Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Convergent xylem widening among organs across diverse woody seedlings
Zhong, Mengying ; Castro-Díez, Pilar ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Sterck, Frank J. ; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C. - \ 2019
New Phytologist 222 (2019)4. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 1873 - 1882.
leaf area - organs - plant size - stem height - tissue density - vessel diameter - xylem anatomy

Xylem conduit diameter (D max ) of woody angiosperm adults scales with plant size and widens from the stem apex downwards. We hypothesized that, notwithstanding relative growth rate (RGR), growth form or leaf habit, woody seedling conduit D max scales linearly with plant size across species; this scaling should be applicable to all vegetative organs, with consistent conduit widening from leaf via stem to main root and coupling with whole-leaf area and whole-stem xylem area. To test these hypotheses, organ-specific xylem anatomy traits and size-related traits in laboratory-grown seedlings were analyzed across 55 woody European species from cool-temperate and Mediterranean climates. As hypothesized, conduit D max of each organ showed similar scaling with plant size and consistent basipetal widening from the leaf midvein via the stem to the main root across species, independently of growth form, RGR and leaf habit. We also found a strong correlation between D max and average leaf area, and between stem xylem area and whole-plant leaf area. We conclude that seedlings of ecologically wide-ranging woody species converge in their allometric scaling of conduit diameters within and across plant organs. These relationships will contribute to modeling of water transport in woody vegetation that accounts for the whole life history from the trees’ regeneration phase to adulthood.

Resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato germplasm
Yan, Zhe ; Pérez-de-Castro, Ana ; Díez, Maria J. ; Hutton, Samuel F. ; Visser, Richard G.F. ; Wolters, Anne-Marie A. ; Bai, Yuling ; Li, Junming - \ 2018
Frontiers in Plant Science 9 (2018). - ISSN 1664-462X
Begomovirus - Resistance - S. chilense - S. peruvianum - Solanum lycopersicum - Tomato - TYLCV

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a virus species causing epidemics in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) worldwide. Many efforts have been focused on identification of resistance sources by screening wild tomato species. In many cases, the accession numbers were either not provided in publications or not provided in a consistent manner, which led to redundant screenings. In the current study, we summarized efforts on the screenings of wild tomato species for TYLCV resistance from various publications. In addition, we screened 708 accessions from 13 wild tomato species using different inoculation assays (i.e., whitefly natural infection and Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation) from which 138 accessions exhibited no tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) symptoms. These symptomless accessions include 14 accessions from S. arcanum, 43 from S. chilense, 1 from S. chmielewskii, 28 from S. corneliomulleri, 5 from S. habrochaites, 4 from S. huaylasense, 2 from S. neorickii, 1 from S. pennellii, 39 from S. peruvianum, and 1 from S. pimpinellifolium. Most of the screened S. chilense accessions remained symptomless. Many symptomless accessions were also identified in S. arcanum, S. corneliomulleri, and S. peruvianum. A large number of S. pimpinellifolium accessions were screened. However, almost all of the tested accessions showed TYLCD symptoms. Further, we studied allelic variation of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene in few S. chilense accessions by applying virus-induced gene silencing and allele mining, leading to identification of a number of allele-specific polymorphisms. Taken together, we present a comprehensive overview on TYLCV resistance and susceptibility in wild tomato germplasm, and demonstrate how to study allelic variants of the cloned Ty-genes in TYLCV-resistant accessions.

Contrasting secondary growth and water use efficiency patterns in native and exotic trees co-occurring in inner Spain riparian forests
González Muñoz, N. ; Linares, J.C. ; Castro-Diez, P. ; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. - \ 2015
Forest Systems 24 (2015)1. - ISSN 2171-5068 - 10 p.
