Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Trophic interactions as determinants of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community with cascading plant-promoting consequences
    Jiang, Yuji ; Luan, Lu ; Hu, Kaijie ; Liu, Manqiang ; Cheng, Ziyun ; Geisen, Stefan ; Chen, Xiaoyun ; Li, Huixin ; Xu, Qinsong ; Bonkowski, Michael ; Sun, Bo - \ 2020
    Microbiome 8 (2020). - ISSN 2049-2618
    Background
    The soil mycobiome is composed of a complex and diverse fungal community, which includes functionally diverse species ranging from plant pathogens to mutualists. Among the latter are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that provide phosphorous (P) to plants. While plant hosts and abiotic parameters are known to structure AMF communities, it remains largely unknown how higher trophic level organisms, including protists and nematodes, affect AMF abundance and community composition.
    Results
    Here, we explored the connections between AMF, fungivorous protists and nematodes that could partly reflect trophic interactions, and linked those to rhizosphere P dynamics and plant performance in a long-term manure application setting. Our results revealed that manure addition increased AMF biomass and the density of fungivorous nematodes, and tailored the community structures of AMF, fungivorous protists, and nematodes. We detected a higher abundance of AMF digested by the dominant fungivorous nematodes Aphelenchoides and Aphelenchus in high manure treatments compared to no manure and low manure treatments. Structural equation modeling combined with network analysis suggested that predation by fungivorous protists and nematodes stimulated AMF biomass and modified the AMF community composition. The mycorrhizal-fungivore interactions catalyzed AMF colonization and expression levels of the P transporter gene ZMPht1;6 in maize roots, which resulted in enhanced plant productivity.
    Conclusions
    Our study highlights the importance of predation as a key element in shaping the composition and enhancing the biomass of AMF, leading to increased plant performance. As such, we clarify novel biological mechanism of the complex interactions between AMF, fungivorous protists, and nematodes in driving P absorption and plant performance.
    Impacts of national scale digital soil mapping programs in France
    Arrouays, Dominique ; Richer-de-Forges, Anne C. ; Héliès, Florence ; Mulder, Vera Leatitia ; Saby, Nicolas P.A. ; Chen, Songchao ; Martin, Manuel P. ; Román Dobarco, Mercedes ; Follain, Stéphane ; Jolivet, Claudy ; Laroche, Bertrand ; Loiseau, Thomas ; Cousin, Isabelle ; Lacoste, Marine ; Ranjard, Lionel ; Toutain, Benoît ; Bas, Christine Le; Eglin, Thomas ; Bardy, Marion ; Antoni, Véronique ; Meersmans, Jeroen ; Ratié, Céline ; Bispo, Antonio - \ 2020
    Geoderma Regional 23 (2020). - ISSN 2352-0094
    Digital soil mapping - France - Impacts - National scale

    During the last 10 years, several attempts to map soil attributes at the scale of mainland France have been realised. We exemplify them by seven major outputs: maps of organic C stocks, trace elements (TE), microbial density and diversity, soil thickness, available water capacity (AWC), extractable P, and changes in soil pH. We first briefly describe the data and the methods used to produce these maps and summarise their main results. We then focus on their impacts on various categories of the public, i.e. the general public and citizens; farmers; private companies; non-governmental organisations; agricultural development organisations, stakeholders, and national agencies; French governmental bodies; and international organisations. We also analyse the demands that came to the French National Soil Information Centre from 2008 to 2018 and the impact that our activities had in various media. Soil organic C had the largest impact in nearly all categories of end-users, which may be linked to the recent ‘4 per 1000’ initiative launched by the French governmentduring the COP21 and to the fact that farmers are interested in increasing the organic matter content of their soil for increasing the fertility. TE obtained high scores, which may be related to citizens' care about health and to the fact that governmental bodies and national agencies have a major interest in site contamination assessments. The soil P content, pH, and AWC exhibited major impacts on the agricultural sector. Maps of the soil P content and pH were used as geomarketing tools by private companies selling fertilisers and soil amendments, whereas the AWC was already incorporated into decision-making aid tools for irrigation management developed by development organisations for farmers. Microbial diversity generated collaborations with a large network of farmers and had a large media impact. Nevertheless, the visibility of soil information to the general public should be increased. This can be done by using new multimedia and interactive tools. Overall, these selected examples of digital soil mapping of soil attributes at the national scale in France clearly indicate that the soil attributes have substantial impact on various categories of end-users, such as farmers, professional organisations, stakeholders, and policymakers at different levels of decision-making, among others. However, the impacts on the general public and citizens are more difficult to quantify, and increasing the soil awareness of the general public should be of high priority.

    The evolution of pyrrolizidine alkaloid diversity among and within Jacobaea species
    Chen, Yangan ; Mulder, Patrick P.J. ; Schaap, Onno ; Memelink, Johan ; Klinkhamer, Peter G.L. ; Vrieling, Klaas - \ 2020
    Journal of Systematics and Evolution (2020). - ISSN 1674-4918
    ancestral state reconstruction - hierarchical cluster analysis - LC-MS/MS - phylogenetic signal - principal component analysis - secondary metabolite diversity

    Plants produce many secondary metabolites showing considerable inter- and intraspecific diversity of concentration and composition as a strategy to cope with environmental stresses. The evolution of plant defenses against herbivores and pathogens can be unraveled by understanding the mechanisms underlying chemical diversity. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a class of secondary metabolites with high diversity. We performed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of 80 pyrrolizidine alkaloids with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of leaves from 17 Jacobaea species including one to three populations per species with 4–10 individuals per population grown under controlled conditions in a climate chamber. We observed large inter- and intraspecific variation in pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentration and composition, which were both species-specific. Furthermore, we sequenced 11 plastid and three nuclear regions to reconstruct the phylogeny of the 17 Jacobaea species. Ancestral state reconstruction at the species level showed mainly random distributions of individual pyrrolizidine alkaloids. We found little evidence for phylogenetic signals, as nine out of 80 pyrrolizidine alkaloids showed a significant phylogenetic signal for Pagel's λ statistics only, whereas no significance was detected for Blomberg's K measure. We speculate that this high pyrrolizidine alkaloid diversity is the result of the upregulation and downregulation of specific pyrrolizidine alkaloids depending on ecological needs rather than gains and losses of particular pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis genes during evolution.

