Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol
Taddei, Cristina ; Zhou, Bin ; Bixby, Honor ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Farzadfar, Farshad ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia ; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez ; Asghari, Golaleh ; Dhana, Klodian ; Gulayin, Pablo ; Kakarmath, Sujay ; Santero, Marilina ; Voortman, Trudy ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Savin, Stefan ; Bennett, James E. ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Cifkova, Renata ; Giampaoli, Simona ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Kuulasmaa, Kari ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Margozzini, Paula ; Mathur, Prashant ; Nordestgaard, Børge G. ; Zhao, Dong ; Aadahl, Mette ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Rahim, Hanan Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Dam, Rob M. van; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2020
Nature 582 (2020)7810. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 73 - 77.
High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol—which is a marker of cardiovascular risk—changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million–4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
Partnering for sustainability in agri-food supply chains : the case of Barilla Sustainable Farming in the Po Valley
Pancino, Barbara ; Blasi, Emanuele ; Rappoldt, Anne ; Pascucci, Stefano ; Ruini, Luca ; Ronchi, Cesare - \ 2019
Agricultural and Food Economics 7 (2019)1. - ISSN 2193-7532
Contract design - Crop rotation - Horizontal agreements - Supply chain protocols - Sustainability
The objective of the paper is to understand the process of designing a multi-stakeholder partnership in the adoption of sustainable innovations in value chains. More specifically, the focus is on the design of feasible types of horizontal agreements and contractual formulas to be implemented in the agri-food supply chain in order to introduce sustainable agricultural practices. To this purpose, the Barilla Sustainable Farming initiative, which is currently in the first phase of designing an MSP, is used as a case study.
Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults
Bixby, Honor ; Bentham, James ; Zhou, Bin ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Bennett, James E. ; Taddei, Cristina ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Rodriguez-Martinez, Andrea ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Khang, Young Ho ; Sorić, Maroje ; Gregg, Edward W. ; Miranda, J.J. ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Savin, Stefan ; Sophiea, Marisa K. ; Iurilli, Maria L.C. ; Solomon, Bethlehem D. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bovet, Pascal ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Hayes, Alison J. ; Ikeda, Nayu ; Kengne, Andre P. ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Li, Yanping ; McGarvey, Stephen T. ; Mostafa, Aya ; Neovius, Martin ; Starc, Gregor ; Zainuddin, Ahmad A. ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abdrakhmanova, Shynar ; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila ; Abdul Hamid, Zargar ; Abubakar Garba, Jamila ; Ferrieres, Jean ; He, Yuna ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Visser, Marjolein ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei - \ 2019
Nature 569 (2019)7755. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 260 - 264.
Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities 1,2 . This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity 3–6 . Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017—and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions—was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing—and in some countries reversal—of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.
Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure : A pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants
Ezzati, Majid ; Zhou, Bin ; Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara di; Bixby, Honor ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Taddei, Cristina ; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M. ; Djalalinia, Shirin ; Khatibzadeh, Shahab ; Lugero, Charles ; Peykari, Niloofar ; Zhang, Wan Zhu ; Bennett, James ; Bilano, Ver ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Chen, Zhengming ; Hambleton, Ian R. ; Jackson, Rod T. ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Liu, Jing ; Malekzadeh, Reza ; Neuhauser, Hannelore K. ; Sorić, Maroje ; Starc, Gregor ; Sundström, Johan ; Woodward, Mark ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. - \ 2018
International Journal of Epidemiology 47 (2018)3. - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 872 - 883i.
Blood pressure - Global health - Hypertension - Non-communicable disease - Population health
Background: Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probittransformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure. Results: In 2005-16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the highincome Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association. Conclusions: Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.
One after the other : A novel Bluetongue virus strain related to Toggenburg virus detected in the Piedmont region (North-western Italy), extends the panel of novel atypical BTV strains
Marcacci, Maurilia ; Sant, Serena ; Mangone, Iolanda ; Goria, Maria ; Dondo, Alessandro ; Zoppi, Simona ; Gennip, René G.P. van; Radaelli, Maria Cristina ; Cammà, Cesare ; Rijn, Piet A. van; Savini, Giovanni ; Lorusso, Alessio - \ 2018
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 65 (2018)2. - ISSN 1865-1674 - p. 370 - 374.
Arboviruses - Diagnostics - Emerging diseases - Virus
In this rapid communication, a novel atypical bluetongue virus (BTV) strain detected in goats in the Piedmont region (north-western Italy) is described. This strain, BTV-Z ITA2017, is most related in Seg-2/VP-2 (83.8% nt/82.7% aa) to strain TOV of BTV-25. Reactive antisera of goats positive by cELISA for BTV antibodies failed to neutralize a chimeric virus expressing the outermost protein of TOV. Infected animals displayed low levels of RNAemia and absence of clinical signs consistent with bluetongue infection, a scenario described in animals infected with atypical BTV strains.
Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Bilano, Ver ; Bixby, Honor ; Zhou, Bin ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Riley, Leanne M. ; Taddei, Cristina ; Hajifathalian, Kaveh ; Lu, Yuan ; Savin, Stefan ; Cowan, Melanie J. ; Paciorek, Christopher J. ; Chirita-Emandi, Adela ; Hayes, Alison J. ; Katz, Joanne ; Kelishadi, Roya ; Kengne, Andre Pascal ; Khang, Young Ho ; Laxmaiah, Avula ; Li, Yanping ; Ma, Jun ; Miranda, J.J. ; Mostafa, Aya ; Neovius, Martin ; Padez, Cristina ; Rampal, Lekhraj ; Zhu, Aubrianna ; Bennett, James E. ; Danaei, Goodarz ; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A. ; Ezzati, Majid ; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra ; Abdeen, Ziad A. ; Hamid, Zargar Abdul ; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. ; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin ; Acuin, Cecilia ; Adams, Robert J. ; Aekplakorn, Wichai ; Afsana, Kaosar ; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. ; Ferrieres, Jean ; Jacobs, Jeremy M. ; Kromhout, Daan ; Ma, Guansheng ; Peeters, Petra H. ; Wang, Qian ; Wang, Ya Xing ; Wang, Ying Wei ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2017
The Lancet 390 (2017)10113. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 2627 - 2642.
Background Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Funding Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.
Sustainability of Agricultural Management Options Under a Systems Perspective
Pacini, Gaio Cesare ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. - \ 2017
In: Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies Elsevier - ISBN 9780128047927 - p. 191 - 200.
Agricultural sustainability - Agroecosystems properties - Capacity - Coherence - Conceptual model - Connectedness - Diversity - Management options - Resilience - Stability - Systems perspective
Sustainable development of agricultural landscapes has become a primary issue as reflected in many of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Comparing alternative potential technologies and assessing relevant results in terms of their implementation on agroecosystems in specific environmental and social contexts is a complex matter. In this article, a conceptual model to evaluate sustainability of agroecosystems under a systems perspective is presented, which is based on dimensions and properties of agroecosystems. Examples of applications of the conceptual model are given that address sustainability assessment of agricultural technologies and agroecosystems.
Incomplete infection of secondarily infected potato plants – an environment dependent underestimated mechanism in plant virology
Bertschinger, Lukas ; Bühler, Lukas ; Dupuis, Brice ; Duffy, Brion ; Gessler, Cesare ; Forbes, Gregory A. ; Keller, Ernst R. ; Scheidegger, Urs C. ; Struik, Paul C. - \ 2017
Frontiers in Plant Science 8 (2017)FEBRUARY. - ISSN 1664-462X
Autoinfection - Climate change - Epigenetics - Food security - Gene-silencing - Plant viruses - Seed degeneration - Seed potato systems
The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a.s.l. in Peru during two growing seasons. In these experiments, the percentage of infected daughter tubers produced by seed tubers that were infected with either potato potexvirus X (PVX), potato Andean mottle comovirus (APMoV), potato potyvirus Y (PVY) (jointly infected with PVX) or potato leafroll luteovirus (PLRV) was determined. Incomplete autoinfection was found in all cases, as the percentage of virus infected daughter tubers harvested from secondarily infected plants was invariably less than 100%, with the lowest percentage of infection being 30%. Changing the growing site to higher altitudes decreased autoinfection for all viruses. Therefore, the assumption of complete autoinfection of secondarily infected plants were rejected, while the hypothesis of environmentally dependent incomplete autoinfection was accepted. The findings help explain the occurrence of traditional seed management practices in the Andes and may help to develop locally adapted seed systems in environments of the world that have no steady access to healthy seed tubers coming from a formally certified seed system. The results obtained almost three decades ago are discussed in light of most recent knowledge on epigenetic regulation of host plant – virus interactions which allow for speculating about the underlying biological principles of the incomplete autoinfection. A research roadmap is proposed for achieving explicit experimental proof for the epigenetic regulation of incomplete autoinfection in the pathosystem under study.
A century of trends in adult human height
Bentham, James ; Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2016
eLife 5 (2016). - ISSN 2050-084X - 29 p.
Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings.
We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights
surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants
Cesare, Mariachiara Di; Bentham, James ; Stevens, Gretchen A. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2016
The Lancet 387 (2016)10026. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 1377 - 1396.
