Diseases of Lily
Chastagner, G.A. ; Tuyl, J.M. van; Verbeek, M. ; Miller, William ; Westerdahl, Becky B. - \ 2017
In: Handbook of Florists' Crops Diseases, Handbook of Plant Disease Management / McGovern, R.J., Elmer, W.H., Springer International Publishing (Handbook of Plant Disease Management ) - ISBN 9783319323749 - 61 p.
Lilies (Lilium spp. and hybrids) are the second largest flower bulb crop in the Netherlands and the most important flower bulb crop in the world. They are grown for bulbs, as cut flowers, as container (potted) plants, or in gardens. Lilies are a vegetatively propagated crop and may be routinely increased by micropropagation (tissue culture) or through scaling (removal of bulb scales from which adventitious bulblets are produced). The propagules are subsequently grown in fields for 2 or 3 y to allow the bulbs to reach sufficient size (generally measured in circumference) for proper flowering and maximum horticultural quality. Although the majority of bulbs produced for worldwide distribution are grown mainly in the Netherlands, bulbs are also grown in other northern European countries, the USA, Asia, Israel, and southern hemisphere locations including Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, and Chile. There are a number of diseases caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria, and nematodes and physiological disorders that affect the production and quality of lily bulb and cut flower crops worldwide. Information on the distribution, epidemiology and management, of the common diseases and disorders is presented in this chapter.
Research challenges in geophyte science : From basic science to sustainable production
Kamenetsky, R. ; Gude, H. ; Chastagner, G.A. ; Okubo, H. - \ 2015
Acta Horticulturae 1104 (2015). - ISSN 0567-7572 - p. 119 - 129.
Ornamental geophytes, also called "flower bulbs", play a significant role in the global flower industry and are utilized for the commercial production of cut flowers, potted plants and propagation materials, as well as in landscaping and gardening. Traditionally, the commercial production of these crops prevailed in temperate-climate regions. However, in the last two decades, globalization and increased market competition have led to the development of new production centers in the Southern Hemisphere, Africa and Asia. Tremendous advancement in molecular science and technology in the past couple of decades has brought geophyte research to an entirely new level, including the identification and introduction of genes, which control and regulate flower development, storage organ formation and dormancy, as well as the genetic control of the process of senescence to prolong flower shelf life. To advance the investigation of geophyte biology, a model plant, agreed upon by the scientific community, should be chosen for genetic research. Novel approaches to environmentally-friendly, sustainable production and integrated management have stimulated new research directions. A sustainable agriculture system encompasses conservation of energy, soil, and water, as well as developing economically feasible environmentally-friendly methods and technologies associated with the use of pesticides and nutrients. The combined efforts of governments, industry and research resulted in increased energy efficiency and advanced monitoring systems for pathogens and diseases in geophytes. The cessation in fumigant use particularly methyl bromide, affects the future management of nematodes and other soil-borne pathogens and weeds. Consequently, there is an immediate need to develop new knowledge on pest-plant interactions, as well as new technologies of chemical and biological control. One of the most important research aims and responsibilities for the future is ensuring the conservation and preservation of geophyte biodiversity in their natural habitats. Collecting genetic resources and sampling strategies must be conducted according to national and international laws, and for the benefits of future generations. Efforts at plant conservation in situ and ex situ, genebanks, natural reserves and support for ecological tourism-these actions will eventually not only help preserve natural resources, but promote beautiful flowers and commercially produced rare species or underutilized crops.
Letter to the Editor : Standardizing the nomenclature for clonal lineages of the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum
Grünwald, N.J. ; Goss, E.M. ; Ivors, K. ; Garbelotto, M. ; Martin, F.N. ; Prospero, S. ; Hansen, E. ; Bonants, P.J.M. ; Hamelin, R.C. ; Chastagner, M. ; Werres, S. ; Rizzo, D.M. ; Abad, G. ; Beales, P. ; Bilodeau, G.J. ; Blomquist, C.L. ; Brasier, C. ; Brière, S.C. ; Chandelier, A. ; Davidson, J.M. ; Denman, S. ; Elliott, M. ; Frankel, S.J. ; Goheen, E.M. ; Gruyter, H. de; Heungens, K. ; James, D. ; Kanaskie, A. ; McWilliams, M.G. ; Man in't Veld, W. ; Moralejo, E. ; Osterbauer, N.K. ; Palm, M.E. ; Parke, J.L. ; Perez Sierra, A.M. ; Shamoun, S.F. ; Shishkoff, N. ; Tooley, P.W. ; Vettraino, A.M. ; Webber, J. ; Widmer, T.L. - \ 2009
Phytopathology 99 (2009)7. - ISSN 0031-949X - p. 792 - 795.
in-vitro - north-american - european populations - genotypic diversity - dna polymorphisms - central mexico - toluca valley - united-states - infestans - california
Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight, is known to exist as three distinct clonal lineages which can only be distinguished by performing molecular marker-based analyses. However, in the recent literature there exists no consensus on naming of these lineages. Here we propose a system for naming clonal lineages of P. ramorum based on a consensus established by the P. ramorum research community. Clonal lineages are named with a two letter identifier for the continent on which they were first found (e.g., NA = North America; EU = Europe) followed by a number indicating order of appearance. Clonal lineages known to date are designated NA1 (mating type: A2; distribution: North America; environment: forest and nurseries), NA2 (A2; North America; nurseries), and EU1 (predominantly A1, rarely A2; Europe and North America; nurseries and gardens). It is expected that novel lineages or new variants within the existing three clonal lineages could in time emerge.