Aim of study: The invasive trees Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia are widely spreading in inner Spain riparian forests, where they co-occur with the natives Fraxinus angustifolia and Ulmus minor. In a climate change context, we aimed to identify some of the species traits that are leading these species to success (Basal Area Increment (BAI) and water-use efficiency (iWUE)). We also aimed to describe the main environmental variables controlling studied species BAI. Area of study: Riparian forests of centralSpain. Material and Methods: We measured tree-ring width and converted it to basal area increment (BAI); intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) was estimated from tree ring carbon isotopes (d13C). We compared the BAI and iWUE of the last 20 years between origins (native vs exotic) and among species. For each species, we evaluated iWUE and BAI relationships. Linear mixed-effect models were performed to identify the main environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, river flow) affecting BAI. Main result: Native trees showed higher mean BAI than invaders, mainly due to the rising growth rate of U. minor. Invaders showed higher mean iWUE than natives. We did not find significant correlations between iWUE and BAI in any case. Warm temperatures in autumn positively affected the BAI of the natives, but negatively that of the invaders. Research highlights: The contrasting effect of autumn temperatures on native and invasive species BAI suggests that invaders will be more hampered by the rising temperatures predicted for this century. The higher iWUE found for the invaders did not translate into increased radial growth, suggesting that drought stress may have prevented them of taking advantage of increased atmospheric CO2 for a faster growth. These findings point out that neither climate change nor rising CO2 seem to enhance the success of study invasive species over the natives in riparian forests of central Spain. Furthermore, the low BAI of R. pseudoacacia, and its climate-growth model suggest that climate change may especially hamper the success of this invader.
Assessing the genetic variation of Ty-1 and Ty-3 alleles conferring resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus in a broad tomato germplasm
Caro Rios, C.M. ; Verlaan, M.G. ; Julian, O. ; Finkers, H.J. ; Wolters, A.M.A. ; Hutton, S.F. ; Scott, J.W. ; Kormelink, R.J.M. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Diez, M.J. ; Perez-de-Castro, A. ; Bai, Y. - \ 2015
Molecular Breeding 35 (2015). - ISSN 1380-3743 - 13 p.
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) hampers tomato production worldwide. Our previous studies have focussed on mapping and ultimately cloning of the TYLCV resistance genes Ty-1 and Ty-3. Both genes are derived from Solanum chilense and were shown to be allelic. They code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) belonging to the RDR¿ type defined by a DFDGD catalytic domain. In this study, we first fine-mapped the TYLCV resistance in S. chilense LA1932, LA1960 and LA1971. Results showed that chromosomal intervals of the causal genes in these TYLCV-resistant accessions overlap and cover the region where Ty-1/Ty-3 is located. Further, virus-induced gene silencing was used to silence Ty-1/Ty-3 in tomato lines carrying TYLCV resistance introgressed from S. chilense LA1932, LA1938 and LA1971. Results showed that silencing Ty-1/Ty-3 compromised the resistance in lines derived from S. chilense LA1932 and LA1938. The LA1971-derived material remained resistant upon silencing Ty-1/Ty-3. Further, we studied the allelic variation of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene by examining cDNA sequences from nine S. chilense-derived lines/accessions and more than 80 tomato cultivars, landraces and accessions of related wild species. The DFDGD catalytic domain of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene is conserved among all tomato lines and species analysed. In addition, the 12 base pair insertion at the 5-prime part of the Ty-1/Ty-3 gene was found not to be specific for the TYLCV resistance allele. However, compared with the susceptible ty-1 allele, the Ty-1/Ty-3 allele is characterized by three specific amino acids shared by seven TYLCV-resistant S. chilense accessions or derived lines. Thus, Ty-1/Ty-3-specific markers can be developed based on these polymorphisms. Elevated transcript levels were observed for all tested S. chilenseRDR alleles (both Ty-1 and ty-1 alleles), demonstrating that elevated expression level is not a good selection criterion for a functional Ty-1/Ty-3 allele.
Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios
González-Muñoz, N. ; Linares, J.C. ; Castro-Díez, P. ; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W. - \ 2014
European Journal of Forest Research 133 (2014)6. - ISSN 1612-4669 - p. 1073 - 1086.
quercus-petraea - acacia-dealbata - environment interaction - pinus-halepensis - seedling growth - diameter growth - northwest spain - drought stress - responses - oak
The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests of Northwest Spain, where the exotic invaders Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus co-occur with the natives Quercus robur and Quercus pyrenaica and the naturalized Pinus pinaster. We selected adult, dominant trees of each species, collected increment cores, measured the ring width and estimated the basal area increment (BAI, cm2 year-1). Climate/growth models were built by using linear mixed-effect models, where the previous-year BAI and seasonal temperature and precipitation were the fixed factors and the individual the random factor. These models were run to project the fate of studied species in the A2 and B2 CO2 emission scenarios until 2100. The models explained over 50 % of BAI variance in all species but E. globulus, where growth probably occurs whenever a minimum environmental requirement is met. Warm autumns favoured BAI of both natives, probably due to an extension of leaf lifespan, but hampered A. dealbata and P. pinaster BAI, maybe because of water imbalance and/or the depletion of carbon reserves. The projections yielded a positive BAI trend for both Quercus along the twenty-first century, but negative for the invader A. dealbata and clearly declining for the naturalized P. pinaster. Our results disagree with previous literature pointing at climate change as a driver of invasive species’ success and call for further studies regarding the effect of climate change on co-occurring natives and invaders.
Predicting Acacia invasive success in South Africa on the basis of functional traits, native climatic niche, and human use
Castro-Diëz, P. ; Langendoen, T. ; Poorter, L. ; Saldaña-Lopez, A. - \ 2011
Biodiversity and Conservation 20 (2011)12. - ISSN 0960-3115 - p. 2729 - 2743.
alien plant invasions - mediterranean islands - species traits - global-scale - invaders - attributes - management - dispersal - patterns - consequences
Australian Acacia species have been widely planted worldwide for different purposes. Some of them have spread and altered the native ecosystem functions to the extent of being considered economic and ecologic threats. Understanding factors that allow these species to become invasive is an important step for mitigating or preventing the damaging effects of invasive species. We aimed to test the importance of native niche climatic width and average, plant functional traits (plant height, leaf area, seed mass and length of flowering season) and anthropogenic factors (number of uses, time since introduction) for predicting invasive success, in terms of abundance and range, of 16 Australian Acacia species in South Africa. By using multiple regression analysis, we constructed one different model for each type of predicting factors. When more than two predicting variables were available in a category, they were reduced to a maximum of two predictors by means of principal component analysis. Acacia spp. abundance and range in South Africa were highly correlated. The anthropogenic model (using number of human uses as predictor) was the best to explain both abundance and range of acacias in South Africa. This may be attributed to the importance of humans as dispersal vectors and to the relatively recent introduction of these species (circa 150 years). The functional traits model was the next best model explaining Acacia range, but not abundance, acacias with higher height and leaf area being more widespread in South Africa. Taller plants may disperse their seeds more efficiently by attracting dispersal agents, such as birds. The climatic affinities model was the following in the ranking explaining both range and abundance, acacias coming from moister, cooler and less seasonal regions in Australia being more successful in South Africa. This pattern may be attributed to the fast growth genotype generally selected for under low climatic stress conditions. Acacias with wide climatic niche in the native region were also more widespread and abundant in South Africa, probably because the same traits that allow them to be widespread in Australia, also contribute to overcome the climatic filters to establish throughout South Africa. This study provides managers with tools to identify those exotic Acacia ssp. having more chances to become successful invaders in South Africa.
Comparison of leaf decomposition and macroinvertebrate colonization between exotic and native trees in a freshwater ecosystem
Alonso, A. ; Gonzalez-Munoz, N. ; Castro-Diez, P. - \ 2010
Ecological Research 25 (2010)3. - ISSN 0912-3814 - p. 647 - 653.
