How can decision support tools help reduce nitrate and pesticide pollution from agriculture? A literature review and practical insights from the EU FAIRWAY project
Nicholson, Fiona ; Laursen, Rikke Krogshave ; Cassidy, Rachel ; Farrow, Luke ; Tendler, Linda ; Williams, John ; Surdyk, Nicolas ; Velthof, Gerard - \ 2020
Water 12 (2020)3. - ISSN 2073-4441
Catchment management - Diffuse pollution - Drinking water - DST - Farm advisors - Farm management - Model - Software
The FAIRWAY project reviewed approaches for protecting drinking water from nitrate and pesticide pollution. A comprehensive assessment of decision support tools (DSTs) used by farmers, advisors, water managers and policy makers across the European Union as an aid to meeting CAP objectives and targets was undertaken, encompassing paper-based guidelines, farm-level and catchment level software, and complex research models. More than 150 DSTs were identified, with 36 ranked for further investigation based on how widely they were used and/or their potential relevance to the FAIRWAY case studies. Of those, most were farm management tools promoting smart nutrient/pesticide use, with only three explicitly considering the impact of mitigation methods on water quality. Following demonstration and evaluation, 12 DSTs were selected for practical testing at nine diverse case study sites, based on their pertinence to local challenges and scales of interest. Barriers to DST exchange between member states were identified and information was collected about user requirements and attitudes. Key obstacles to exchange include differences in legislation, advisory frameworks, country-specific data and calibration requirements, geo-climate and issues around language. Notably, DSTs from different countries using the same input data sometimes delivered very different results. Whilst many countries have developed DSTs to address similar problems, all case study participants were able to draw inspiration from elsewhere. The support and advice provided by skilled advisors was highly valued, empowering end users to most effectively use DST outputs.
Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status : The NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries
Ghosh, Tarini Shankar ; Rampelli, Simone ; Jeffery, Ian B. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Neto, Marta ; Capri, Miriam ; Giampieri, Enrico ; Jennings, Amy ; Candela, Marco ; Turroni, Silvia ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Elodie, Caumon ; Brugere, Corinne Malpuech ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Berendsen, Agnes M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. De; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Kaluza, Joanna ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Bielak, Marta Jeruszka ; Comte, Blandine ; Maijo-Ferre, Monica ; Nicoletti, Claudio ; Vos, Willem M. de; Fairweather-Tait, Susan ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Brigidi, Patrizia ; Franceschi, Claudio ; O'Toole, Paul W. - \ 2020
Gut 69 (2020)7. - ISSN 0017-5749
ageing - diet - enteric bacterial microflora - inflammation - intestinal bacteria
Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty. Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet). Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.
Mediterranean-Style Diet Improves Systolic Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Older Adults
Jennings, A. ; Berendsen, A.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Brzozowska, A. ; Sicinska, Ewa ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Meunier, N. ; Caumon, Elodie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Ostan, Rita ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Gillings, Rachel ; O'Neill, C.M. ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J. ; Minihane, Anne-Marie ; Cassidy, Aedin - \ 2019
Hypertension 73 (2019)3. - ISSN 0194-911X - p. 578 - 586.
We aimed to determine the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet, tailored to meet dietary recommendations for older adults, on blood pressure and arterial stiffness. In 12 months, randomized controlled trial (NU-AGE [New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe]), blood pressure was measured in 1294 healthy participants, aged 65 to 79 years, recruited from 5 European centers, and arterial stiffness in a subset of 225 participants. The intervention group received individually tailored standardized dietary advice and commercially available foods to increase adherence to a Mediterranean diet. The control group continued on their habitual diet and was provided with current national dietary guidance. In the 1142 participants who completed the trial (88.2%), after 1 year the intervention resulted in a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (−5.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, −10.7 to −0.4; P=0.03), which was evident in males (−9.2 mm Hg, P=0.02) but not females (−3.1 mm
Changes in Dietary Intake and Adherence to the NU-AGE Diet Following a One-Year Dietary Intervention among European Older Adults-Results of the NU-AGE Randomized Trial
Berendsen, A.M. ; Rest, O. van de; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Ostan, R. ; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Brzozowska, A. ; Stelmaszczyk-Kusz, A. ; Jennings, A. ; Gillings, Rachel ; Cassidy, A. ; Caille, A. ; Caumon, Elodie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2018
Nutrients 10 (2018). - ISSN 2072-6643
Background: The Mediterranean Diet has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce inflammaging, a chronic low grade inflammatory status, and thus, to slow down the aging process. We evaluated whether a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern specifically targeting dietary recommendations of people aged over 65 years (NU-AGE diet) could be effective to shift dietary intake of older adults towards a healthful diet. Methods: Adults aged 65–80 years across five EU-centers were randomly assigned to a NU-AGE diet group or control group. The diet group followed one year of NU-AGE dietary intervention specifying consumption of 15 food groups plus the use of a vitamin D supplement. Participants in the diet group received counselling and individually tailored dietary advice, food products and a vitamin D supplement. Dietary intake was assessed by means of seven-day food records at baseline and one-year follow-up. A continuous NU-AGE index (0–160 points) was developed to assess NU-AGE diet adherence. Results: In total 1296 participants were randomized and 1141 participants completed the intervention (571 intervention, 570 control). After one year, the diet group improved mean intake of 13 out of 16 NU-AGE dietary components (p < 0.05), with a significant increase in total NU-AGE index (difference in mean change = 21.3 ± 15.9 points, p < 0.01). Conclusions: The NU-AGE dietary intervention, based on dietary recommendations for older adults, consisting of individual dietary counselling, free healthy foods and a vitamin D supplement, may be a feasible strategy to improve dietary intake in an aging European population.
