Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Associations between socio-environmental factors and landscape-scale biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating tropical and subtropical forests
    Crouzeilles, Renato ; Maurenza, Daniel ; Prieto, Pablo V. ; Barros, Felipe S.M. ; Jakovac, Catarina ; Ferreira, Mariana S. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Lindenmayer, David B. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Ceccon, Eliane ; Adams, Cristina ; Lazos-Chavero, Elena ; Monteiro, Lara ; Junqueira, André B. ; Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. ; Guariguata, Manuel R. - \ 2020
    Conservation Letters (2020). - ISSN 1755-263X
    forest landscape restoration - meta-analysis - natural regeneration - restoration benefits - socioeconomic and biophysical factors
    Natural regeneration is key for large-scale forest restoration, yet it may lead to different biodiversity outcomes depending on socio-environmental context. We combined the results of a global meta-analysis to quantify how biodiversity recovery in naturally regenerating forests deviates from biodiversity values in reference old-growth forests, with structural equation modeling, to identify direct and indirect associations between socioeconomic, biophysical and ecological factors and deviation in biodiversity recovery at a landscape scale. Low deviation within a landscape means higher chances of multiple sites in naturally regenerating forests successfully recovering biodiversity compared to reference forests. Deviation in biodiversity recovery was directly negatively associated with the percentage of cropland, forest cover, and positively associated with the percentage of urban areas in the surrounding landscape. These three factors mediated the indirect associations with rural population size, recent gross deforestation, time since natural regeneration started, mean annual temperature, mean annual water deficit, road density, land opportunity cost, percentage cover of strictly protected forest areas, and human population variation in the surrounding landscape. We suggest that natural forest restoration should be prioritized in landscapes with both low socioeconomic pressures on land use conversion to pasturelands and urban areas, and high percentage of forest cover.
    Global priority areas for ecosystem restoration
    Strassburg, Bernardo B.N. ; Iribarrem, Alvaro ; Beyer, Hawthorne L. ; Cordeiro, Carlos Leandro ; Crouzeilles, Renato ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Braga Junqueira, André ; Lacerda, Eduardo ; Latawiec, Agnieszka E. ; Balmford, Andrew ; Brooks, Thomas M. ; Butchart, Stuart H.M. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Erb, Karl Heinz ; Brancalion, Pedro ; Buchanan, Graeme ; Cooper, David ; Díaz, Sandra ; Donald, Paul F. ; Kapos, Valerie ; Leclère, David ; Miles, Lera ; Obersteiner, Michael ; Plutzar, Christoph ; Carlos, Carlos Alberto ; Scarano, Fabio R. ; Visconti, Piero - \ 2020
    Nature 586 (2020)7831. - ISSN 0028-0836 - p. 724 - 729.

    Extensive ecosystem restoration is increasingly seen as being central to conserving biodiversity1 and stabilizing the climate of the Earth2. Although ambitious national and global targets have been set, global priority areas that account for spatial variation in benefits and costs have yet to be identified. Here we develop and apply a multicriteria optimization approach that identifies priority areas for restoration across all terrestrial biomes, and estimates their benefits and costs. We find that restoring 15% of converted lands in priority areas could avoid 60% of expected extinctions while sequestering 299 gigatonnes of CO2—30% of the total CO2 increase in the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution. The inclusion of several biomes is key to achieving multiple benefits. Cost effectiveness can increase up to 13-fold when spatial allocation is optimized using our multicriteria approach, which highlights the importance of spatial planning. Our results confirm the vast potential contributions of restoration to addressing global challenges, while underscoring the necessity of pursuing these goals synergistically.

    Whither the forest transition? Climate change, policy responses, and redistributed forests in the twenty-first century
    Rudel, Thomas K. ; Meyfroidt, Patrick ; Chazdon, Robin ; Bongers, Frans ; Sloan, Sean ; Grau, H.R. ; Holt, Tracy Van; Schneider, Laura - \ 2020
    Ambio 49 (2020). - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 74 - 84.
    Forest gains - Forest transitions - Latecomer effects - Tree plantations

    Forest transitions occur when net reforestation replaces net deforestation in places. Because forest transitions can increase biodiversity and augment carbon sequestration, they appeal to policymakers contending with the degrading effects of forest loss and climate change. What then can policymakers do to trigger forest transitions? The historical record over the last two centuries provides insights into the precipitating conditions. The early transitions often occurred passively, through the spontaneous regeneration of trees on abandoned agricultural lands. Later forest transitions occurred more frequently after large-scale crisis narratives emerged and spurred governments to take action, often by planting trees on degraded, sloped lands. To a greater degree than their predecessors, latecomer forest transitions exhibit centralized loci of power, leaders with clearly articulated goals, and rapid changes in forest cover. These historical shifts in forest transitions reflect our growing appreciation of their utility for countering droughts, floods, land degradation, and climate change.

