Strain-specific probiotic properties of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli for the prevention of diarrhea caused by rotavirus in a preclinical model
Azagra-Boronat, Ignasi ; Massot-Cladera, Malén ; Knipping, Karen ; Garssen, Johan ; Amor, Kaouther Ben; Knol, Jan ; Franch, Àngels ; Castell, Margarida ; Rodríguez-Lagunas, María J. ; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J. - \ 2020
Nutrients 12 (2020)2. - ISSN 2072-6643
Diarrhea - Probiotic - Rotavirus - Suckling rats
Probiotic supplementation with different lactobacilli and bifidobacterial strains has demonstrated beneficial effects in infectious diarrhea caused by rotavirus (RV) in young children. Preclinical models of RV infection might be a good strategy to screen for the efficacy of new probiotic strains or to test their comparative efficacy. Neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, or Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 from days 2–14 of life. On day five, animals received RV SA-11 orally. Fecal samples were collected daily, weighed, and scored for the calculation of severity and incidence of diarrhea. In addition, fecal pH and fecal viral shedding were measured. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and their blood was obtained for the quantification of RV-specific immunoglobulins. RV infection was induced in ~90% of the animals. All probiotics caused a reduction of several clinical variables of severity and incidence of diarrhea, except L. salivarius PS2. L. acidophilus NCFM, B. breve M-16V, and L. helveticus R0052 seemed to be very effective probiotic strains. In addition, all Lactobacillus strains reduced the viral elimination one day post-inoculation. No differences were detected in the specific anti-RV humoral response. The present study highlights the strain-specific effects of probiotics and identifies promising probiotics for use in ameliorating and preventing RV-induced diarrhea in children, for example by including them in infant formulas.
O3 and NOx Exchange
Loubet, B. ; Castell, J.F. ; Laville, P. ; Personne, E. ; Tuzet, A. ; Ammann, C. ; Emberson, L. ; Ganzeveld, L. ; Kowalski, A.S. ; Merbold, L. ; Stella, P. ; Tuovinen, J.P. - \ 2015
In: Review and Integration of Biosphere-Atmosphere Modelling of Reactive Trace Gases and Volatile Aerosols / Massad, Raia-Silva, Loubet, Benjamin, Springer Netherlands - ISBN 9789401772846 - p. 163 - 167.
This discussion was based on the background document “Review on modelling atmosphere-biosphere exchange of Ozone and Nitrogen oxides”, which reviews the processes contributing to biosphere-atmosphere exchange of O3 and NOx, including stomatal and non-stomatal exchange of O3 and NO, NO2. Non-stomatal exchange, including soil and chemical reactions in the canopy airspace is discussed, with a focus on how these processes are influenced by turbulent transport in the canopy. Existing models are reviewed, from big-leaf and two layer resistance to multi-layer models. Based on this background document, the discussion in the working group was organized to discuss the current gaps in modelling O3-NO-NO2 exchange and the ideal model that should be developed.
|A novel approach to quantify agricultural sustainability using fuzzy set theory
Cornelissen, A.M.G. - \ 1999
In: Synergy Matters. Working with systems in the 21st century. Proc. 6th International Conference of the UK Systems Society, july 1999, Lincoln / A.M. Castell, A.J. Gregory, G.A. Hindle, M.E. James and G. Ragsdell (eds.). - New York : Kluwer Academic/PlenumPublishers, 1999 - p. 49 - 54.