    Aggregate-associated changes in nutrient properties, microbial community and functions in a greenhouse vegetable field based on an eight-year fertilization experiment of China
    Luan, Hao An ; Gao, Wei ; Tang, Ji Wei ; Li, Ruo Nan ; Li, Ming Yue ; Zhang, Huai Zhi ; Chen, Xinping ; Masiliunas, Dainius ; Huang, Shao Wen - \ 2020
    Journal of Integrative Agriculture 19 (2020)10. - ISSN 2095-3119 - p. 2530 - 2548.
    fertilization - microbial characteristics - soil aggregate distribution

    Soil aggregation, microbial community, and functions (i.e., extracellular enzyme activities; EEAs) are critical factors affecting soil C dynamics and nutrient cycling. We assessed soil aggregate distribution, stability, nutrients, and microbial characteristics within >2, 0.25–2, 0.053–0.25, and <0.053 mm aggregates, based on an eight-year field experiment in a greenhouse vegetable field in China. The field experiment includes four treatments: 100% N fertilizer (CF), 50% substitution of N fertilizer with manure (M), straw (S), and manure plus straw (MS). The amounts of nutrient (N, P2O5, and K2O) input were equal in each treatment. Results showed higher values of mean weight diameter in organic-amended soils (M, MS, and S, 2.43–2.97) vs. CF-amended soils (1.99). Relative to CF treatment, organic amendments had positive effects on nutrient (i.e., available N, P, and soil organic C (SOC)) conditions, microbial (e.g., bacterial and fungal) growth, and EEAs in the >0.053 mm aggregates, but not in the <0.053 mm aggregates. The 0.25–0.053 mm aggregates exhibited better nutrient conditions and hydrolytic activity, while the <0.053 mm aggregates had poor nutrient conditions and higher oxidative activity among aggregates, per SOC, available N, available P, and a series of enzyme activities. These results indicated that the 0.25–0.053 mm (<0.053 mm) aggregates provide suitable microhabitats for hydrolytic (oxidative) activity. Interestingly, we found that hydrolytic and oxidative activities were mainly impacted by fertilization (58.5%, P<0.01) and aggregate fractions (50.5%, P<0.01), respectively. The hydrolytic and oxidative activities were significantly (P<0.01) associated with nutrients (SOC and available N) and pH, electrical conductivity, respectively. Furthermore, SOC, available N, and available P closely (P<0.05) affected microbial communities within >0.25, 0.25–0.053, and <0.053 mm aggregates, respectively. These findings provide several insights into microbial characteristics within aggregates under different fertilization modes in the greenhouse vegetable production system in China.

    Commentaries on Top-Cited Boundary-Layer Meteorology Articles
    Garratt, John ; Wilczak, James ; Holtslag, Albert ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Grachev, Andrey ; Beljaars, Anton ; Foken, Thomas ; Chen, Fei ; Fairall, Christopher ; Hicks, Bruce ; Kusaka, Hiroyuki ; Martilli, Alberto ; Masson, Valéry ; Mauder, Matthias ; Oncley, Steven ; Rotach, Mathias ; Tjernström, Michael - \ 2020
    Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2020). - ISSN 0006-8314
    2020 taxonomic update for phylum Negarnaviricota (Riboviria: Orthornavirae), including the large orders Bunyavirales and Mononegavirales
    Kuhn, Jens H. ; Adkins, Scott ; Alioto, Daniela ; Alkhovsky, Sergey V. ; Amarasinghe, Gaya K. ; Anthony, Simon J. ; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana ; Ayllón, María A. ; Bahl, Justin ; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne ; Ballinger, Matthew J. ; Bartonička, Tomáš ; Basler, Christopher ; Bavari, Sina ; Beer, Martin ; Bente, Dennis A. ; Bergeron, Éric ; Bird, Brian H. ; Blair, Carol ; Blasdell, Kim R. ; Bradfute, Steven B. ; Breyta, Rachel ; Briese, Thomas ; Brown, Paul A. ; Buchholz, Ursula J. ; Buchmeier, Michael J. ; Bukreyev, Alexander ; Burt, Felicity ; Buzkan, Nihal ; Calisher, Charles H. ; Cao, Mengji ; Casas, Inmaculada ; Chamberlain, John ; Chandran, Kartik ; Charrel, Rémi N. ; Chen, Biao ; Chiumenti, Michela ; Choi, Ryong ; Clegg, J.C.S. ; Crozier, Ian ; Graça, John V. da; Bó, Elena Dal; Dávila, Alberto M.R. ; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Lamballerie, Xavier de; Swart, Rik L. de; Bello, Patrick L. Di; Paola, Nicholas Di; Serio, Francesco Di; Dietzgen, Ralf G. ; Digiaro, Michele ; Dolja, Valerian V. ; Dolnik, Olga ; Drebot, Michael A. ; Drexler, Jan Felix ; Dürrwald, Ralf ; Dufkova, Lucie ; Dundon, William G. ; Duprex, W.P. ; Dye, John M. ; Easton, Andrew J. ; Ebihara, Hideki ; Elbeaino, Toufic ; Ergünay, Koray ; Fernandes, Jorlan ; Fooks, Anthony R. ; Formenty, Pierre B.H. ; Forth, Leonie F. ; Fouchier, Ron A.M. ; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana ; Gago-Zachert, Selma ; Gāo, George Fú ; García, María Laura ; García-Sastre, Adolfo ; Garrison, Aura R. ; Gbakima, Aiah ; Goldstein, Tracey ; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J. ; Griffiths, Anthony ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Günther, Stephan ; Guterres, Alexandro ; Hall, Roy A. ; Hammond, John ; Hassan, Mohamed ; Hepojoki, Jussi ; Hepojoki, Satu ; Hetzel, Udo ; Hewson, Roger ; Hoffmann, Bernd ; Hongo, Seiji ; Höper, Dirk ; Horie, Masayuki ; Hughes, Holly R. ; Hyndman, Timothy H. ; Jambai, Amara ; Jardim, Rodrigo ; Jiāng, Dàohóng ; Jin, Qi ; Jonson, Gilda B. ; Junglen, Sandra ; Karadağ, Serpil ; Keller, Karen E. ; Klempa, Boris ; Klingström, Jonas ; Kobinger, Gary ; Kondō, Hideki ; Koonin, Eugene V. ; Krupovic, Mart ; Kurath, Gael ; Kuzmin, Ivan V. ; Laenen, Lies ; Lamb, Robert A. ; Lambert, Amy J. ; Langevin, Stanley L. ; Lee, Benhur ; Lemos, Elba R.S. ; Leroy, Eric M. ; Li, Dexin ; Lǐ, Jiànróng ; Liang, Mifang ; Liú, Wénwén ; Liú, Yàn ; Lukashevich, Igor S. ; Maes, Piet ; Marciel de Souza, William ; Marklewitz, Marco ; Marshall, Sergio H. ; Martelli, Giovanni P. ; Martin, Robert R. ; Marzano, Shin Yi L. ; Massart, Sébastien ; McCauley, John W. ; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole ; Minafra, Angelantonio ; Minutolo, Maria ; Mirazimi, Ali ; Mühlbach, Hans Peter ; Mühlberger, Elke ; Naidu, Rayapati ; Natsuaki, Tomohide ; Navarro, Beatriz ; Navarro, José A. ; Netesov, Sergey V. ; Neumann, Gabriele ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Nunes, Márcio R.T. ; Nylund, Are ; Økland, Arnfinn L. ; Oliveira, Renata C. ; Palacios, Gustavo ; Pallas, Vicente ; Pályi, Bernadett ; Papa, Anna ; Parrish, Colin R. ; Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex ; Pawęska, Janusz T. ; Payne, Susan ; Pérez, Daniel R. ; Pfaff, Florian ; Radoshitzky, Sheli R. ; ul Rahman, Aziz ; Ramos-González, Pedro L. ; Resende, Renato O. ; Reyes, Carina A. ; Rima, Bertus K. ; Romanowski, Víctor ; Robles Luna, Gabriel ; Rota, Paul ; Rubbenstroth, Dennis ; Runstadler, Jonathan A. ; Ruzek, Daniel ; Sabanadzovic, Sead ; Salát, Jiří ; Sall, Amadou Alpha ; Salvato, Maria S. ; Sarpkaya, Kamil ; Sasaya, Takahide ; Schwemmle, Martin ; Shabbir, Muhammad Z. ; Shí, Xiǎohóng ; Shí, Zhènglì ; Shirako, Yukio ; Simmonds, Peter ; Širmarová, Jana ; Sironi, Manuela ; Smither, Sophie ; Smura, Teemu ; Song, Jin Won ; Spann, Kirsten M. ; Spengler, Jessica R. ; Stenglein, Mark D. ; Stone, David M. ; Straková, Petra ; Takada, Ayato ; Tesh, Robert B. ; Thornburg, Natalie J. ; Tomonaga, Keizō ; Tordo, Noël ; Towner, Jonathan S. ; Turina, Massimo ; Tzanetakis, Ioannis ; Ulrich, Rainer G. ; Vaira, Anna Maria ; Hoogen, Bernadette van den; Varsani, Arvind ; Vasilakis, Nikos ; Verbeek, Martin ; Wahl, Victoria ; Walker, Peter J. ; Wang, Hui ; Wang, Jianwei ; Wang, Xifeng ; Wang, Lin Fa ; Wèi, Tàiyún ; Wells, Heather ; Whitfield, Anna E. ; Williams, John V. ; Wolf, Yuri I. ; Wú, Zhìqiáng ; Yang, Xin ; Yáng, Xīnglóu ; Yu, Xuejie ; Yutin, Natalya ; Zerbini, Murilo ; Zhang, Tong ; Zhang, Yong Zhen ; Zhou, Guohui ; Zhou, Xueping - \ 2020
    Archives of Virology (2020). - ISSN 0304-8608