    The forest transformation: Planted tree cover and regional dynamics of tree gains and losses
    Sloan, Sean ; Meyfroidt, Patrick ; Rudel, Thomas K. ; Bongers, Frans ; Chazdon, Robin - \ 2019
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 59 (2019). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Forest change - Forest transformation - Forest transition - Plantation - Reforestation

    Extensions of forest-transition theory to the tropics often depict sustained expansions of planted tree cover and corresponding long-term net gains in total tree cover. To explore the patterns and implications of continued tropical planted tree-cover expansion, we profiled sequences of tree-cover change over 1990–2010 according to Landsat imagery for recently observed (ca. 2014) planted tree-cover areas in 11 tropical countries. Alternative patterns of change emerged from these analyses. Termed the ‘reforestation treadmill’ and ‘forest transformation’ narratives, planted tree-cover change featured relatively ephemeral planted covers, modest net gains, and similar tree-cover change dynamics compared to nearby agricultural-forest mosaics. Planted areas were characterised not by unambiguous reforestation but rather combinations of tree-cover losses and gains, with losses typically being more prominent. Contemporary gains and losses during 5–10-year periods regularly distinguished planted areas from non-planted areas, with losses being 1.5–2.3 times more common than gains. Planted areas were only moderately distinguishable from non-planted areas overall with respect to tree-cover change dynamics. Relationships between tree-cover change and the export orientations of planted tree/tree-crop commodities were also examined. Greater export orientations did not significantly associate with tree-cover loss or larger planted patches, with partial exceptions for Southeast Asia. Regional disparities in planted tree-cover dynamics were apparent. In Southeast Asia, dominated by Indonesia, tree-cover declines in planted areas since 1990 were relatively pronounced (20% of planted areas), particularly with respect to progressive transitions from tree cover to cleared lands. Planted areas there were generally indistinguishable from nearby non-planted areas with respect to historical tree-cover change dynamics. In contrast, in South America, dominated by Brazil, tree-cover increases in planted areas since 1990 were more appreciable (at least 14% of planted areas), with most being progressive, stable, ‘net’ increases (10% of planted areas) and the remainder being dynamic increases entailing short-term losses since 1990 (4% of planted areas). Total tree-cover increases within South American planted areas were equal to or greater than total decreases since 1990. These patterns suggest a forest-transformation narrative in which major planted-area expansion occurs alongside minor net tree-cover change. This narrative appears particularly well suited to Southeast Asia, where planted areas are extensive and expansive but where net tree cover gains are tenuous, reflecting political-economic shifts in forest management and the devaluation of extensive, degraded natural forests.

    Wet and dry tropical forests show opposite successional pathways in wood density but converge over time
    Poorter, L. ; Rozendaal, Danaë ; Bongers, F. ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica María ; Álvarez, Francisco S. ; Andrade, José Luís ; Villa, Luis Felipe Arreola ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Bhaskar, Radika ; Boukili, Vanessa ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Broadbent, Eben N. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chave, Jerome ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Craven, Dylan ; Jong, Ben H.J. de; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; García, Elisa Díaz ; Dupuy, Juan M. ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos ; Fandiño, María C. ; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Jakovac, A.C. ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, M.W.M. ; Lopez, Omar R. ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita ; Mora, Francisco ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco De; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Paz, Horacio ; Pena Claros, M. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel van; Wal, Hans van der - \ 2019
    Wageningen University & Research
    secondary succession - community assembly - community-weighted mean - wood density - Neotropics - tropical forest - Latin America
    We analyse how community wood density (WD) recovers during secondary tropical forest succession. In wet forests succession proceeds from low to high WD, in dry forests from high to low WD, resulting in convergence of community WD of dry and wet forests over time, as vegetation cover builds up.
    Wet and dry tropical forests show opposite successional pathways in wood density but converge over time
    Poorter, Lourens ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. de; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica María ; Álvarez, Francisco S. ; Andrade, José Luís ; Villa, Luis Felipe Arreola ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Bhaskar, Radika ; Boukili, Vanessa ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Broadbent, Eben N. ; César, Ricardo G. ; Chave, Jerome ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Craven, Dylan ; Jong, Ben H.J. de; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; García, Elisa Díaz ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário M. ; Fandiño, María C. ; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Lopez, Omar R. ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Martins, Sebastião V. ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita ; Mora, Francisco ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa de; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco de; Nunes, Yule R.F. ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Paz, Horacio ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Piotto, Daniel ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Utrera, Luis P. ; Breugel, Michiel van; Sande, Masha T. van der; Wal, Hans van der; Veloso, Maria D.M. ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima C.G. ; Villa, Pedro Manuel ; Williamson, G.B. ; Wright, S.J. ; Zanini, Kátia J. ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Westoby, Mark - \ 2019
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 3 (2019). - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 928 - 934.

