.
Measuring Sustainability Performance of Food Production and Logistics
Kassahun, A. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2014
|An Effective Method to Design Sustainable Agri-Food Supply Chain
Allaoui, H. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Goncalves, G. ; Guo, Y. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2014
|Eco-Innovation in the German Fertilizer Supply Chain
Böhlendorf, K. ; Bröring, S. ; Olfs, H.W. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2014
Aim and contribution Fertilizers present an important agricultural input factor enabling sustainable plant production. In recent years, based on innovations in application techniques, new fertilizer technologies have been developed. However, these technologies differ with regard to farmers’ adoption. Current research in the technology acceptance domain (Davis, 1989) does not fully explain why farmers adopt certain fertilizer technologies and others not. The aim of the present study is to explore the different influencing factors on technology adoption, such as the education level, the perceived usefulness of new technologies and the general knowledge about the new technologies. In addition to existing research on technology adoption we strive to take a “chain perspective” on technology acceptance and seek to understand whether or not the different aforementioned variables differ with respect to the actors’ position in the fertilizer supply chain. Methods Seven experts along the fertilizer supply chain were interviewed in an exploratory manner in order to identify new fertilizer technologies. Four technologies were selected, stabilized nitrogen fertilizer (SN), biofortification (BF), fertilizer made form secondary raw materials, like meat and bone meal (called SERO) and fertigation (FG). Based on this preliminary study, we conducted a survey among 47 actors of the fertilizer supply chain including fertilizer producers, wholesalers and farmers, as well as plant nutrition researchers. A simple regression model was used to explore the relationships between technological knowledge (TK), perceived usefulness (PU), the position in the supply chain (PSC), and the education level (EL) of the different actors. Findings In general, TK about the four new technologies clearly decreased downstream the fertilizer supply chain, producers showing the highest TK and PU of the new technologies However, this differed with respect to the different technologies analyzed. SN being well known by all partners, SERO and FG less known by researchers, wholesalers, traders and farmers, and biofortification best known by researchers. The possible explanation is that the four technologies are in different stages of the technology life cycle. Three of them are fully developed (SN, SERO and FG), but two are facing acceptance problems, caused by hygienic regulations (SERO) or high costs (FG). Biofortification is still under exploration and therefore better known by researchers. Only in the traders step a clear connection between EL and TK was found. In the other chain links EL is not affecting TK. Conclusions It could be clearly shown, that the supply chain perspective can be helpful when using the technology acceptance model. TK and PU highly diminish from producers to users (farmer). Farmers tend to rely on the knowledge of traders and wholesalers, because they have become accustomed to consulting and outsourcing. Therefore the knowledge sharing between producers and the rest of the supply chain needs improvement. Also researcher needs to be better aligned with the supply chain through extension to diffuse the scientific fertilizer knowledge to the supply chain.
|Smallholder inclusion in high value-adding supply chain by Food & Agribusiness Enterprises : A case study on black soybean in Java
Sjauw-Koen-Fa, A. ; Blok, V. ; Omta, S.W.F. - \ 2014
World agriculture faces increasing resource scarcity (land, water and phosphate) and growing environmental challenges (climate change effects, declining biodiversity, land degradation) and significant post-harvest food losses. As a consequence of a tighter and more volatile future food supply, global food insecurity will raise and conventional sourcing strategies of food and agribusiness enterprises will be affected. A growing number of private and public stakeholders are considering the crucial elements of an approach that meets the challenges of global food security and ecological responsible management of resources within a framework of inclusive business models. It is increasingly recognized that to guarantee global food supply, smallholder agriculture in developing and emerging economies needs to be integrated into high value adding local-, regional- but also international food supply chains. However, the inclusion of smallholders in high value supply chain, in particular in Asia and Africa, is highly complex. Small-scale farmers face major disadvantages in accessing high value supply chains. These include low volumes of produce to sell, variable quality, high transaction costs, poor functioning producer organizations and rural financial systems, and a limited ability to meet the high credence requirements of many high value outlets. They typically face a tilted playing field in terms of access to land, input, credit, technology and markets. The aspiration of food and agribusiness multinational enterprises (F&A MNEs) is to increase agricultural production by 20% while