A Mediterranean-like dietary pattern with Vitamin D3 (10 μg/d) supplements reduced the rate of bone loss in older Europeans with osteoporosis at baseline : Results of a 1-y randomized controlled trial
Jennings, Amy ; Cashman, Kevin D. ; Gillings, Rachel ; Cassidy, Aedin ; Tang, Jonathan ; Fraser, William ; Dowling, Kirsten G. ; Hull, George L.J. ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de; Pietruszka, Barbara ; Wierzbicka, Elzbieta ; Ostan, Rita ; Bazzocchi, Alberto ; Battista, Giuseppe ; Caumon, Elodie ; Meunier, Nathalie ; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne ; Franceschi, Claudio ; Santoro, Aurelia ; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J. - \ 2018
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 108 (2018)3. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 633 - 640.
bone - Mediterranean diet - older adults - Osteoporosis - Vitamin D supplementation
Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is widely recommended for the prevention of chronic disease, but evidence for a beneficial effect on bone health is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern [NU-AGE (New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe)] on indexes of inflammation with a number of secondary endpoints, including bone mineral density (BMD) and biomarkers of bone and collagen degradation in a 1-y multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT; NU-AGE) in elderly Europeans. Design: An RCT was undertaken across 5 European centers. Subjects in the intervention group consumed the NU-AGE diet for 1 y by receiving individually tailored dietary advice, coupled with supplies of foods including whole-grain pasta, olive oil, and a vitamin D3 supplement (10 μg/d). Participants in the control group were provided with leaflets on healthy eating available in their country. Results: A total of 1294 participants (mean ± SD age: 70.9 ±4.0 y; 44% male) were recruited to the study and 1142 completed the 1-y trial. The Mediterranean-like dietary pattern had no effect on BMD (site-specific or whole-body); the inclusion of compliance to the intervention in the statistical model did not change the findings. There was also no effect of the intervention on the urinary biomarkers free pyridinoline or free deoxypyridinoline. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D significantly increased and parathyroid hormone decreased (P < 0.001) in the MD compared with the control group. Subgroup analysis of individuals with osteoporosis at baseline (site-specific BMD T-score ≤ -2.5 SDs) showed that the MD attenuated the expected decline in femoral neck BMD (n = 24 and 30 in MD and control groups, respectively; P = 0.04) but had no effect on lumbar spine or whole-body BMD. Conclusions: A 1-y intervention of the Mediterranean-like diet together with vitamin D3 supplements (10 μg/d) had no effect on BMD in the normal age-related range, but it significantly reduced the rate of loss of bone at the femoral neck in individuals with osteoporosis. The NU-AGE trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.
Natural attenuation of chlorinated ethenes in hyporheic zones : A review of key biogeochemical processes and in-situ transformation potential
Weatherill, John J. ; Atashgahi, Siavash ; Schneidewind, Uwe ; Krause, Stefan ; Ullah, Sami ; Cassidy, Nigel ; Rivett, Michael O. - \ 2018
Water Research 128 (2018). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 362 - 382.
