Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Unfolding Dilemmas of Urban Public Spaces : Recommendations by JPI Urban Europe’s AGORA
    Riegler, Johannes ; Bylund, Jonas ; Ersoy, Aksel ; Wrangsten, Caroline ; Odbert, Chelina ; Gollner, Christoph ; Lee, Dahae ; Hill, Emma ; Lorenz, Florian ; Mulligan, Joe ; Peters, Karin - \ 2020
    JPI Urban Europe - 81 p.
    Ancient globetrotters—connectivity and putative native ranges of two cosmopolitan biofouling amphipods
    Beermann, Jan ; Hall-mullen, Allison K. ; Havermans, Charlotte ; Coolen, Joop W.P. ; Crooijmans, Richard P.M.A. ; Dibbits, Bert ; Held, Christoph ; Desiderato, Andrea - \ 2020
    PeerJ 8 (2020). - ISSN 2167-8359 - p. e9613 - e9613.
    amphipoda - biofouling - biological invasion - cosmopolitan distribution - marine dispersal - marine shipping
    The geographic distributions of some coastal marine species have appeared as
    cosmopolitan ever since they were first scientifically documented. In particular, for many benthic species that are associated with anthropogenic substrata, there is much mechanisms of dispersal. Here, we focused on two congeneric coastal crustaceans nearly all kinds of artificial hard substrata in temperate to warm seas. We hypothesized that shipping activities that started centuries ago. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of the CO1 fragment of specimens from distinct marine regions around the world were on putative native ranges of the two Jassa species. Populations of both species exhibited considerable genetic diversity with differing levels of geographic structure. For both species, at least two dominant haplotypes were shared among several geographic populations. Rapid demographic expansion and high migration rates between geographically distant regions support a scenario of ongoing dispersal all J. marmorata is the Northwest Atlantic, whereas the likely former native range of J. slatteryi is the Northern Pacific region. As corroborated by the genetic connectivity between populations, shipping still appears to be the more successful vector of the two species’ dispersal when compared to natural mechanisms. Historical invasion events that likely started centuries ago, along with current ongoing dispersal, confirm
    these species’ identities as true “neocosmopolitans”.
    Author Correction: Nitrogen and phosphorus constrain the CO2 fertilization of global plant biomass
    Terrer, César ; Jackson, Robert B. ; Prentice, I.C. ; Keenan, Trevor F. ; Kaiser, Christina ; Vicca, Sara ; Fisher, Joshua B. ; Reich, Peter B. ; Stocker, Benjamin D. ; Hungate, Bruce A. ; Peñuelas, Josep ; McCallum, Ian ; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A. ; Cernusak, Lucas A. ; Talhelm, Alan F. ; Sundert, Kevin Van; Piao, Shilong ; Newton, Paul C.D. ; Hovenden, Mark J. ; Blumenthal, Dana M. ; Liu, Yi Y. ; Müller, Christoph ; Winter, Klaus ; Field, Christopher B. ; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang ; Lissa, Caspar J. Van; Hoosbeek, Marcel R. ; Watanabe, Makoto ; Koike, Takayoshi ; Leshyk, Victor O. ; Polley, H.W. ; Franklin, Oskar - \ 2020
    Nature Climate Change 10 (2020). - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 696 - 697.

    Selectivity metrics for fisheries management and advice
    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas ; Jardim, Ernesto ; Konrad, Christoph ; Rihan, Dominic ; Mannini, Alessandro ; Pinto, Cecilia ; Casey, John ; Mosqueira, Iago ; O’Neill, Finbarr G. - \ 2020
    Fish and Fisheries 21 (2020)3. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 621 - 638.
    exploitation pattern - fishing mortality - landing obligation - population selectivity - simulation - technical measures