decreasing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% and reducing the prevalence of rural poverty by 20% each decade (WEF 2011). The WEF (2013, p. 4) reported that the initiatives taken by the public and private sector since the launching of ‘The New Vision of Agriculture’, will directly impact 12 million smallholder farmers in the next three to five years. The research question therefore arises: How can F&A MNEs be able to realise the so called 20/20/20 goals from a business perspective and therefore, how can they integrate smallholder supply in their core supply chains? Until now it is unclear how MNEs can realize smallholder inclusion in a manner that is both profitable and sustainable. Most pilot projects are supported and subsidized by governments, development agencies, NGOs or charitable organizations (i.e. Biénabe et al.,eds., 2011; Reardon et al.,2009). Smallholder inclusion pilot projects in which companies are involved, are often primarily CSR-driven. While this is how new experiences often begin prior to reaching mainstream corporate businesses and markets, the business perspective of investments in smallholders as supply source is still underrepresented in current research. In the present paper, we provide arguments for smallholder inclusion into high value supply chains from a business perspective. Based on an literature review, we identify potential keys to unlock smallholder agricultural production potential and elaborate on the challenges of smallholder inclusion in high value supply chains. A framework for an inclusive food strategy and an agenda for future research will be provided in the paper. This framework can help stakeholders along the food supply chain with the development of an inclusive food strategy in general, and F&A MNE’s in particular with the development of sustainable sourcing strategies. References Biénabe, E., Berdegué, J., Peppelenbos, L., and Belt, J., eds., 2011. Reconnecting Markets: Innovative Global Practices in connecting small-scale producers with dynamic food markets, Grower Publishing Limited, Farnham. Genier, C., Stamp, M. and Pfitzer, M., 2009. Corporate Social Responsibility for agro-industries development, Agro-industries for development, 223-252, FAO, UNIDO and CAB international, Rome. London, T. and Hart, S. L., eds. (2010). Next generation business strategies for the base of the pyramid. New approaches for building mutual value, Pearson Education, New Jersey. McIntyre, B.D., Herren, R.H., Wakhungu, J. and Watson, R.T., eds., 2009. Agriculture at a crossroad: Global report. IAASTD, Island Press, Washington. World Economic Forum, 2011. Realizing a new vision for agriculture: A road map for stakeholders, Geneva. World Economic Forum, 2013. Achieving the new vision for agriculture: New models for action, Geneva.
|Innovative approaches to improve sustainability of physical distribution in the Dutch agro-food industry
Pieters, R. ; Bogers, E. ; Glöckner, H.H. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Weijers, S. - \ 2014
Since the publication of the Brundlandt report (1987), organizations have put sustainability at the top of their agendas (Szekely & Knirsch, 2005). Nowadays sustainability is incorporated into the strategy of almost all organizations (De Ron, 2001; McDonough & Braungart, 2002). The agro-food sector has a long history of sustainable awareness on the use of land, water, pesticides, fertilizers and energy (Leaver, 2011; Leach et al., 2012). Most literature on transportation of agro business products concentrates on food security (Henson & Caswell, 1999; Maloni & Brown, 2006; Godfray et al., 2010). Few studies have addressed the role of sustainability when transporting agro-food product. But how do logistics service providers, shippers and private carriers in the agro-food industry translate strategic policies into tangible innovative sustainable physical distribution? This paper focuses on sustainability in physical distribution of agro-food products and the role logistics service providers, shippers and private carriers play in this process. Do they approach sustainability as an integrated and repeatable phenomenon or is it seen as a singular action concerning individual situations? And what are the new, innovative ideas concerning making physical distribution more sustainable which are generated by this process? The purpose of this study is to help increase our understanding on how the relationship between shipper, private carrier and logistics service provider in the food industry relates to improving sustainability. If properly understood, it will aid us in making physical distribution in the food industry more sustainable. We want to answer the following questions: 1. What innovative actions have Dutch logistics service providers, shippers and private carriers in the agro-food industry undertaken to make physical distribution more sustainable? 