    In March 2020, following the annual International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ratification vote on newly proposed taxa, the phylum Negarnaviricota was amended and emended. At the genus rank, 20 new genera were added, two were deleted, one was moved, and three were renamed. At the species rank, 160 species were added, four were deleted, ten were moved and renamed, and 30 species were renamed. This article presents the updated taxonomy of Negarnaviricota as now accepted by the ICTV.

    Assessing long-term spatial movement of wheat area across China
    Fan, Lingling ; Chen, Shi ; Liang, Shefang ; Sun, Xiao ; Chen, Hao ; You, Liangzhi ; Wu, Wenbin ; Sun, Jing ; Yang, Peng - \ 2020
    Agricultural Systems 185 (2020). - ISSN 0308-521X
    China - Climate change - Driving factors - Geographical centroid - Wheat area

    In the context of climate change, assessing spatiotemporal dynamics of crop production is becoming an important component of food security, which is one of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Wheat is a major staple food that is grown worldwide. Although many studies have analyzed wheat production, spatial analyses, particularly geographical centroid (GC) studies, are rare. The GC studies are of important scientific value and policy implications. This study aims to estimate the GC movement of wheat area (including winter and spring wheat) from 1949 to 2014 in China (the largest wheat-producing country). A centroid model was adopted to measure GC movements, and then a regression analysis was conducted to understand the driving factors of wheat area changes (as area changes lead to GC movement). Then multiple scenario analyses were built to study GC movement driven by climatic factors alone. The net GC movements of winter and spring wheat area were estimated at 31 km northwestward and 692 km southwestward from 1949 to 2014, with both displaying a turning point in their movement routes around 1970s (the GC of winter wheat area moved 89 km before 1970s and 66 km after 1970s; while the GC of spring wheat area moved 89 km before 1970s and 799 km after 1970s); furthermore, the major driving factor of winter wheat GC movement is a socioeconomic factor (i.e., expanded irrigation area) while that of spring wheat GC movement is a climatic factor (i.e., temperature) among the factors considered in this study. Our “climate only” scenarios highlighted that the impact of temperature on GC movement of winter wheat is more significant than that of precipitation. We assessed the spatiotemporal movement of wheat area to better understand its production dynamics in response to climate change and human activities. This study provides scientific evidence for policymakers and related stakeholders in China and other countries regarding food production patterns and planting decisions.

    Watering techniques and zero-valent iron biochar pH effects on As and Cd concentrations in rice rhizosphere soils, tissues and yield
    Islam, Md Shafiqul ; Chen, Yali ; Weng, Liping ; Ma, Jie ; Khan, Zulqarnain Haider ; Liao, Zhongbin ; Magid, Abdoul Salam Issiaka Abdoul ; Li, Yongtao - \ 2020
    Journal of Environmental Sciences 100 (2020). - ISSN 1001-0742 - p. 144 - 157.
    Brown rice As - Brown rice Cd - Grain yield - Paddy soils - Water management - Zero-valent iron biochar

    Zero-valent iron amended biochar (ZVIB) has been proposed as a promising material in immobilizing heavy metals in paddy fields. In this study, the impacts of pH of ZVIB (pH 6.3 and pH 9.7) and watering management techniques (watering amount in the order of CON (control, 5/72)>3/72>1–3/72>3/100>1/72, with 5/72, for example, representing irrigation given to 5 cm above soil surface in 72 hr regular interval) on As and Cd bioavailability for rice and its grain yield (YieldBR) were investigated in a pot experiment. Brown rice As (AsBR) content was irrelative to the watering treatments, while significantly decreased (>50%) with the addition of both ZVIB materials. The diminutions of brown rice Cd (CdBR) content as well as the YieldBR were highly dependent on both the soil amendment materials’ pH and watering amount. Among all the watering treatments, 3/72 treatment (15% less irrigation water than the CON) with ZVIB 6.3 amendment was the optimum fit for simultaneous reduction of AsBR (50%) and CdBR contents (19%) as well as for significant increment (12%) of the YieldBR. Although high pH (9.7) ZVIB application could also efficiently decrease As and Cd contents in brown rice, it might risk grain yield lost if appropriate (e.g. 3/72 in our study) watering management technique was not chosen. Therefore, ZVIB would be an environmentally friendly option as an amendment material with proper selection of watering management technique to utilize As and Cd co-contaminated arable soils safely for paddy cultivation.