    Tropical forests are converted at an alarming rate for agricultural use and pastureland, but also regrow naturally through secondary succession. For successful forest restoration, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of secondary succession. These mechanisms may vary across forest types, but analyses across broad spatial scales are lacking. Here, we analyse forest recovery using 1,403 plots that differ in age since agricultural abandonment from 50 sites across the Neotropics. We analyse changes in community composition using species-specific stem wood density (WD), which is a key trait for plant growth, survival and forest carbon storage. In wet forest, succession proceeds from low towards high community WD (acquisitive towards conservative trait values), in line with standard successional theory. However, in dry forest, succession proceeds from high towards low community WD (conservative towards acquisitive trait values), probably because high WD reflects drought tolerance in harsh early successional environments. Dry season intensity drives WD recovery by influencing the start and trajectory of succession, resulting in convergence of the community WD over time as vegetation cover builds up. These ecological insights can be used to improve species selection for reforestation. Reforestation species selected to establish a first protective canopy layer should, among other criteria, ideally have a similar WD to the early successional communities that dominate under the prevailing macroclimatic conditions.

    Biodiversity recovery of Neotropical secondary forests
    Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Aide, T.M. ; Alvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Ascarrunz, Nataly ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; Calvo-Rodriguez, Sofia ; Chave, Jerome ; César, Ricardo G. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Condit, Richard ; Dallinga, Jorn S. ; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. De; Jong, Ben de; Oliveira, Alexandre De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Dutrieux, Loïc P. ; Espírito-Santo, Mario M. ; Fandino, María C. ; Fernandes, G.W. ; Finegan, Bryan ; García, Hernando ; Gonzalez, Noel ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Hubbell, Stephen ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Hernández, Alma Johanna ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Larpin, Denis ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Licona, Juan-Carlos ; Lebrija-trejos, Edwin ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita C.G. ; Mora, Francisco ; Müller, Sandra C. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Oliveira Neto, Silvio Nolasco De; Norden, Natalia ; Nunes, Yule R.F. ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Ortiz-Malavassi, Edgar ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Caros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Aguilar-Cano, José ; Rodriguez-Buritica, Susana ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Romero, Marco Antonio ; Ruíz, Jorge ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Silver, Whendee L. ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Thomas, William Wayt ; Toledo, Marisol ; Uriarte, Maria ; Sá Sampaio, Everardo Valadares De; Breugel, Michiel van; Wal, Hans van der; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio ; Veloso, Maria D.M. ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vicentini, Alberto ; Vieira, Ima C.G. ; Villa, Pedro ; Williamson, G.B. ; Zanini, Kátia J. ; Zimmerman, Jess ; Poorter, Lourens - \ 2019
    Science Advances 5 (2019)3. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 10 p.
    Old-growth tropical forests harbor an immense diversity of tree species but are rapidly being cleared, while secondary forests that regrow on abandoned agricultural lands increase in extent. We assess how tree species richness and composition recover during secondary succession across gradients in environmental conditions and anthropogenic disturbance in an unprecedented multisite analysis for the Neotropics. Secondary forests recover remarkably fast in species richness but slowly in species composition. Secondary forests take a median time of five decades to recover the species richness of old-growth forest (80% recovery after 20 years) based on rarefaction analysis. Full recovery of species composition takes centuries (only 34% recovery after 20 years). A dual strategy that maintains both old-growth forests and species-rich secondary forests is therefore crucial for biodiversity conservation in human-modified tropical landscapes.
    Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in Neotropical forests
    Gei, Maga ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Poorter, Lourens ; Bongers, Frans ; Sprent, Janet I. ; Garner, Mira D. ; Aide, T.M. ; Andrade, José Luis ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Becknell, Justin M. ; Brancalion, Pedro H.S. ; Cabral, George A.L. ; César, Ricardo Gomes ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Cole, Rebecca J. ; Colletta, Gabriel Dalla ; Jong, Ben De; Denslow, Julie S. ; Dent, Daisy H. ; Dewalt, Saara J. ; Dupuy, Juan Manuel ; Durán, Sandra M. ; Espírito Santo, Mário Marcos Do; Fernandes, G.W. ; Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira ; Finegan, Bryan ; Moser, Vanessa Granda ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis ; Junqueira, André B. ; Kennard, Deborah ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Marín-Spiotta, Erika ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Menge, Duncan N.L. ; Mora, Francisco ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Muscarella, Robert ; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana ; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith ; Ostertag, Rebecca ; Peña-Claros, Marielos ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Piotto, Daniel ; Reich, Peter B. ; Reyes-García, Casandra ; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge ; Romero-Pérez, I.E. ; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía ; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo ; Schwartz, Naomi B. ; Almeida, Arlete Silva De; Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S. ; Silver, Whendee ; Souza Moreno, Vanessa De; Sullivan, Benjamin W. ; Swenson, Nathan G. ; Uriarte, Maria ; Breugel, Michiel Van; Wal, Hans Van Der; Veloso, Maria Das Dores Magalhães ; Vester, Hans F.M. ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Zimmerman, Jess K. ; Powers, Jennifer S. - \ 2018