    Fisheries management typically aims at controlling exploitation rate (e.g., Fbar) to ensure sustainable levels of stock size in accordance with established reference points (e.g., FMSY, BMSY). Population selectivity (“selectivity” hereafter), that is the distribution of fishing mortality over the different demographic components of an exploited fish stock, is also important because it affects both Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and FMSY, as well as stock resilience to overfishing. The development of an appropriate metric could make selectivity operational as an additional lever for fisheries managers to achieve desirable outcomes. Additionally, such a selectivity metric could inform managers on the uptake by fleets and effects on stocks of various technical measures. Here, we introduce three criteria for selectivity metrics: (a) sensitivity to selectivity changes, (b) robustness to recruitment variability and (c) robustness to changes in Fbar. Subsequently, we test a range of different selectivity metrics against these three criteria to identify the optimal metric. First, we simulate changes in selectivity, recruitment and Fbar on a virtual fish stock to study the metrics under controlled conditions. We then apply two shortlisted selectivity metrics to six European fish stocks with a known history of technical measures to explore the metrics’ response in real-world situations. This process identified the ratio of F of the first recruited age–class to Fbar (Frec/Fbar) as an informative selectivity metric for fisheries management and advice.

    Structure-heat transport data of periodic open-cell foams
    Sinn, Christoph ; Wentrup, Jonas ; Kiewidt, Lars ; Pesch, Georg R. ; Thöming, Jorg - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    Computational Fluid Dynamics - conjugate heat transfer - Kelvin cells - open-cell foams
    The dataset contains heat flows in periodic open-cell foam structures for different strut-diameters, cell-diameters, thermal conductivities, and gas flow velocities. The research objective is to establish relations between the architecture and material of the periodic open-cell foam structure and their heat transport characteristics. The data was extracted from Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations.
    Reply to: An appeal to cost undermines food security risks of delayed mitigation
    Hasegawa, Tomoko ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Havlík, Petr ; Valin, Hugo ; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon ; Doelman, Jonathan C. ; Fellmann, Thomas ; Kyle, Page ; Koopman, Jason F.L. ; Lotze-Campen, Hermann ; Mason-D’Croz, Daniel ; Müller, Christoph ; Ochi, Yuki ; Pérez Domínguez, Ignacio ; Stehfest, Elke ; Sulser, Timothy B. ; Tabeau, Andrzej ; Takahashi, Kiyoshi ; Takakura, Junya ; Meijl, Hans van; Zeist, Willem Jan van; Wiebe, Keith ; Witzke, Peter - \ 2020
    Nature Climate Change 10 (2020)5. - ISSN 1758-678X - p. 420 - 421.
    Modelling food security : Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale
    Müller, Birgit ; Hoffmann, Falk ; Heckelei, Thomas ; Müller, Christoph ; Hertel, Thomas W. ; Polhill, J.G. ; Wijk, Mark van; Achterbosch, Thom ; Alexander, Peter ; Brown, Calum ; Kreuer, David ; Ewert, Frank ; Ge, Jiaqi ; Millington, James D.A. ; Seppelt, Ralf ; Verburg, Peter H. ; Webber, Heidi - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 63 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Agent-based models - Crop models - Economic equilibrium models - Food security - Land use - Model integration - Multi-scale interactions - Social-ecological feedbacks

    Achieving food and nutrition security for all in a changing and globalized world remains a critical challenge of utmost importance. The development of solutions benefits from insights derived from modelling and simulating the complex interactions of the agri-food system, which range from global to household scales and transcend disciplinary boundaries. A wide range of models based on various methodologies (from food trade equilibrium to agent-based) seek to integrate direct and indirect drivers of change in land use, environment and socio-economic conditions at different scales. However, modelling such interaction poses fundamental challenges, especially for representing non-linear dynamics and adaptive behaviours. We identify key pieces of the fragmented landscape of food security modelling, and organize achievements and gaps into different contextual domains of food security (production, trade, and consumption) at different spatial scales. Building on in-depth reflection on three core issues of food security – volatility, technology, and transformation – we identify methodological challenges and promising strategies for advancement. We emphasize particular requirements related to the multifaceted and multiscale nature of food security. They include the explicit representation of transient dynamics to allow for path dependency and irreversible consequences, and of household heterogeneity to incorporate inequality issues. To illustrate ways forward we provide good practice examples using meta-modelling techniques, non-equilibrium approaches and behavioural-based modelling endeavours. We argue that further integration of different model types is required to better account for both multi-level agency and cross-scale feedbacks within the food system.