    Emulsification and dilatational surface rheology of ultrasonicated milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) materials
    Chen, Min ; Sagis, Leonard M.C. ; Sun, Qingjie - \ 2020
    Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 133 (2020). - ISSN 0023-6438
    Emulsion - Large amplitude oscillatory dilatation (LAOD) - Lecithin - Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) - Oil/water interface

    Herein milk fat model emulsions (MFMEs) of infant formulas were prepared with ultrasonication-processed milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) materials (as well as MFGM/Lecithin blend and lecithin). The emulsion stability during storage was determined with a turbiscan. The microstructure of MFMEs was examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) at different pH values. Besides, the adsorption kinetics and linear/nonlinear dilatational rheological properties of oil/water interfaces were measured with a droplet tensiometer. After ultrasonication process, the average particle size of MFGM fragments decreased from 800 ± 100 nm to 230 ± 10 nm. The surface tension (at 100 s) of MFGM-stabilized interfaces was 17.4 mN/m (0.5 g/L), 12.9 mN/m (1.0 g/L and 2.0 g/L) and 11.0 mN/m (4.0 g/L), indicating a good emulsifying capacity of ultrasonicated MFGM materials. At neutral and acidic pH, MFMEs stabilized with MFGM dispersions or MFGM/Lecithin (1:1) at a total concentration of 4.0 g/L showed strong resistance against coalescence (CLSM). MFGM dispersions exhibited different surface rheological behaviour from pure phospholipids, proteins or a simple phospholipid/protein mixture, which suggested a heterogeneous structure of MFGM-stabilized interfaces, mainly consisting of MFGM fragment particles, interspersed with free phospholipids and proteins. These findings could provide a better understanding of emulsifying properties of MFGM materials.

    Somatic and haploid embryo development in Arabidopsis
    Chen, Baojian - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): G.C. Angenent, co-promotor(en): Kim Boutilier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954839 - 203
    Spatiotemporal dynamics of the northern limit of winter wheat in China using MODIS time series images
    Chen, Shi ; Fan, Lingling ; Liang, Shefang ; Chen, Hao ; Sun, Xiao ; Hu, Yanan ; Liu, Zhenhuan ; Sun, Jing ; Yang, Peng - \ 2020
    Remote Sensing 12 (2020)15. - ISSN 2072-4292
    Crop mapping - MODIS EVI2 - Northern China - Northern limit of winter wheat - Time series classification

    Studying the spatiotemporal changes of the northern limit of winter wheat (NLWW) in China is important to ensure regional food security and deal with the effects of climate change. Previous studies mainly used climate indicators to analyze the variation of the potential NLWW in different historical periods, while little attention has been paid to the actual migrations and changes of the NLWW. The objectives of the present study were three-fold: (i) to map the spatial distribution of winter wheat in northern China in 2001, 2007, 2014 and 2019; (ii) to extract the actual NLWW; and (iii) to quantitatively explore the dynamics of the NLWW. First, we adopted the "combining variations before and after estimated heading dates" method to map the winter wheat in northern China based on time series MODIS EVI2 data. Second, we used the kernel density estimation algorithm to extract the actual NLWW in four historical periods. Finally, the fishnet method was utilized to quantitatively analyze the direction and distance of the spatiotemporal changes of the NLWW. The results demonstrated that the NLWW has exhibited a marked fluctuating trend of migration southward, with a 37-km shift in latitude over the past 20 years. The elevation limit of winter wheat planting was around 1600 m; however, the centroid of winter wheat planting has shifted slowly to lower elevations. There was a gap between the actual NLWW and the potential NLWW. The reason for this gap was that the actual NLWW moved southward under the interacting effects of human activities and climate change, while the potential NLWW moved northward due to climate change. The results of this study are of great scientific value in the formulation of winter wheat planting strategies in climate-sensitive areas to respond to climate change and ensure food security.

    Correction to: Microbiome definition re-visited: old concepts and new challenges
    Berg, Gabriele ; Rybakova, Daria ; Fischer, Doreen ; Cernava, Tomislav ; Vergès, Marie Christine Champomier ; Charles, Trevor ; Chen, Xiaoyulong ; Cocolin, Luca ; Eversole, Kellye ; Corral, Gema Herrero ; Kazou, Maria ; Kinkel, Linda ; Lange, Lene ; Lima, Nelson ; Loy, Alexander ; Macklin, James A. ; Maguin, Emmanuelle ; Mauchline, Tim ; McClure, Ryan ; Mitter, Birgit ; Ryan, Matthew ; Sarand, Inga ; Smidt, Hauke ; Schelkle, Bettina ; Roume, Hugo ; Kiran, G.S. ; Selvin, Joseph ; Souza, Rafael Soares Correa de; Overbeek, Leo van; Singh, Brajesh K. ; Wagner, Michael ; Walsh, Aaron ; Sessitsch, Angela ; Schloter, Michael - \ 2020
    Microbiome 8 (2020)1. - ISSN 2049-2618 - 1 p.
    For an analytics of affective life: marginalized youths, social interventions and development affectspheres in Cusco, Peru
    Lin, Chih-Chen Trista - \ 2020
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C. Minca, co-promotor(en): M.E. Ormond. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463954365 - 193

    In this thesis, I use the term “alternative interventions” to address specific non-state-led and multi-faceted welfare and inclusion operations in Cusco, Peru, that intervene in situations of precarity and vulnerability through promoting young people’s long-term well-being, development and livelihoods. These “alternative” interventions are small-scale and locally based even as they draw on resources internationally and involve non-local actors. Instead of examining large-scale, Peruvian state-led programmes, or voices of dissent towards those programmes, my thesis aims to understand groups of vulnerable and marginalized people’s experiences of the “alternative interventions” set up relative to them. My thesis draws on the literature on affect and embodiment in and beyond human geography in order to develop a set of analytics—i.e., tools, strategies or ways of doing analysis and the underlying rationale—for studying young people’s lived and affective experiences of two non-governmental social and residential care centres in Cusco, Peru.