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 2 (2018)7. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 1104 - 1111.
    The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area is twice as high in dry compared with wet secondary forests. The tremendous ecological success of legumes in recently disturbed, water-limited forests is likely to be related to both their reduced leaflet size and ability to fix N2, which together enhance legume drought tolerance and water-use efficiency. Earth system models should incorporate these large-scale successional and climatic patterns of legume dominance to provide more accurate estimates of the maximum potential for natural nitrogen fixation across tropical forests.
    Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests
    Slik, J.W.F. ; Franklin, Janet ; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Field, Richard ; Aguilar, Salomon ; Aguirre, Nikolay ; Ahumada, Jorge ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Anitha, K. ; Avella, Andres ; Mora, Francisco ; Aymard, Gerardo A.C. ; Báez, Selene ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bastian, Meredith L. ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bellingham, Peter J. ; Berg, Eduardo Van Den; Conceição Bispo, Polyanna Da; Boeckx, Pascal ; Boehning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bongers, Frans ; Boyle, Brad ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brown, Sandra ; Chai, Shauna Lee ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Chuyong, George ; Ewango, Corneille ; Coronado, Indiana M. ; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi ; Culmsee, Heike ; Damas, Kipiro ; Dattaraja, H.S. ; Davidar, Priya ; DeWalt, Saara J. ; Din, Hazimah ; Drake, Donald R. ; Duque, Alvaro ; Durigan, Giselda ; Eichhorn, Karl ; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt ; Enoki, Tsutomu ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain ; Farwig, Nina ; Feeley, Kenneth J. ; Fischer, Markus ; Forshed, Olle ; Garcia, Queila Souza ; Garkoti, Satish Chandra ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gillet, Jean Francois ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Granzow-De La Cerda, Iñigo ; Griffith, Daniel M. ; Grogan, James ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andy ; Hemp, Andreas ; Homeier, Jürgen ; Hussain, M.S. ; Ibarra-Manríquez, Guillermo ; Hanum, I.F. ; Imai, Nobuo ; Jansen, Patrick A. ; Joly, Carlos Alfredo ; Joseph, Shijo ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kearsley, Elizabeth ; Kelly, Daniel L. ; Kessler, Michael ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kooyman, Robert M. ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Letcher, Susan G. ; Lindsell, Jeremy ; Lovett, Jon ; Lozada, Jose ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Mahmud, Khairil Bin; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Martin, Emanuel H. ; Matos, Darley Calderado Leal ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Mendoza, Zhofre Huberto Aguirre ; Metali, Faizah ; Medjibe, Vincent P. ; Metzger, Jean Paul ; Metzker, Thiago ; Mohandass, D. ; Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Nurtjahy, Eddy ; Oliveira, Eddie Lenza De; Onrizal, ; Parolin, Pia ; Parren, Marc ; Parthasarathy, N. ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Perez, Rolando ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Pommer, Ulf ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qi, Lan ; Piedade, Maria Teresa F. ; Pinto, José Roberto Rodrigues ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Poulsen, John R. ; Powers, Jennifer S. ; Prasad, Rama Chandra ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Rangel, Orlando ; Reitsma, Jan ; Rocha, Diogo S.B. ; Rolim, Samir ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Ruokolainen, Kalle ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Mohd Said, Mohd Nizam ; Saiter, Felipe Z. ; Saner, Philippe ; Santos, Braulio ; Santos, João Roberto Dos; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Schoengart, Jochen ; Schulze, Mark ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sist, Plinio ; Souza, Alexandre F. ; Spironello, Wilson Roberto ; Sposito, Tereza ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stevart, Tariq ; Suganuma, Marcio Seiji ; Sukri, Rahayu ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sunderland, Terry ; Supriyadi, S. ; Suresh, H.S. ; Suzuki, Eizi ; Tabarelli, Marcelo ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Ed V.J. ; Targhetta, Natalia ; Theilade, Ida ; Thomas, Duncan ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Morisson Valeriano, Márcio De; Valkenburg, Johan Van; Do, Tran Van; Sam, Hoang Van; Vandermeer, John H. ; Verbeeck, Hans ; Vetaas, Ole Reidar ; Adekunle, Victor ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; Whitfeld, Timothy ; Wich, Serge ; Williams, John ; Wiser, Susan ; Wittmann, Florian ; Yang, Xiaobo ; Yao, C.Y.A. ; Yap, Sandra L. ; Zahawi, Rakan A. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo - \ 2018
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (2018)8. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 1837 - 1842.
    Biogeographic legacies - Forest classification - Forest functional similarity - Phylogenetic community distance - Tropical forests

    Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northernhemisphere forests.