Biogeochemistry - Biotransformation - Chlorinated ethenes - Heterogeneity - Hyporheic zone - Natural attenuation
Chlorinated ethenes (CEs) are legacy contaminants whose chemical footprint is expected to persist in aquifers around the world for many decades to come. These organohalides have been reported in river systems with concerning prevalence and are thought to be significant chemical stressors in urban water ecosystems. The aquifer-river interface (known as the hyporheic zone) is a critical pathway for CE discharge to surface water bodies in groundwater baseflow. This pore water system may represent a natural bioreactor where anoxic and oxic biotransformation process act in synergy to reduce or even eliminate contaminant fluxes to surface water. Here, we critically review current process understanding of anaerobic CE respiration in the competitive framework of hyporheic zone biogeochemical cycling fuelled by in-situ fermentation of natural organic matter. We conceptualise anoxic-oxic interface development for metabolic and co-metabolic mineralisation by a range of aerobic bacteria with a focus on vinyl chloride degradation pathways. The superimposition of microbial metabolic processes occurring in sediment biofilms and bulk solute transport delivering reactants produces a scale dependence in contaminant transformation rates. Process interpretation is often confounded by the natural geological heterogeneity typical of most riverbed environments. We discuss insights from recent field experience of CE plumes discharging to surface water and present a range of practical monitoring technologies which address this inherent complexity at different spatial scales. Future research must address key dynamics which link supply of limiting reactants, residence times and microbial ecophysiology to better understand the natural attenuation capacity of hyporheic systems.
|Communities, Wildlife and tourism: a landscape planning approach for Chobe District and transboundary areas, Northern Botswana
Sluis, T. van der; Veenendaal, E. ; Cassidy, L. - \ 2017
Chobe district integrated land use plan
Sluis, Theo van der; Cassidy, Lin ; Brooks, Chris ; Wolski, Piotr ; VanderPost, Cornelis ; Wit, Piet ; Henkens, Rene ; Eupen, Michiel van; Mosepele, K. ; Maruapula, O. ; Veenendaal, Elmar - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2813) - 181
land use - sustainability - tourism - ecosystems - savannas - botswana - landgebruik - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - toerisme - ecosystemen - savannen - botswana
Supplementary data Chobe district land use plan
Sluis, T. van der; Cassidy, L. ; Brooks, C. ; Wolski, P. ; Vanderpost, C. ; Wit, P. de; Henkes, R. ; Eupen, M. van; Mosepele, K. ; Maruapula, O. ; Veenendaal, E.M. - \ 2017
Wageningen Environmental Research
Role of microbial accumulation in biological sulphate reduction using lactate as electron donor in an inversed fluidized bed bioreactor : Operation and dynamic mathematical modelling
Cassidy, J. ; Frunzo, L. ; Lubberding, H.J. ; Villa-Gomez, D.K. ; Esposito, G. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2017
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 121 (2017). - ISSN 0964-8305 - p. 1 - 10.
Bioprocess control - Modelling - Substrate accumulation - Sulfate reducing bacteria - Wastewater
This study evaluated the impact of substrate accumulation (sulphate and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)) on bioprocess control of a sulfate reducing inversed fluidized bed bioreactor. To investigate the impact of substrate accumulation, step feed changes were induced to an inversed fluidized bed bioreactor performing biological sulphate reduction. A first step feed change set both the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate influent concentration to zero. As hypothesised, sulphide was still being produced after 15 days of operation without electron donor and sulphate supply. This suggests that accumulated and/or sorbed COD and sulphate supported the continued biological sulphide production. PHB was indeed found present in the sludge and batch tests showed PHB can support the sulphate reduction. A second step feed change of adding solely COD (and no sulphate) to the bioreactor influent resulted in a continuous production of sulphide, suggesting that sulphate had accumulated in the inversed fluidized bed bioreactor sludge. A mathematical model that includes microbial growth, PHB and sulphate storage as well as metabolism of lactate oxidizing sulphate reducing bacteria was developed, calibrated and validated. The model was able to simulate the accumulation of both PHB and sulphate in the inversed fluidized bed bioreactor.
Automated biological sulphate reduction: a review on mathematical models, monitoring and bioprocess control
Cassidy, J. ; Lubberding, H.J. ; Esposito, G. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2015
FEMS Microbiology Reviews 39 (2015)6. - ISSN 0168-6445 - p. 823 - 853.