    Chapter 1 provides an overview of critical scholarly literatures on the welfare of marginalized young populations in Peru. In this chapter, I contend that it is both scholarly and societally relevant to produce—besides critiques of the state power and structural conditions impacting the population—knowledge about any existing “alternative” interventions and modes of social organization that support or facilitate changes in the welfare of vulnerable and marginalized groups. Chapter 2 develops a robust approach to examining the lived and affective experiences of marginalized youths faced with interventions through critically reviewing literatures on children’s and youth geographies and on the geographies of development volunteering. I identify the theoretical and analytical issues at stake in using insights from these literatures for the purpose of my thesis research. I then introduce Berlant’s (2011) affect theory and develop a Berlant-inspired analytics of “affective life” that allows me to address the limitations in geographers’ discussions on young people’s lives and welfare and on social organization and development interventions influencing their welfare.

    In Chapter 3, I construct a methodology inspired by a variety of methodological discussions across geographical, anthropological, feminist, and childhood and youth research. Drawing on these methodological discussions, I detail the practical, methodological and ethical considerations involved in my seven-month-long ethnographic study of the affective life at two non-governmental social and residential care centres, Runachay and CARA, in Cusco, Peru. The chapter also presents my multi-method approach to Runachay and CARA resident-beneficiaries’ “expressions” during the fieldwork and my positionality working with the young participants.

    Chapter 4 seeks to understand the operations of Runachay’s politics of childhood/youth through social and vocational education in light of other existing structural forces and forms of power influencing the lives of these young people in Cusco’s social contexts. This chapter looks at the nuanced ways in which Runachay’s resident-beneficiaries individually and collectively feel about, make sense of and respond to Runachay’s facilitation of their well-being and their aspirations. In so doing, the chapter analyzes how Runachay mediates the precarity in Cusco’s urban economies faced by the girls in their rural-to-urban migration. It shows how the centre intervenes in the ordinary conditions in Cusco, and in Peru more generally, that shape Quechua-speaking girls’ domestic labour, their schooling and future employment. The analysis in this chapter critically unpacks the “alternative” workings of Runachay’s interventions, which are grounded in and materialized through the quotidian.

    Chapter 5 performs critiques of affect-inflected literature in the geographies of development and volunteering. This chapter argues for development geographers to pay attention to the affective life—the feelings, desires, affective states and capacities that emerge among the populations relying on development aid who are often represented as “poor” or “vulnerable” in public discourses and in writings on development volunteering. This chapter examines the “affective life” at CARA, a popular destination in Cusco for international volunteering. CARA has as its principal function the provision of residential care to adolescent mothers who are either survivors of rape or sexual abuse, or who lack family and community support for managing early pregnancy and motherhood. The chapter considers how the residents rely on CARA’s institutional-collective arrangements as they respond to socio-politically shaped vulnerability in everyday or long-term modes of living. In light of CARA’s collective household environment and the sensibilities it promotes among its residents, the chapter shows that the involvement of international volunteers affects residents’ capacities for living on and (self-)transformation in complex and sometimes problematic ways.

    Chapter 6 provides a review of the discussions emerging from the preceding chapters. Based on this review, I highlight my thesis’s contribution not only to the scholarly discussion on social and educational interventions in young people’s lives but also to literatures on the geographies of children and youth more generally. I also reflect on my intervention in the “affect turn” of the geographies of development volunteering and volunteer tourism. Chapter 6 then reflects on the implications of Berlantian deep ethnography for social and development policy critique and advocacy. I conclude my thesis in Chapter 6 by laying out aspects of the Cusco cases for further research as well as by formulating other conceptual and theoretical issues worth exploring using the Berlantian framework developed in my thesis.

    Applications of anodized TiO2 nanotube arrays on the removal of aqueous contaminants of emerging concern: A review
    Feng, Yanyue ; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M. ; Yntema, Doekle ; Gong, Zhengjun ; Dionysiou, Dionysios D. ; Cao, Zhourong ; Miao, Shiyu ; Chen, Yanlong ; Ye, Yin ; Wang, Yuheng - \ 2020
    Water Research 186 (2020). - ISSN 0043-1354
    Contaminants of emerging concern - Photocatalysis - Photoelectrocatalysis - TiO nanotube arrays - Water treatment

    The presence of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in various water bodies and the associated threats to eco-system and human society have raised increasing concerns. To fight against such a problem, TiO2 photocatalysis is considered to be a powerful tool. In recent decades, TiO2 nanotube array (TNA) fabricated by electrochemical anodization emerged as a viable immobilized catalyst and its applications on CECs removal have gained a considerable amount of research interest. We herein present a critical review on the development of TNA and its applications on the removal of aqueous CECs. In this work, the CECs removal in different TNA based processes, the CECs removal mechanisms, the role of TNA properties, the role of operational parameters, and the role of water matrices are discussed. Moreover, perspectives on the current research progress are presented and recommendations on future research are elaborated.

    Credit Constraints and Rural Households’ Entrepreneurial Performance in China
    Weng, Chen ; Wang, Hui ; Heerink, Nico ; Berg, Marrit van den - \ 2020
    Emerging Markets Finance and Trade (2020). - ISSN 1540-496X
    China - Credit constraints - entrepreneurial performance - Q14 - R29 - rural households

    Based on data from the China Household Finance Survey, this article investigates the relationship between formal sector credit constraints and rural households’ entrepreneurial performance. Using an endogenous switching regression model, we find that credit-constrained entrepreneurial households’ profits are significantly and positively affected by credit access, which is measured by total formal and informal production loans owed. With an extra RMB 10,000 in credit, constrained entrepreneurial households’ average profits would be raised from RMB 10,604 to RMB 10,732 (i.e. by 1.2%). Entrepreneurial profits of households that are not credit-constrained do not depend on loan sizes. Based on our findings, we stress the importance of the development of new-type rural financial institutions, proper compensations for expropriated land, and stimulating savings and investments in different types of assets for improving the performance of rural entrepreneurs.

    Towards standardized processing of eddy covariance flux measurements of carbonyl sulfide
    Kohonen, Kukka Maaria ; Kolari, Pasi ; Kooijmans, Linda M.J. ; Chen, Huilin ; Seibt, Ulli ; Sun, Wu ; Mammarella, Ivan - \ 2020
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 13 (2020)7. - ISSN 1867-1381 - p. 3957 - 3975.