2. What can be learned from the experience of best cases on making physical distribution in the Dutch agro-food industry more sustainable? The conceptual framework for our research is based on the same heuristic model used in the 1994 NEA/Cranfield study. Weijers, Kuipers and Becker (2002) adapted this framework for research in industry driven innovations for logistics service providers. We have adapted their model to trace the elements in sustainable physical distribution trends. Figure 1 Conceptual Framework For this we have interviewed seven logistics service providers, two private carriers and four producers of agro-food items. We have asked them how they approach and improve sustainability within physical distribution. Which strategies they have developed for sustainability. What kind of actions do they undertake on the field of sustainability and if so, what kind of innovative ways they have introduced to make physical distribution of food items more sustainable. We found that most of these innovations were related to bilateral relationships between one shipper with one logistics service provider. Learning from experiences obtained by colleagues and competitors was not an issue. A pity, as we believe that sharing of experience will help the sector to improve sustainability within the physical distribution of food items. We will give examples where an innovation in shipping agro-food products created not only a positive effect on the sustainability in the physical distribution, but also created an unforeseen positive impact on other aspects in the value chain. Finally we will show the results of an in-depth research (Yin, 2009) into an interesting project in the Netherlands where various shippers of food items share transportation capacity with each other even if they are competitors for the same agro-food market. This sharing has increased the loading capacity and reduced cost drastically. References De Ron, A. 2001 Duurzaam ondernemen: een inleiding. Deventer, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Godfray, H. C. J., Beddington, J. R., Crute, I. R., Haddad, L., Lawrence, D., Muir, J. F., ... & Toulmin, C. (2010). Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science, 327(5967), 812-818. Henson, S., & Caswell, J. (1999). Food safety regulation: an overview of contemporary issues. Food policy, 24(6), 589-603. Leach, M., J. Rockström, P. Raskin, I. Scoones, A. C. Stirling, A. Smith, J. Thompson, E. Millstone, A. Ely, E. Arond, C. Folke, & P. Olsson. (2012) Transforming innovation for sustainability. Ecology and Society 17(2): 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04933-1711 Leaver, J. D. (2011). Global food supply: a challenge for sustainable agriculture. Nutrition Bulletin, 36(4), 416-421. doi:10.1111/j.1467-3010.2011.01925.x Maloni, M. J., & M. E Brown. 2006. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Supply Chain: An Application in the Food Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (1): 35-52. McDonough, W., & M. Braungart. 2002. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way we Make Things. New York, N.Y.: North Point Press. NEA/Cranfield. 1994. Future Logistics Structures, the development of integrated supply chain management across 6 industry sectors. Tilburg, The Netherlands: NEA/Cranfield. Szekely, F., & M. Knirsch. 2005. Responsible Leadership and Corporate Social Responsibility: Metrics for Sustainable Performance. European Management Journal 23 (6): 628-647. Tobler, C. , V.H. Visschers, M. Siegrist, (2011), Eating green. Consumers’ willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors. Appetite, 57 pp. 674–682 Vollenbroek, F. A. 2002. Sustainable development and the challenge of innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production 10 (3): 215–223. Weijers, S., B. Kuipers, & J. Beckers. 2002. Industry driven innovation for logistics service providers. Actes des Quatrièmes Rencontres Internacionales de la Recherche en Logistique http://www.airl-logistique.org/fr/files/?view=225 (accessed February 20 ,2012). World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our common future : the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. New York, N.Y. : Oxford University Press. Yin R. K. 2009. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 4th Edition. Thousands Oals, CA: SAGE
|Open innovation in the Agrifood industry
Omta, S.W.F. ; Fortuin, F.T.J.M. ; Dijkman, N.C. - \ 2014
The present paper aims to extend the discussion in the governance literature whether structural and relational governance mechanisms complement or substitute each other in R&D alliances. Where structural governance mechanisms refer to the division of tasks within the alliance and to upfront contractual and non-contractual input, output and risk related agreements, relational governance mechanisms refer to trust, using informal norms and rules for coordination purposes. In innovation literature much attention has been spend on relational governance, which is expected to offer more flexibility needed for innovation than the as rigid perceived regulations in structural governance. However, the authors argue that the essential role of structural governance as a solid basis for creating trust, especially in alliances in which the partners do not know each other, is clearly underexposed in management literature. To fill up this gap, a model conceptualizing the R&D alliance from inception to performance was tested using Partial Least Squares, employing a cross-sectional dataset of 94 R&D alliances in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The results indeed show the essential role of structural agreements to create a platform for trust on which relational governance can strive, while a clear task division can help to reduce the complexity of the inter-organizational innovation process, by reducing the interdependency of the partners. Both structural mechanisms ease the communication among the alliance partners, leading to a higher level of knowledge exchange, and ultimately leading to better alliance performance.