In the sulphate-reducing process, bioprocess control can be used to regulate the competition between microbial groups, to optimize the input of the electron donor and/or to maximize or minimize the production of sulphide. As shown in this review, modelling and monitoring are important tools in the development and application of a bioprocess control strategy. Pre-eminent literature on modelling, monitoring and control of sulphate-reducing processes is reviewed. This paper firstly reviews existing mathematical models for sulphate reduction, focusing on models for biofilms, microbial competition, inhibition and bioreactor dynamics. Secondly, a summary of process monitoring strategies is presented. Special attention is given to in situ sensors for sulphate, sulphide and electron donor concentrations as well as for biomass activity and composition. Finally, the state of the art of the bioprocess control strategies in biological sulphate reduction processes is overviewed.
Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors
Villa Gomez, D.K. ; Cassidy, J. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Sampaio, R.M. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2014
Water Research 50 (2014). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 48 - 58.
afvalwaterbehandeling - bioreactoren - sulfiden - waste water treatment - bioreactors - sulfides - anaerobic-digestion process - acid-mine drainage - waste-water treatment - stirred-tank reactor - zns precipitation - hydrogen-sulfide - control design - reduction - bacteria - culture
Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4 2- ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The sulfide was measured using a sulfide ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters.
Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO42- ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The sulfide was measured using a sulfide ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral -derivative (PID) controller parameters. The experiments were performed in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with automated operation using the LabVIEW software version 2009 (R). A rapid response and high sulfide increment was obtained through a stepwise increase in the CODin, concentration, while a stepwise decrease to the HRT exhibited a slower response with smaller sulfide increment. Irrespective of the way the OLR was decreased, the PS response showed a time-varying behavior due to sulfide accumulation (HRT change) or utilization of substrate sources that were not accounted for (CODin change). The pS electrode response, however, showed to be informative for applications in sulfate reducing bioreactors. Nevertheless, the recorded pS values need to be corrected for pH variations and high sulfide concentrations (>200 mg/L). (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Diseases: Is there a Role for ther Antioxidant Porperties?
Hollman, P.C.H. - \ 2013
Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 62 (2013)2. - ISSN 0250-6807 - p. 149 - 149.
The potential health effects of antioxidants have attracted much interest and enthusiasm of consumers and food industry. Recently, we performed a Google search with the search term “antioxidant foods” and found more than 12 million hits! Among others, the internet gives lists of the “top 10 of antioxidant foods”, and heavily advertises “super antioxidant foods” etc. In this context, the large family of polyphenols, antioxidants ubiquitous in plant foods, has been studied extensively. Many authors have linked the antioxidant activity of polyphenols to the beneficial effects of vegetables and fruit. A still growing number of epidemiological studies showed that the intake of polyphenol-rich foods (tea, red wine, cacao, onions, and apples) was inversely associated with CVD . These associations have also been demonstrated for individual polyphenols (mainly flavonols and flavan-3-ols) [2–4]. In addition, well conducted clinical trials with polyphenol-rich foods showed beneficial effects on intermediate markers of CVD [5, 6]. These studies might suggest that a relation exists between the antioxidant activity of polyphenols and their health effects. However, what’s the evidence for such a relation? The Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) of foods and plasma or serum has been commonly measured. These methods try to measure the total amount of antioxidants in these samples. Furthermore, products of lipid peroxidation, e.g. F2 isoprostanen, hydroperoxides and oxidised LDL have been frequently measured . However, a causal relation between these biomarkers of antioxidant activity and CVD has not been established. Thus the physiological relevance of a potential change in this biomarkers is unclear . So, there seems to be no beneficial direct antioxidant effect of polyphenols. The reasons for this lack of effect will be discussed. References: 1 Arts IC, Hollman PC: Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:317S–325S. 2 Hertog MGL, Feskens EJ M, Hollman PCH, Katan MB, Kromhout D: Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 1993;342:1007–1011. 3 Arts IC, Hollman PC, Feskens EJ, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Kromhout D: Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:227–232. 4 Hollman PC, Geelen A, Kromhout D: Dietary Flavonol Intake May Lower Stroke Risk in Men and Women. J Nutr 2010;140:600–604. 5 Hooper L, Kay C, Abdelhamid A, Kroon PA, Cohn JS, Rimm EB, Cassidy A: Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:740–751. 6 Ried K, Sullivan TR, Fakler P, Frank OR, Stocks NP: Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. Cochrane DB Syst Rev 2012:1–81.
|Bioavailability of isoflavones in humans
Cassidy, A. ; Penalvo, J. ; Hollman, P.C.H. - \ 2012
In: Flavonoids and related compounds : bioavailability and function / Spencer, J.P.E., Crozier, A., CRC Press (Oxidative Stress and Disease ) - ISBN 9781439848265 - 471 p.