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) flux measurements with the eddy covariance (EC) technique are becoming popular for estimating gross primary productivity. To compare COS flux measurements across sites, we need standardized protocols for data processing. In this study, we analyze how various data processing steps affect the calculated COS flux and how they differ from carbon dioxide (CO2) flux processing steps, and we provide a method for gap-filling COS fluxes. Different methods for determining the time lag between COS mixing ratio and the vertical wind velocity (w) resulted in a maximum of 15.9% difference in the median COS flux over the whole measurement period. Due to limited COS measurement precision, small COS fluxes (below approximately 3 pmolm-2 s-1) could not be detected when the time lag was determined from maximizing the covariance between COS and w. The difference between two highfrequency spectral corrections was 2.7% in COS flux calculations, whereas omitting the high-frequency spectral correction resulted in a 14.2% lower median flux, and different detrending methods caused a spread of 6.2 %. Relative total uncertainty was more than 5 times higher for low COS fluxes (lower than3 pmolm-2 s-1) than for low CO2 fluxes (lower than1:5 molm-2 s-1), indicating a low signal-tonoise ratio of COS fluxes. Due to similarities in ecosystem COS and CO2 exchange, we recommend applying storage change flux correction and friction velocity filtering as usual in EC flux processing, but due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of COS fluxes, we recommend using CO2 data for time lag and high-frequency corrections of COS fluxes due to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of CO2 measurements.

    Acute porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection reshapes the intestinal microbiota
    Yang, Shanshan ; Li, Yang ; Wang, Bin ; Yang, Ning ; Huang, Xin ; Chen, Qingbo ; Geng, Shuxian ; Zhou, Yawei ; Shi, Han ; Wang, Leyi ; Brugman, Sylvia ; Savelkoul, Huub ; Liu, Guangliang - \ 2020
    Virology 548 (2020). - ISSN 0042-6822 - p. 200 - 212.
    Intestinal microbiota - Pathogenicity - Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    The intestinal microbiota is crucial to intestinal homeostasis. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is high pathogenic to intestines, causing diarrhea, even death in piglets. To investigate the detailed relationship between PEDV infection and intestinal microbiota, the composition and distribution of intestinal microbiota from pigs were first analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing technology. The results demonstrated that the composition and distribution of microbes in different intestinal segments were quite similar between 1-week-old and 2-week-old piglets but different from 4-week-old (weaned) piglets. Then piglets at different ages were inoculated with PEDV. The results showed that the 1-week-old piglets exhibited the most severe pathogenicity comparing to the other age groups. Further investigations indicated that Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Lactococcus in the intestinal microbiota of piglets were significantly changed by PEDV infection. These results strengthen our understanding of viruses influencing intestinal microbes and remind us of the potential association between PEDV and intestinal microbes.

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin accumulation among 129 wheat cultivars from different ecological regions in China
    Yan, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; Lee, T.A.J. Van Der; Waalwijk, C. ; Diepeningen, A.D. Van; Deng, Y. ; Feng, J. ; Liu, T. ; Chen, W. - \ 2020
    World Mycotoxin Journal 13 (2020)2. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 189 - 199.
    Disease index - Fusarium head blight - Resistance - Toxin - Wheat