Background Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries. Methods We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18·5 kg/m² [underweight], 18·5 kg/m² to <20 kg/m², 20 kg/m² to <25 kg/m², 25 kg/m² to <30 kg/m², 30 kg/m² to <35 kg/m², 35 kg/m² to <40 kg/m², ≥40 kg/m² [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue. Findings We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21·7 kg/m² (95% credible interval 21·3–22·1) in 1975 to 24·2 kg/m² (24·0–24·4) in 2014 in men, and from 22·1 kg/m² (21·7–22·5) in 1975 to 24·4 kg/m² (24·2–24·6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21·4 kg/m² in central Africa and south Asia to 29·2 kg/m² (28·6–29·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21·8 kg/m² (21·4–22·3) in south Asia to 32·2 kg/m² (31·5–32·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13·8% (10·5–17·4) to 8·8% (7·4–10·3) in men and from 14·6% (11·6–17·9) to 9·7% (8·3–11·1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23·4% (17·8–29·2) in men and 24·0% (18·9–29·3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3·2% (2·4–4·1) in 1975 to 10·8% (9·7–12·0) in 2014 in men, and from 6·4% (5·1–7·8) to 14·9% (13·6–16·1) in women. 2·3% (2·0–2·7) of the world’s men and 5·0% (4·4–5·6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI ≥35 kg/m²). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0·64% (0·46–0·86) in men and 1·6% (1·3–1·9) in women. Interpretation If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world’s poorest regions, especially in south Asia. Funding Wellcome Trust, Grand Challenges Canada.
Cisgenic Rvi6 scab-resistant apple lines show no differences in Rvi6 transcription when compared with conventionally bred cultivars
Chizzali, Cornelia ; Gusberti, Michele ; Schouten, H.J. ; Gessler, Cesare ; Broggini, G.A.L. - \ 2016
Planta 243 (2016)3. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 635 - 644.
Apple scab - Cisgenic - Malus × domestica - Reference genes - Rvi6 - Venturia inaequalis
Main conclusion: The expression of the apple scab resistance geneRvi6in different apple cultivars and lines is not modulated by biotic or abiotic factors.All commercially important apple cultivars are susceptible to Venturia inaequalis, the causal organism of apple scab. A limited number of apple cultivars were bred to express the resistance gene Vf from the wild apple genotype Malus floribunda 821. Positional cloning of the Vf locus allowed the identification of the Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) scab resistance gene that was subsequently used to generate cisgenic apple lines. It is important to understand and compare how this resistance gene is transcribed and modulated during infection in conventionally bred cultivars and in cisgenic lines. The aim of this work was to study the transcription pattern of Rvi6 in three classically bred apple cultivars and six lines of ‘Gala’ genetically modified to express Rvi6. Rvi6 transcription was analyzed at two time points using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) following inoculation with V. inaequalis conidia or water. Rvi6 transcription was assessed in relation to five reference genes. β-Actin, RNAPol, and UBC were the most suited to performing RT-qPCR experiments on Malus × domestica. Inoculation with V. inaequalis conidia under conditions conducive to scab infection failed to produce any significant changes to the transcription level of Rvi6. Rvi6 expression levels were inconsistent in response to external treatments in the different apple cultivars, and transgenic, intragenic or cisgenic lines.
Glycated fibroblast growth factor-2 is quickly produced in vitro upon low-millimolar glucose treatment and detected in vivo in diabetic mice
Facchiano, Francesco ; Arcangelo, Daniela D'; Russo, Katia ; Fogliano, Vincenzo ; Mennella, Carmela ; Ragone, Raffaele ; Zambruno, Giovanna ; Carbone, Virginia ; Ribatti, Domenico ; Peschle, Cesare ; Capogrossi, Maurizio C. ; Facchiano, Antonio - \ 2006
Molecular endocrinology 20 (2006)11. - ISSN 0888-8809 - p. 2806 - 2818.
Angiogenesis impairment in hyperglycemic patients represents a leading cause of severe vascular complications of both type-1 and -2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Angiogenesis dysfunction in DM is related to glycemic control; however, molecular mechanisms involved are still unclear. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a potent angiogenic factor and, according to previous evidence, may represent a key target of molecular modifications triggered by high-sugar exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether short incubation with hyperglycemic levels of glucose affected FGF-2 and whether glucose-modified FGF-2 was detectable in vivo. Biochemical analyses carried out with SDS-PAGE, fluorescence emission, mass-spectrometry, immunoblot, and competitive ELISA experiments demonstrated that human FGF-2 undergoes a rapid and specific glycation upon 12.5-50 mM glucose exposure. In addition, FGF-2 exposed for 30 min to 12.5 mM glucose lost mitogenic and chemotactic activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Under similar conditions, binding affinity to FGF receptor 1 was dramatically reduced by 20-fold, as well as FGF receptor 1 and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, and FGF-2 lost about 45% of angiogenic activity in two different in vivo angiogenic (Matrigel and chorioallantoic-membrane) assays. Such glucose-induced modification was specific, because other angiogenic growth factors, namely platelet-derived growth factor BB and placental-derived growth factor were not significantly or markedly less modified. Finally, for the first time, glycated-FGF-2 was detected in vivo, in tissues from hyperglycemic nonobese diabetic mice, in significantly higher amounts than in normoglycemic mice. In conclusion, hyperglycemic levels of glucose may strongly affect FGF-2 structure and impair its angiogenic features, and endogenous glycated-FGF-2 is present in diabetic mice, indicating a novel pathogenetic mechanism underlying angiogenesis defects in DM.