The Biological Relevance of Direct Antioxidant Effects of Polyphenols for Cardiovascular Health in Humans Is Not Established
Hollman, P.C.H. ; Cassidy, A. ; Comte, B. ; Heinonen, M. ; Richelle, M. ; Richling, E. ; Serafini, M. ; Scalbert, A. ; Sies, H. ; Vidry, S. - \ 2011
The Journal of Nutrition 141 (2011)5. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 989S - 1009S.
performance liquid-chromatography - coronary-heart-disease - lipid-peroxidation products - low-density-lipoprotein - black tea consumption - flavanol-rich cocoa - serum uric-acid - oxidative stress status - grape seed extract - major food sources
Human studies provide evidence for beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich foods on cardiovascular health. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols potentially explains these effects, but is the antioxidant activity a reliable predictor for these effects? An International Life Sciences Institute Europe working group addressed this question and explored the potential of antioxidant claims for polyphenols in relation to cardiovascular health by using the so-called Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods project criteria. In this process, analytical aspects of polyphenols, their occurrence in foods, dietary intake, and bioavailability were reviewed. Human studies on polyphenols and cardiovascular health were reviewed together with methods for biomarkers of oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). In retrospective studies, F2-isoprostanes and oxidized LDL, the most reliable biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, and measures for TAC showed the expected differences between cardiovascular disease patients and healthy controls, but prospective studies are lacking, and a causal relationship between these biomarkers and cardiovascular health could not be established. Therefore, the physiological relevance of a potential change in these biomarkers is unclear. We found limited evidence that some types of polyphenol-rich products modify these biomarkers in humans. A direct antioxidant effect of polyphenols in vivo is questionable, however, because concentrations in blood are low compared with other antioxidants and extensive metabolism following ingestion lowers their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the biological relevance of direct antioxidant effects of polyphenols for cardiovascular health could not be established. Overall, although some polyphenol-rich foods exert beneficial effects on some biomarkers of cardiovascular health, there is no evidence that this is caused by improvements in antioxidant function biomarkers (oxidative damage or antioxidant capacity). J. Nutr. 141: 989S-1009S, 2011.
Absorption of isoflavones in humans: effects of food matrix and processing
Pascual-Teresa, S. de; Hallund, J. ; Talbot, D. ; Schroot, J.H. ; Williams, C.H. ; Bugel, S. ; Cassidy, A. - \ 2006
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 17 (2006)4. - ISSN 0955-2863 - p. 257 - 264.
soybean isoflavones - chemical-composition - beta-glucosidase - estrogen equol - human-urine - soy - genistein - daidzein - women - phytoestrogens
If soy isoflavones are to be effective in preventing or treating a range of diseases, they must be bioavailable, and thus understanding factors which may alter their bioavailability needs to be elucidated. However, to date there is little information on whether the pharmacokinetic profile following ingestion of a defined dose is influenced by the food matrix in which the isoflavone is given or by the processing method used. Three different foods (cookies, chocolate bars and juice) were prepared, and their isoflavone contents were determined. We compared the urinary and serum concentrations of daidzein, genistein and equol following the consumption of three different foods, each of which contained 50 mg of isoflavones. After the technological processing of the different test foods, differences in aglycone levels were observed. The plasma levels of the isoflavone precursor daidzein were not altered by food matrix. Urinary daidzein recovery was similar for all three foods ingested with total urinary output of 33¿34% of ingested dose. Peak genistein concentrations were attained in serum earlier following consumption of a liquid matrix rather than a solid matrix, although there was a lower total urinary recovery of genistein following ingestion of juice than that of the two other foods.
A polyphasic approach for studying the interaction between Ralstonia solanacearum and potential control agents in the tomato phytosphere
Overbeek, L.S. van; Cassidy, M. ; Kozdroj, J. ; Trevors, J.T. ; Elsas, J.D. van - \ 2002
Journal of Microbiological Methods 48 (2002). - ISSN 0167-7012 - p. 69 - 86.