alien plant invasions - riparian vegetation - litter decomposition - streams - shredders - breakdown - rates - invertebrates - communities - habitats
One of the most important sources of energy in aquatic ecosystems is the allochthonous input of detritus. Replacement of native tree species by exotic ones affects the quality of detritus entering freshwater ecosystems. This replacement can alter nutrient cycles and community structure in aquatic ecosystems. The aims of our study were (1) to compare leaf litter decomposition of two widely distributed exotic species (Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia) with the native species they coexist with (Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia), and (2) to compare macroinvertebrate colonization among litters of the invasive and native species. Litter bags of the four tree species were placed in the water and collected every 2, 25, 39, 71, and 95 days in a lentic ecosystem. Additionally, the macroinvertebrate community on litter bags was monitored after 25, 39, and 95 days. Several leaf chemistry traits were measured at the beginning (% lignin; lignin:N, C:N, LMA) and during the study (leaf total nitrogen). We detected variable rates of decomposition among species (k values of 0.009, 0.008, 0.008, and 0.005 for F. angustifolia, U. minor, A. altissima and R. pseudoacacia, respectively), but we did not detect an effect of litter source (from native/exotic). In spite of its low decay, the highest leaf nitrogen was found in R. pseudoacacia litter. Macroinvertebrate communities colonizing litter bags were similar across species. Most of them were collectors (i.e., they feed on fine particulate organic matter), suggesting that leaf material of either invasive or native trees was used as substrate both for the animals and for the organic matter they feed on. Our results suggest that the replacement of the native Fraxinus by Robinia would imply a reduction in the rate of leaf processing and also a slower release of leaf nitrogen to water.
Effects of exotic invasive trees on nitrogen cycling: a case study in Central Spain
Castro-Diez, P. ; González-Muñoz, N. ; Alonso, A. ; Gallardo, A. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2009
Biological Invasions 11 (2009)8. - ISSN 1387-3547 - p. 1973 - 1986.
2 mediterranean ecosystems - litter decomposition rate - soil properties - leaf-litter - c-4 grasses - impacts - forest - plants - availability - water
We assess the hypothesis that rates of nitrogen transformations in the soil are altered upon replacement of native by exotic trees, differing in litter properties. Ailanthus altissima and Robinia pseudoacacia, two common exotic trees naturalized in the Iberian Peninsula, were compared with the native trees Ulmus minor and Fraxinus angustifolia, respectively. Naturally senesced leaves of each species were collected and C:N ratio, N and lignin content assessed. We prepared 64 litter bags per species and left them to decompose, below the canopy of the same species and below the canopy of the paired species. Dry mass, N concentration and N pool of the remaining litter were assessed after 5 and 7 months. Soil samples were collected three times during the experiment to assess soil moisture, organic matter, pH, potential mineralization rates and mineral N pools. Mineral N availability was assessed three times in the field by using ion-exchange resin-impregnated membranes. Ailanthus litter decomposed faster than Ulmus litter, probably due to the higher toughness of the latter. In spite of its high N content, Robinia litter decomposed slower than Fraxinus one, probably due to its high lignin content. In both cases, litter decomposition was faster below the exotic than the native canopies. The release of N per unit of initial litter mass was higher under both invaded situations (Ailanthus below Ailanthus and Robinia below Robinia) than under the native ones. However, soils collected below native and exotic trees neither differed in potential N mineralization rate nor in mineral N. This may be attributed to a quick plant uptake of released N and/or to a high organic matter accumulation in the soil previous to invasion that can exert a tighter control on soil N transformations than the current exotic litter
What explains the invading success of the aquatic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca)?
Alonso, A. ; Castro-Diez, P. - \ 2008
Hydrobiologia 614 (2008)1. - ISSN 0018-8158 - p. 107 - 116.
fresh-water snail - new-zealand stream - life-history - predicting invasions - hypericum-perforatum - biological invaders - north-america - great-lakes - toxicity - jenkinsi
The spread of non-native species is one of the most harmful and least reversible disturbances in ecosystems. Species have to overcome several filters to become a pest (transport, establishment, spread and impact). Few studies have checked the traits that confer ability to overcome these steps in the same species. The aim of the present study is to review the available information on the life-history and ecological traits of the mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum Gray (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca), native from New Zealand, in order to explain its invasive success at different aquatic ecosystems around the world. A wide tolerance range to physico-chemical factors has been found to be a key trait for successful transport. A high competitive ability at early stages of succession can explains its establishment success in human-altered ecosystems. A high reproduction rate, high capacity for active and passive dispersal, and the escape from native predators and parasites explains its spread success. The high reproduction and the ability to monopolize invertebrate secondary production explain its high impact in the invaded ecosystems. However, further research is needed to understand how other factors, such as population density or the degree of human perturbation can modify the invasive success of this aquatic snail
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