    Demographic Drivers of Aboveground Biomass Dynamics During Secondary Succession in Neotropical Dry and Wet Forests
    Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Arreola-Villa, Felipe ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bentos, Tony V. ; Dupuy, Juan M. ; Hernández-Stefanoni, J.L. ; Jakovac, Catarina C. ; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin E. ; Lohbeck, Madelon ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Massoca, Paulo E.S. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Mesquita, Rita C.G. ; Mora, Francisco ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Romero-Pérez, I.E. ; Saenz-Pedroza, Irving ; Breugel, Michiel van; Williamson, G.B. ; Bongers, Frans - \ 2017
    Ecosystems 20 (2017)2. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 340 - 353.
    Biomass accumulation - carbon sink - forest dynamics - Neotropics - second-growth tropical forest - species’ dominance - tree demography

    The magnitude of the carbon sink in second-growth forests is expected to vary with successional biomass dynamics resulting from tree growth, recruitment, and mortality, and with the effects of climate on these dynamics. We compare aboveground biomass dynamics of dry and wet Neotropical forests, based on monitoring data gathered over 3–16 years in forests covering the first 25 years of succession. We estimated standing biomass, annual biomass change, and contributions of tree growth, recruitment, and mortality. We also evaluated tree species’ contributions to biomass dynamics. Absolute rates of biomass change were lower in dry forests, 2.3 and 1.9 Mg ha−1 y−1, after 5–15 and 15–25 years after abandonment, respectively, than in wet forests, with 4.7 and 6.1 Mg ha−1 y−1, in the same age classes. Biomass change was largely driven by tree growth, accounting for at least 48% of biomass change across forest types and age classes. Mortality also contributed strongly to biomass change in wet forests of 5–15 years, whereas its contribution became important later in succession in dry forests. Biomass dynamics tended to be dominated by fewer species in early-successional dry than wet forests, but dominance was strong in both forest types. Overall, our results indicate that biomass dynamics during succession are faster in Neotropical wet than dry forests, with high tree mortality earlier in succession in the wet forests. Long-term monitoring of second-growth tropical forest plots is crucial for improving estimates of annual biomass change, and for enhancing understanding of the underlying mechanisms and demographic drivers.

    Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes : New insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research
    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor ; Melo, Felipe P.L. ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Bongers, Frans ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Norden, Natalia ; Santos, Bráulio A. ; Leal, Inara R. ; Tabarelli, Marcelo - \ 2017
    Biological Reviews 92 (2017)1. - ISSN 1464-7931 - p. 326 - 340.
    Biodiversity conservation - Ecosystem services - Forest recovery - Land-use transformation - Landscape restoration - Landscape structure

    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversity, and also as a source of essential ecosystem functions and services in HMTLs. Such critical roles are controversial, however, as they depend on successional, landscape and socio-economic dynamics, which can vary widely within and across landscapes and regions. Understanding the main drivers of successional pathways of disturbed tropical forests is critically needed for improving management, conservation, and restoration strategies. Here, we combine emerging knowledge from tropical forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research to identify the main driving forces shaping successional pathways at different spatial scales. We also explore causal connections between land-use dynamics and the level of predictability of successional pathways, and examine potential implications of such connections to determine the importance of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation in HMTLs. We show that secondary succession (SS) in tropical landscapes is a multifactorial phenomenon affected by a myriad of forces operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales. SS is relatively fast and more predictable in recently modified landscapes and where well-preserved biodiversity-rich native forests are still present in the landscape. Yet the increasing variation in landscape spatial configuration and matrix heterogeneity in landscapes with intermediate levels of disturbance increases the uncertainty of successional pathways. In landscapes that have suffered extensive and intensive human disturbances, however, succession can be slow or arrested, with impoverished assemblages and reduced potential to deliver ecosystem functions and services. We conclude that: (i) succession must be examined using more comprehensive explanatory models, providing information about the forces affecting not only the presence but also the persistence of species and ecological groups, particularly of those taxa expected to be extirpated from HMTLs; (ii) SS research should integrate new aspects from forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research to address accurately the potential of secondary forests to serve as biodiversity repositories; and (iii) secondary forest stands, as a dynamic component of HMTLs, must be incorporated as key elements of conservation planning; i.e. secondary forest stands must be actively managed (e.g. using assisted forest restoration) according to conservation goals at broad spatial scales.