    Agricultural robotics for field operations
    Fountas, Spyros ; Mylonas, Nikos ; Malounas, Ioannis ; Rodias, Efthymios ; Santos, Christoph Hellmann ; Pekkeriet, Erik - \ 2020
    Sensors 20 (2020)9. - ISSN 1424-8220
    Autonomous vehicles - Crops - Execution - Field operations - Perception

    Modern agriculture is related to a revolution that occurred in a large group of technologies (e.g., informatics, sensors, navigation) within the last decades. In crop production systems, there are field operations that are quite labour-intensive either due to their complexity or because of the fact that they are connected to sensitive plants/edible product interaction, or because of the repetitiveness they require throughout a crop production cycle. These are the key factors for the development of agricultural robots. In this paper, a systematic review of the literature has been conducted on research and commercial agricultural robotics used in crop field operations. This study underlined that the most explored robotic systems were related to harvesting and weeding, while the less studied were the disease detection and seeding robots. The optimization and further development of agricultural robotics are vital, and should be evolved by producing faster processing algorithms, better communication between the robotic platforms and the implements, and advanced sensing systems.

    Palaeosols and their cover sediments of a glacial landscape in northern central Europe : Spatial distribution, pedostratigraphy and evidence on landscape evolution
    Kaiser, Knut ; Schneider, Thomas ; Küster, Mathias ; Dietze, Elisabeth ; Fülling, Alexander ; Heinrich, Susann ; Kappler, Christoph ; Nelle, Oliver ; Schult, Manuela ; Theuerkauf, Martin ; Vogel, Sebastian ; Boer, Anna Maartje de; Börner, Andreas ; Preusser, Frank ; Schwabe, Matthias ; Ulrich, Jens ; Wirner, Michael ; Bens, Oliver - \ 2020
    Catena 193 (2020). - ISSN 0341-8162
    Buried soil - Holocene - Human impact - Land-cover change - Landscape dynamics - Soil erosion

    Knowledge of the distribution, types and properties of buried soils, i.e. palaeosols, is essential in understanding how lowlands in northern central Europe have changed over past millennia. This is an indispensable requirement for evaluating long-term human impact including soil erosion and land-cover dynamics. In the Serrahn area (62 km2), a young glacial landscape representative for northeastern Germany and part of the Müritz National Park, 26 pedosedimentary sections were documented and analysed. To this end, a multiproxy-approach was applied using pedology, micromorphology, geochronology, and palaeoecology. Statistical and spatial analyses of c. 5200 soil profiles, of which 10% contain palaeosols, show that buried soils cover an area of 5.7 km2, i.e. 9% of the area studied. Most palaeosols are Cambisols, Arenosols and Gleysols. Palaeosols are mainly covered by aeolian and colluvial sands, as well as by lacustrine sands and peat. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating together with palynological and anthracological data reveal that former land surfaces were dominantly buried through erosion triggered by human activity in the late Holocene. In addition, but to a clearly smaller extent, Lateglacial/early Holocene palaeosols and cover sediments occur. Following Medieval clear-cutting and intensive land use, the study area is today again widely forested. The high share of buried land surfaces detected here is expected to be representative for the hilly glacial landscapes even in the wider region, i.e. in northern central Europe, and should be considered in soil mapping, soil carbon budgeting and assessments of past human impact.

    Towards a unified study of multiple stressors : divisions and common goals across research disciplines
    Orr, James A. ; Vinebrooke, Rolf D. ; Jackson, Michelle C. ; Kroeker, Kristy J. ; Kordas, Rebecca L. ; Mantyka-Pringle, Chrystal ; Brink, Paul J. Van den; Laender, Frederik De; Stoks, Robby ; Holmstrup, Martin ; Matthaei, Christoph D. ; Monk, Wendy A. ; Penk, Marcin R. ; Leuzinger, Sebastian ; Schäfer, Ralf B. ; Piggott, Jeremy J. - \ 2020
    Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 287 (2020)1926. - ISSN 0962-8452 - 10 p.
    antagonism - combined effects - global change factors - multiple drivers - multiple stressors - synergism