    A total of 129 wheat cultivars collected from local breeders in four ecological regions in China was evaluated for Fusarium head blight resistance after natural infection under epidemic conditions. The disease index was scored and seven toxins concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The disease index ranged from 6.3 to 80.9% and a strong correlation was found between the regions from which the cultivars originate and disease index. The middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Region showed the highest disease resistance, followed by the upper reaches of the Yangtze River Region. FHB resistance of cultivars from northern and southern Huanghuai Region was lowest and all cultivars in these regions are highly or moderately susceptible. Disease index was significantly correlated with toxin accumulation on nation scale, but no clear correlation was found within most ecological regions. The toxin accumulation was also not well correlated with resistant levels. As the incidence of FHB has increased dramatically over the last decade, improved FHB resistance in cultivars is urgently needed. We recommend that besides scoring for disease index also mycotoxin accumulation in cultivars is incorporated in breeding procedures and the evaluation of cultivars.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data
    Pastorello, Gilberto ; Trotta, Carlo ; Canfora, Eleonora ; Chu, Housen ; Christianson, Danielle ; Cheah, You Wei ; Poindexter, Cristina ; Chen, Jiquan ; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman ; Humphrey, Marty ; Isaac, Peter ; Polidori, Diego ; Ribeca, Alessio ; Ingen, Catharine van; Zhang, Leiming ; Amiro, Brian ; Ammann, Christof ; Arain, M.A. ; Ardö, Jonas ; Arkebauer, Timothy ; Arndt, Stefan K. ; Arriga, Nicola ; Aubinet, Marc ; Aurela, Mika ; Baldocchi, Dennis ; Barr, Alan ; Beamesderfer, Eric ; Marchesini, Luca Belelli ; Bergeron, Onil ; Beringer, Jason ; Bernhofer, Christian ; Berveiller, Daniel ; Billesbach, Dave ; Black, Thomas Andrew ; Blanken, Peter D. ; Bohrer, Gil ; Boike, Julia ; Bolstad, Paul V. ; Bonal, Damien ; Bonnefond, Jean Marc ; Bowling, David R. ; Bracho, Rosvel ; Brodeur, Jason ; Brümmer, Christian ; Buchmann, Nina ; Burban, Benoit ; Burns, Sean P. ; Buysse, Pauline ; Cale, Peter ; Cavagna, Mauro ; Cellier, Pierre ; Chen, Shiping ; Chini, Isaac ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cleverly, James ; Collalti, Alessio ; Consalvo, Claudia ; Cook, Bruce D. ; Cook, David ; Coursolle, Carole ; Cremonese, Edoardo ; Curtis, Peter S. ; Andrea, Ettore D'; Rocha, Humberto da; Dai, Xiaoqin ; Davis, Kenneth J. ; Cinti, Bruno De; Grandcourt, Agnes de; Ligne, Anne De; Oliveira, Raimundo C. De; Delpierre, Nicolas ; Desai, Ankur R. ; Bella, Carlos Marcelo Di; Tommasi, Paul di; Dolman, Han ; Domingo, Francisco ; Dong, Gang ; Dore, Sabina ; Duce, Pierpaolo ; Dufrêne, Eric ; Dunn, Allison ; Dušek, Jiří ; Eamus, Derek ; Eichelmann, Uwe ; ElKhidir, Hatim Abdalla M. ; Eugster, Werner ; Ewenz, Cacilia M. ; Ewers, Brent ; Famulari, Daniela ; Fares, Silvano ; Feigenwinter, Iris ; Feitz, Andrew ; Fensholt, Rasmus ; Filippa, Gianluca ; Fischer, Marc ; Frank, John ; Galvagno, Marta ; Gharun, Mana ; Gianelle, Damiano ; Gielen, Bert ; Gioli, Beniamino ; Gitelson, Anatoly ; Goded, Ignacio ; Goeckede, Mathias ; Goldstein, Allen H. ; Gough, Christopher M. ; Goulden, Michael L. ; Graf, Alexander ; Griebel, Anne ; Gruening, Carsten ; Grünwald, Thomas ; Hammerle, Albin ; Han, Shijie ; Han, Xingguo ; Hansen, Birger Ulf ; Hanson, Chad ; Hatakka, Juha ; He, Yongtao ; Hehn, Markus ; Heinesch, Bernard ; Hinko-Najera, Nina ; Hörtnagl, Lukas ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Ibrom, Andreas ; Ikawa, Hiroki ; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin ; Janouš, Dalibor ; Jans, Wilma ; Jassal, Rachhpal ; Jiang, Shicheng ; Kato, Tomomichi ; Khomik, Myroslava ; Klatt, Janina ; Knohl, Alexander ; Knox, Sara ; Kobayashi, Hideki ; Koerber, Georgia ; Kolle, Olaf ; Kosugi, Yoshiko ; Kotani, Ayumi ; Kowalski, Andrew ; Kruijt, Bart ; Kurbatova, Julia ; Kutsch, Werner L. ; Kwon, Hyojung ; Launiainen, Samuli ; Laurila, Tuomas ; Law, Bev ; Leuning, Ray ; Li, Yingnian ; Liddell, Michael ; Limousin, Jean Marc ; Lion, Marryanna ; Liska, Adam J. ; Lohila, Annalea ; López-Ballesteros, Ana ; López-Blanco, Efrén ; Loubet, Benjamin ; Loustau, Denis ; Lucas-Moffat, Antje ; Lüers, Johannes ; Ma, Siyan ; Macfarlane, Craig ; Magliulo, Vincenzo ; Maier, Regine ; Mammarella, Ivan ; Manca, Giovanni ; Marcolla, Barbara ; Margolis, Hank A. ; Marras, Serena ; Massman, William ; Mastepanov, Mikhail ; Matamala, Roser ; Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala ; Mazzenga, Francesco ; McCaughey, Harry ; McHugh, Ian ; McMillan, Andrew M.S. ; Merbold, Lutz ; Meyer, Wayne ; Meyers, Tilden ; Miller, Scott D. ; Minerbi, Stefano ; Moderow, Uta ; Monson, Russell K. ; Montagnani, Leonardo ; Moore, Caitlin E. ; Moors, Eddy ; Moreaux, Virginie ; Moureaux, Christine ; Munger, J.W. ; Nakai, Taro ; Neirynck, Johan ; Nesic, Zoran ; Nicolini, Giacomo ; Noormets, Asko ; Northwood, Matthew ; Nosetto, Marcelo ; Nouvellon, Yann ; Novick, Kimberly ; Oechel, Walter ; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind ; Ourcival, Jean Marc ; Papuga, Shirley A. ; Parmentier, Frans Jan ; Paul-Limoges, Eugenie ; Pavelka, Marian ; Peichl, Matthias ; Pendall, Elise ; Phillips, Richard P. ; Pilegaard, Kim ; Pirk, Norbert ; Posse, Gabriela ; Powell, Thomas ; Prasse, Heiko ; Prober, Suzanne M. ; Rambal, Serge ; Rannik, Üllar ; Raz-Yaseef, Naama ; Reed, David ; Dios, Victor Resco de; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia ; Reverter, Borja R. ; Roland, Marilyn ; Sabbatini, Simone ; Sachs, Torsten ; Saleska, Scott R. ; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P. ; Sanchez-Mejia, Zulia M. ; Schmid, Hans Peter ; Schmidt, Marius ; Schneider, Karl ; Schrader, Frederik ; Schroder, Ivan ; Scott, Russell L. ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Serrano-Ortíz, Penélope ; Shao, Changliang ; Shi, Peili ; Shironya, Ivan ; Siebicke, Lukas ; Šigut, Ladislav ; Silberstein, Richard ; Sirca, Costantino ; Spano, Donatella ; Steinbrecher, Rainer ; Stevens, Robert M. ; Sturtevant, Cove ; Suyker, Andy ; Tagesson, Torbern ; Takanashi, Satoru ; Tang, Yanhong ; Tapper, Nigel ; Thom, Jonathan ; Tiedemann, Frank ; Tomassucci, Michele ; Tuovinen, Juha Pekka ; Urbanski, Shawn ; Valentini, Riccardo ; Molen, Michiel van der; Gorsel, Eva van; Huissteden, Ko van; Varlagin, Andrej ; Verfaillie, Joseph ; Vesala, Timo ; Vincke, Caroline ; Vitale, Domenico ; Vygodskaya, Natalia ; Walker, Jeffrey P. ; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth ; Wang, Huimin ; Weber, Robin ; Westermann, Sebastian ; Wille, Christian ; Wofsy, Steven ; Wohlfahrt, Georg ; Wolf, Sebastian ; Woodgate, William ; Li, Yuelin ; Zampedri, Roberto ; Zhang, Junhui ; Zhou, Guoyi ; Zona, Donatella ; Agarwal, Deb ; Biraud, Sebastien ; Torn, Margaret ; Papale, Dario - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463 - 1 p.

    The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.