    Data from: Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sites
    Letcher, Susan G. ; Lasky, Jesse R. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Norden, Natalia ; Wright, S.J. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Romero-Pérez, Eunice ; Andrade, Ana ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bongers, Frans ; Lohbeck, Madelon - \ 2016
    State University of New York (SUNY)
    Determinants of plant community diversity and structure - Life History Evolution - Precipitation gradient - Tropical wet forest - Tropical dry forest - Functional traits - phylogeny - Pioneer species
    1. Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late successional stages in wet forest. 2. We applied a robust multinomial classification model to samples of primary and secondary forest trees from 14 Neotropical lowland forest sites spanning a precipitation gradient from 788 to 4000 mm annual rainfall, identifying species that are old growth specialists and secondary forest specialists in each site. We constructed phylogenies for the classified taxa at each site and for the entire set of classified taxa, and tested whether successional habitat specialization is phylogenetically conserved. We further investigated differences in the functional traits of species specializing in secondary vs. old-growth forest along the precipitation gradient, expecting different trait associations with secondary forest specialists in wet vs. dry forests since water availability is more limiting in dry forests and light availability more limiting in wet forests. 3. Successional habitat specialization is non-randomly distributed in the angiosperm phylogeny, with a tendency towards phylogenetic conservatism overall and a trend toward stronger conservatism in wet forests than in dry forests. However, the specialists come from all the major branches of the angiosperm phylogeny, and very few functional traits showed any consistent relationships with successional habitat specialization in either wet or dry forests. 4. Synthesis: The niche conservatism evident in the habitat specialization of Neotropical trees suggests a role for radiation into different successional habitats in the evolution of species-rich genera, though the diversity of functional traits that lead to success in different successional habitats complicates analyses at the community scale. Examining the distribution of particular lineages with respect to successional gradients may provide more insight into the role of successional habitat specialization in the evolution of species-rich taxa.
    Carbon sequestration potential of second-growth forest regeneration in the Latin American tropics
    Chazdon, R.L. ; Broadbent, E.N. ; Rozendaal, Danae ; Bongers, F. ; Jakovac, A.C. ; Braga Junqueira, A. ; Lohbeck, M.W.M. ; Pena Claros, M. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2016
    Science Advances 2 (2016)5. - ISSN 2375-2548 - 10 p.
    Regrowth of tropical secondary forests following complete or nearly complete removal of forest vegetation actively stores carbon in aboveground biomass, partially counterbalancing carbon emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, burning of fossil fuels, and other anthropogenic sources. We estimate the age and spatial extent of lowland second-growth forests in the Latin American tropics and model their potential aboveground carbon accumulation over four decades. Our model shows that, in 2008, second-growth forests (1 to 60 years old) covered 2.4 million km2 of land (28.1% of the total study area). Over 40 years, these lands can potentially accumulate a total aboveground carbon stock of 8.48 Pg C (petagrams of carbon) in aboveground biomass via low-cost natural regeneration or assisted regeneration, corresponding to a total CO2 sequestration of 31.09 Pg CO2. This total is equivalent to carbon emissions from fossil fuel use and industrial processes in all of Latin America and the Caribbean from 1993 to 2014. Ten countries account for 95% of this carbon storage potential, led by Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela. We model future land-use scenarios to guide national carbon mitigation policies. Permitting natural regeneration on 40% of lowland pastures potentially stores an additional 2.0 Pg C over 40 years. Our study provides information and maps to guide national-level forest-based carbon mitigation plans on the basis of estimated rates of natural regeneration and pasture abandonment. Coupled with avoided deforestation and sustainable forest management, natural regeneration of second-growth forests provides a low-cost mechanism that yields a high carbon sequestration potential with multiple benefits for biodiversity and ecosystem services.
    Demographic drivers of tree biomass change during secondary succession in northeastern Costa Rica
    Rozendaal, Danae M.A. ; Chazdon, Robin L. - \ 2015
    Ecological Applications 25 (2015)2. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 506 - 516.
    Biomass accumulation - Costa rica - Forest dynamics - Generalists - La selva biological station - Old-growth vs. Second-growth forest - Specialists - Successional groups - Tree demography - Tropical forest succession - Wet tropical forest