Ralstonia solanacearum - tomato - Ralstonia solanacearum
Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, the causative agent of brown rot in potato, has been responsible for large crop losses in Northwest Europe during the last decade. Knowledge on the ecological behaviour of R. solanacearum and its antagonists is required to develop sound procedures for its control and eradication in infested fields. A polyphasic approach was used to study the invasion of plants by a selected R. solanacearum biovar 2 strain, denoted 1609, either or not in combination with the antagonistic strains Pseudomonas corrugata IDV1 and P. fluorescens UA5-40. Thus, this study combined plating (spread and drop plate methods), reporter gene technology (gfp mutants) and serological (imunofluorescence colony staining [IFC]) and molecular techniques (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH], PCR with R. solanacearum specific primers and PCR–DGGE on plant DNA extracts). The behaviour of R. solanacearum 1609 and the two control strains was studied in bulk and (tomato) rhizosphere soil and the rhizoplane and stems of tomato plants. The results showed that an interaction between the pathogen and the control strains at the root surface was likely. In particular, R. solanacearum 1609 CFU numbers were significantly reduced on tomato roots treated with P. corrugata IDV1(chr::gfp1) cells as compared to those on untreated roots. Concomitant with the presence of P. corrugata IDV1(chr::gfp1), plant invasion by the pathogen was hampered, but not abolished. PCR–DGGE analyses of the tomato rhizoplane supported the evidence for antagonistic activity against the pathogen; as only weak R. solanacearum 1609 specific bands were detected in profiles derived from mixed systems versus strong bands in profiles from systems containing only the pathogen. Using FISH, a difference in root colonization was demonstrated between the pathogen and one of the two antagonists, i.e. P. corrugata IDV1(chr::gfp1); R. solanacearum strain 1609 was clearly detected in the vascular cylinder of tomato plants, whereas strain IDV1 was absent. R. solanacearum 1609 cells were also detected in stems of plants that had developed in soils treated with this strain, even in cases in which disease symptoms were absent, indicating the occurrence of symptomless infection. In contrast, strain 1609 cells were not found in stems of several plants treated with either one of the two antagonists. The polyphasic analysis is valuable for testing antagonistic strains for approval as biocontrol agents in agricultural practice
Free-living nematodes from nature reserves in Costa Rica 2. Mononchina
Zullini, A. ; Loof, P.A.A. ; Bongers, T. - \ 2002
Nematology 4 (2002)1. - ISSN 1388-5545 - p. 1 - 23.
In soil, moss and freshwater habitats of tropical forests in Costa Rica, 20 mononch species were found. Two are described as new species. Mononchus laminatus n. sp. (L = 1.5-1.9 mm, buccal capsule 29-31 × 11-14 μm, c′ = 3.6-4.9, similar to M. aquaticus but with a subventral lamina present in anterior part of buccal cavity, and amphid aperture posterior to the dorsal tooth) and Miconchus gomezi n. sp. (similar to M. digiturus, but with slender body, vulva cuticularised and with a reduced posterior genital branch). The known species are redescribed, the well-known ones briefly, the less known more extensively. Brazilian and Costa Rican specimens of Paracrassibucca paucidentata Lordello, 1970 were studied and a lectotype has been designated. The other species found are: Mononchus truncatus Bastian, 1865; M. aquaticus Coetzee, 1968; M. tunbridgensis Bastian, 1865; Coomansus parvus (de Man, 1880); Coomansus sp. (C. zschokkei-group); Prionchulus muscorum (Dujardin, 1845); P. punctatus Cobb, 1917; Cobbonchus coetzeeae Andrássy, 1970; Mylonchulus contractus Jarirajpuri, 1970; M. hawaiiensis (Cassidy, 1931); M. obtusicaudatus (von Daday, 1899); M. parabrachyuris (Thorne, 1924); M. sigmaturus Cobb, 1917; Mulveyellus monhystera (Cobb, 1917); Iotonchus tenuidentatus (Kreis, 1924); I. trichurus Cobb, 1917 and Miconchus digiturus (Cobb, 1893).
|Mineralization of Pentachlorophenol in a contaminated soil by Pseudomonas sp UG30 cells encapsulated in k-carrageenan.
Cassidy, M.B. ; Mulleneers, H.A.E. ; Lee, H. ; Trevors, J.T. - \ 1997
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 19 (1997)1. - ISSN 1367-5435 - p. 43 - 48.
|Synthesis of the enantiomeric K-region arene 5,6-oxides derived from chrysene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and benzo[c]phenanthrene
Balani, S.K. ; Bladeren, P.J. van; Cassidy, E.S. ; Boyd, D.R. ; Jerina, D.M. - \ 1987
Journal of Organic Chemistry 52 (1987). - ISSN 0022-3263 - p. 137 - 144.