    The global abundance of tree palms
    Muscarella, Robert ; Emilio, Thaise ; Phillips, Oliver L. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Slik, Ferry ; Baker, William J. ; Couvreur, Thomas L.P. ; Eiserhardt, Wolf L. ; Svenning, Jens Christian ; Affum-Baffoe, Kofi ; Aiba, Shin Ichiro ; Almeida, Everton C. de; Almeida, Samuel S. de; Oliveira, Edmar Almeida de; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Alves, Luciana F. ; Alvez-Valles, Carlos Mariano ; Carvalho, Fabrício Alvim ; Guarin, Fernando Alzate ; Andrade, Ana ; Aragão, Luis E.O.C. ; Murakami, Alejandro Araujo ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Ashton, Peter S. ; Corredor, Gerardo A.A. ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Camargo, Plinio Barbosa de; Barlow, Jos ; Bastin, Jean François ; Bengone, Natacha Nssi ; Berenguer, Erika ; Berry, Nicholas ; Blanc, Lilian ; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin ; Bonal, Damien ; Bongers, Frans ; Bradford, Matt ; Brambach, Fabian ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Brewer, Steven W. ; Camargo, Jose L.C. ; Campbell, David G. ; Castilho, Carolina V. ; Castro, Wendeson ; Catchpole, Damien ; Cerón Martínez, Carlos E. ; Chen, Shengbin ; Chhang, Phourin ; Cho, Percival ; Chutipong, Wanlop ; Clark, Connie ; Collins, Murray ; Comiskey, James A. ; Medina, Massiel Nataly Corrales ; Costa, Flávia R.C. ; Culmsee, Heike ; David-Higuita, Heriberto ; Davidar, Priya ; Aguila-Pasquel, Jhon del; Derroire, Géraldine ; Fiore, Anthony Di; Do, Tran Van; Doucet, Jean Louis ; Dourdain, Aurélie ; Drake, Donald R. ; Ensslin, Andreas ; Erwin, Terry ; Ewango, Corneille E.N. ; Ewers, Robert M. ; Fauset, Sophie ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Ferreira, Joice ; Ferreira, Leandro Valle ; Fischer, Markus ; Franklin, Janet ; Fredriksson, Gabriella M. ; Gillespie, Thomas W. ; Gilpin, Martin ; Gonmadje, Christelle ; Gunatilleke, Arachchige Upali Nimal ; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman ; Hall, Jefferson S. ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Harris, David J. ; Harrison, Rhett D. ; Hector, Andrew ; Hemp, Andreas ; Herault, Bruno ; Pizango, Carlos Gabriel Hidalgo ; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N. ; Hubau, Wannes ; Hussain, Mohammad Shah ; Ibrahim, Faridah Hanum ; Imai, Nobuo ; Joly, Carlos A. ; Joseph, Shijo ; Anitha, K. ; Kartawinata, Kuswata ; Kassi, Justin ; Killeen, Timothy J. ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Klitgård, Bente Bang ; Kooyman, Robert ; Labrière, Nicolas ; Larney, Eileen ; Laumonier, Yves ; Laurance, Susan G. ; Laurance, William F. ; Lawes, Michael J. ; Levesley, Aurora ; Lisingo, Janvier ; Lovejoy, Thomas ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Lu, Xinghui ; Lykke, Anne Mette ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahayani, Ni Putu Diana ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Mansor, Asyraf ; Peña, Jose Luis Marcelo ; Marimon-Junior, Ben H. ; Marshall, Andrew R. ; Melgaco, Karina ; Bautista, Casimiro Mendoza ; Mihindou, Vianet ; Millet, Jérôme ; Milliken, William ; Mohandass, D. ; Mendoza, Abel Lorenzo Monteagudo ; Mugerwa, Badru ; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Seuaturien, Naret ; Nascimento, Marcelo T. ; Neill, David A. ; Neto, Luiz Menini ; Nilus, Rueben ; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez ; Nurtjahya, Eddy ; Araújo, R.N.O. de; Onrizal, Onrizal ; Palacios, Walter A. ; Palacios-Ramos, Sonia ; Parren, Marc ; Paudel, Ekananda ; Morandi, Paulo S. ; Pennington, R.T. ; Pickavance, Georgia ; Pipoly, John J. ; Pitman, Nigel C.A. ; Poedjirahajoe, Erny ; Poorter, Lourens ; Poulsen, John R. ; Prasad, P.R.C. ; Prieto, Adriana ; Puyravaud, Jean Philippe ; Qie, Lan ; Quesada, Carlos A. ; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma ; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude ; Reitsma, Jan Meindert ; Requena-Rojas, Edilson J. ; Correa, Zorayda Restrepo ; Rodriguez, Carlos Reynel ; Roopsind, Anand ; Rovero, Francesco ; Rozak, Andes ; Lleras, Agustín Rudas ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Rutten, Gemma ; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan ; Salomão, Rafael P. ; Sam, Hoang Van; Sarker, Swapan Kumar ; Satdichanh, Manichanh ; Schietti, Juliana ; Schmitt, Christine B. ; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes ; Senbeta, Feyera ; Nath Sharma, Lila ; Sheil, Douglas ; Sierra, Rodrigo ; Silva-Espejo, Javier E. ; Silveira, Marcos ; Sonké, Bonaventure ; Steininger, Marc K. ; Steinmetz, Robert ; Stévart, Tariq ; Sukumar, Raman ; Sultana, Aisha ; Sunderland, Terry C.H. ; Suresh, Hebbalalu Satyanarayana ; Tang, Jianwei ; Tanner, Edmund ; Steege, Hans ter; Terborgh, John W. ; Theilade, Ida ; Timberlake, Jonathan ; Torres-Lezama, Armando ; Umunay, Peter ; Uriarte, María ; Gamarra, Luis Valenzuela ; Bult, Martin van de; Hout, Peter van der; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez ; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães ; Vieira, Simone A. ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Cayo, Jeanneth Villalobos ; Wang, Ophelia ; Webb, Campbell O. ; Webb, Edward L. ; White, Lee ; Whitfeld, Timothy J.S. ; Wich, Serge ; Willcock, Simon ; Wiser, Susan K. ; Young, Kenneth R. ; Zakaria, Rahmad ; Zang, Runguo ; Zartman, Charles E. ; Zo-Bi, Irié Casimir ; Balslev, Henrik - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)9. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 1495 - 1514.
    above-ground biomass - abundance patterns - Arecaceae - local abiotic conditions - Neotropics - pantropical biogeography - tropical rainforest - wood density

    Aim: Palms are an iconic, diverse and often abundant component of tropical ecosystems that provide many ecosystem services. Being monocots, tree palms are evolutionarily, morphologically and physiologically distinct from other trees, and these differences have important consequences for ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and storage) and in terms of responses to climate change. We quantified global patterns of tree palm relative abundance to help improve understanding of tropical forests and reduce uncertainty about these ecosystems under climate change. Location: Tropical and subtropical moist forests. Time period: Current. Major taxa studied: Palms (Arecaceae). Methods: We assembled a pantropical dataset of 2,548 forest plots (covering 1,191 ha) and quantified tree palm (i.e., ≥10 cm diameter at breast height) abundance relative to co-occurring non-palm trees. We compared the relative abundance of tree palms across biogeographical realms and tested for associations with palaeoclimate stability, current climate, edaphic conditions and metrics of forest structure. Results: On average, the relative abundance of tree palms was more than five times larger between Neotropical locations and other biogeographical realms. Tree palms were absent in most locations outside the Neotropics but present in >80% of Neotropical locations. The relative abundance of tree palms was more strongly associated with local conditions (e.g., higher mean annual precipitation, lower soil fertility, shallower water table and lower plot mean wood density) than metrics of long-term climate stability. Life-form diversity also influenced the patterns; palm assemblages outside the Neotropics comprise many non-tree (e.g., climbing) palms. Finally, we show that tree palms can influence estimates of above-ground biomass, but the magnitude and direction of the effect require additional work. Conclusions: Tree palms are not only quintessentially tropical, but they are also overwhelmingly Neotropical. Future work to understand the contributions of tree palms to biomass estimates and carbon cycling will be particularly crucial in Neotropical forests.

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