    Second-growth tropical forests are an important global carbon sink. As current knowledge on biomass accumulation during secondary succession is heavily based on chronosequence studies, direct estimates of annual rates of biomass accumulation in monitored stands are largely unavailable. We evaluated the contributions of tree diameter increment, recruitment, and mortality to annual tree biomass change during succession for three groups of tree species: Second-growth (SG) specialists, generalists, and old-growth (OG) specialists. We monitored six second-growth tropical forests that varied in stand age and two old-growth forests in northeastern Costa Rica. We monitored these over a period of 8 to 16 years. To assess rates of biomass change during secondary succession, we compared standing biomass and biomass dynamics between second-growth forest stages and old-growth forest, and evaluated the effect of stand age on standing biomass and biomass dynamics in secondgrowth forests. Standing tree biomass increased with stand age during succession, whereas the rate of biomass change decreased. Biomass change was largely driven by tree diameter increment and mortality, with a minor contribution from recruitment. The relative importance of these demographic drivers shifted over succession. Biomass gain due to tree diameter increment decreased with stand age, whereas biomass loss due to mortality increased. In the age range of our second-growth forests, 10-41 years, SG specialists dominated tree biomass in secondgrowth forests. SG specialists, and to a lesser extent generalists, also dominated stand-level biomass increase due to tree diameter increment, whereas SG specialists largely accounted for decreases in biomass due to mortality. Our results indicate that tree growth is largely driving biomass dynamics early in succession, whereas both growth and mortality are important later in succession. Biomass dynamics are largely accounted for by a few SG specialists and one generalist species, Pentaclethra macroloba. To assess the generality of our results, similar long-term studies should be compared across tropical forest landscapes.

    Successional dynamics in Neotropical forests are as uncertain as they are predictable
    Norden, Natalia ; Angarita, H.A. ; Bongers, Frans ; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel ; Cerda, I.G. De la; Breugel, Michiel Van; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin ; Meave, J.A. ; Vandermeer, John ; Williamson, G.B. ; Finegan, Bryan ; Mesquita, Rita ; Chazdon, R.L. - \ 2015
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (2015)26. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. 8013 - 8018.
    Dynamical models - Predictability - Succession - Tropical secondary forests - Uncertainty

    Although forest succession has traditionally been approached as a deterministic process, successional trajectories of vegetation change vary widely, even among nearby stands with similar environmental conditions and disturbance histories. Here, we provide the first attempt, to our knowledge, to quantify predictability and uncertainty during succession based on the most extensive long-term datasets ever assembled for Neotropical forests. We develop a novel approach that integrates deterministic and stochastic components into different candidate models describing the dynamical interactions among three widely used and interrelated forest attributes - stem density, basal area, and species density. Within each of the seven study sites, successional trajectories were highly idiosyncratic, even when controlling for prior land use, environment, and initial conditions in these attributes. Plot factors were far more important than stand age in explaining successional trajectories. For each site, the best-fit model was able to capture the complete set of time series in certain attributes only when both the deterministic and stochastic components were set to similar magnitudes. Surprisingly, predictability of stem density, basal area, and species density did not show consistent trends across attributes, study sites, or land use history, and was independent of plot size and time series length. The model developed here represents the best approach, to date, for characterizing autogenic successional dynamics and demonstrates the low predictability of successional trajectories. These high levels of uncertainty suggest that the impacts of allogenic factors on rates of change during tropical forest succession are far more pervasive than previously thought, challenging the way ecologists view and investigate forest regeneration.

    Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization : A test case with 14 Neotropical forest sites
    Letcher, Susan G. ; Lasky, Jesse R. ; Chazdon, Robin L. ; Norden, Natalia ; Wright, S.J. ; Meave, Jorge A. ; Pérez-García, Eduardo A. ; Muñoz, Rodrigo ; Romero-Pérez, Eunice ; Andrade, Ana ; Balvanera, Patricia ; Bongers, Frans ; Lohbeck, Madelon - \ 2015
    Journal of Ecology 103 (2015)5. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1276 - 1290.
    Determinants of plant community diversity and structure - Functional traits - Life-history evolution - Phylogeny - Pioneer species - Precipitation gradient - Tropical dry forest - Tropical wet forest

    Successional gradients are ubiquitous in nature, yet few studies have systematically examined the evolutionary origins of taxa that specialize at different successional stages. Here we quantify successional habitat specialization in Neotropical forest trees and evaluate its evolutionary lability along a precipitation gradient. Theoretically, successional habitat specialization should be more evolutionarily conserved in wet forests than in dry forests due to more extreme microenvironmental differentiation between early and late-successional stages in wet forest. We applied a robust multinomial classification model to samples of primary and secondary forest trees from 14 Neotropical lowland forest sites spanning a precipitation gradient from 788 to 4000 mm annual rainfall, identifying species that are old-growth specialists and secondary forest specialists in each site. We constructed phylogenies for the classified taxa at each site and for the entire set of classified taxa and tested whether successional habitat specialization is phylogenetically conserved. We further investigated differences in the functional traits of species specializing in secondary vs. old-growth forest along the precipitation gradient, expecting different trait associations with secondary forest specialists in wet vs. dry forests since water availability is more limiting in dry forests and light availability more limiting in wet forests. Successional habitat specialization is non-randomly distributed in the angiosperm phylogeny, with a tendency towards phylogenetic conservatism overall and a trend towards stronger conservatism in wet forests than in dry forests. However, the specialists come from all the major branches of the angiosperm phylogeny, and very few functional traits showed any consistent relationships with successional habitat specialization in either wet or dry forests. Synthesis. The niche conservatism evident in the habitat specialization of Neotropical trees suggests a role for radiation into different successional habitats in the evolution of species-rich genera, though the diversity of functional traits that lead to success in different successional habitats complicates analyses at the community scale. Examining the distribution of particular lineages with respect to successional gradients may provide more insight into the role of successional habitat specialization in the evolution of species-rich taxa.

    Letter: The potential of secondary forests
    Bongers, F. ; Chazdon, R.L. ; Poorter, L. ; Pena Claros, M. - \ 2015
    Science 348 (2015)6235. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 642 - 643.
    Phylogenetic community structure during succession: evidence from three Neotropical forest sites
    Letcher, S.G. ; Chazdon, R.L. ; Andrade, A. ; Bongers, F. ; Breugel, M. van; Finegan, B. ; Laurance, S.G. ; Mesquita, R. ; Martinez-Ramos, M. ; Williamson, G.B. - \ 2012
    Perspectives in plant ecology, evolution and systematics 14 (2012)2. - ISSN 1433-8319 - p. 79 - 87.
    dependent seedling mortality - bornean rain-forest - tropical forest - tree community - density - diversity - ecology - growth - size - disturbances
    The phylogenetic structure of communities can reveal forces shaping community assembly, but the vast majority of work on phylogenetic community structure has been conducted in mature ecosystems. Here, we present an analysis of the phylogenetic structure of three Neotropical rain forest communities undergoing succession. In each site, the net relatedness of the community is initially high and consistently declines during succession. This pattern is evident both when comparing plots of different age classes and when comparing stem size classes within each plot: the oldest plots and the youngest stem cohorts, representing the most advanced stages of succession, have the lowest relatedness. Our results suggest that succession leaves a distinct signature in the phylogenetic structure of communities, which may reflect an increasing role of biotic interactions in community assembly during succession. We discuss theoretical explanations for the decline in community phylogenetic relatedness during succession, and suggest directions for future study.
    Integrating Agricultural Landscapes with Biodiversity Conservation in the Mesoamerican Hotspot
    Harvey, C.A. ; Komar, O. ; Chazdon, R.L. ; Ferguson, B.G. ; Finegan, B. ; Griffith, D.M. ; Martínez-Ramos, M. ; Morales, H. ; Nigh, R. ; Soto-Pinto, L. ; Breugel, M. van; Wishnie, M. - \ 2008
    Conservation Biology 22 (2008)1. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 8 - 15.
    environmental services help - costa-rica - latin-america - countryside biogeography - forest fragments - los-tuxtlas - rain-forest - mexico - coffee - diversity
    Rates of change in tree communities of secondary Neotropical forests following major disturbances
    Chazdon, R.L. ; Letcher, S.G. ; Breugel, M. van; Martínez-Ramos, M. ; Bongers, F.J.J.M. ; Finegan, B. - \ 2007
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Biological sciences 362 (2007)1478. - ISSN 0962-8436 - p. 273 - 289.
    tropical dry-forest - upper rio negro - rain-forest - puerto-rico - costa-rica - deciduous forest - species composition - central amazonia - land-use - hurricane disturbance
    Rates of change in tree communities following major disturbances are determined by a complex set of interactions between local site factors, landscape history and structure, regional species pools and species life histories. Our analysis focuses on vegetation change following abandonment of agricultural fields or pastures, as this is the most extensive form of major disturbance in Neotropical forests. We consider five tree community attributes: stem density, basal area, species density, species richness and species composition. We describe two case studies, in northeastern Costa Rica and Chiapas, Mexico, where both chronosequence and annual tree dynamics studies are being applied. These case studies show that the rates of change in tree communities often deviate from chronosequence trends. With respect to tree species composition, sites of different ages differ more than a single site followed over time through the same age range. Dynamic changes in basal area within stands, on the other hand, generally followed chronosequence trends. Basal area accumulation was more linked with tree growth rates than with net changes in tree density due to recruitment and mortality. Stem turnover rates were poor predictors of species turnover rates, particularly at longer time-intervals. Effects of the surrounding landscape on tree community dynamics within individual plots are poorly understood, but are likely to be important determinants of species accumulation rates and relative abundance patterns.
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