    Anthropogenic environmental changes, or 'stressors', increasingly threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. Multiple-stressor research is a rapidly expanding field of science that seeks to understand and ultimately predict the interactions between stressors. Reviews and meta-analyses of the primary scientific literature have largely been specific to either freshwater, marine or terrestrial ecology, or ecotoxicology. In this cross-disciplinary study, we review the state of knowledge within and among these disciplines to highlight commonality and division in multiple-stressor research. Our review goes beyond a description of previous research by using quantitative bibliometric analysis to identify the division between disciplines and link previously disconnected research communities. Towards a unified research framework, we discuss the shared goal of increased realism through both ecological and temporal complexity, with the overarching aim of improving predictive power. In a rapidly changing world, advancing our understanding of the cumulative ecological impacts of multiple stressors is critical for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management. Identifying and overcoming the barriers to interdisciplinary knowledge exchange is necessary in rising to this challenge. Division between ecosystem types and disciplines is largely a human creation. Species and stressors cross these borders and so should the scientists who study them.

    Health and well-being for all: an approach to accelerating progress to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in countries in the WHO European Region
    Menne, Bettina ; Aragon De Leon, Emilia ; Bekker, Marleen ; Mirzikashvili, Nino ; Morton, Stephen ; Shriwise, Amanda ; Tomson, Göran ; Vracko, Pia ; Wippel, Christoph - \ 2020
    European Journal of Public Health 30 (2020)Supplement_1. - ISSN 1101-1262 - p. i3 - i9.
    Background: Forty-three out of 53 of the WHO European Member States have set up political and institutional mechanisms to implement the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This includes governance and institutional mechanisms, engaging stakeholders, identifying targets and indicators, setting governmental and sectoral priorities for action and reporting progress regularly. Still, growing evidence suggests that there is room for advancing implementation of some of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets at a higher pace in the WHO European Region. This article proposes the E4A approach to support WHO European Member States in their efforts to achieve the health-related SDG targets.
    Methods: The E4A approach was developed through a 2-year, multi-stage process, starting with the endorsement of the SDG Roadmap by all WHO European Member States in 2017. This approach resulted from a mix of qualitative methods: a semi-structured desk review of existing committal documents and tools; in-country policy dialogs, interviews and reports; joint UN missions and discussion among multi-lateral organizations; consultation with an advisory group of academics and health policy experts across countries.
    Results: The E—engage—functions as the driver and pace-maker; the 4 As—assess, align, accelerate and account—serve as building blocks composed of policies, processes, activities and interventions operating in continuous and synchronized action. Each of the building blocks is an essential part of the approach that can be applied across geographic and institutional levels.
    Conclusion: While the E4A approach is being finalized, this article aims to generate debate and input to further refine and test this approach from a public health and user perspective.
    Taking stock of national climate policies to evaluate implementation of the Paris Agreement
    Roelfsema, Mark ; Soest, Heleen L. van; Harmsen, Mathijs ; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Bertram, Christoph ; Elzen, Michel den; Höhne, Niklas ; Iacobuta, Gabriela ; Krey, Volker ; Kriegler, Elmar ; Luderer, Gunnar ; Riahi, Keywan ; Ueckerdt, Falko ; Després, Jacques ; Drouet, Laurent ; Emmerling, Johannes ; Frank, Stefan ; Fricko, Oliver ; Gidden, Matthew ; Humpenöder, Florian ; Huppmann, Daniel ; Fujimori, Shinichiro ; Fragkiadakis, Kostas ; Gi, Keii ; Keramidas, Kimon ; Köberle, Alexandre C. ; Aleluia Reis, Lara ; Rochedo, Pedro ; Schaeffer, Roberto ; Oshiro, Ken ; Vrontisi, Zoi ; Chen, Wenying ; Iyer, Gokul C. ; Edmonds, Jae ; Kannavou, Maria ; Jiang, Kejun ; Mathur, Ritu ; Safonov, George ; Vishwanathan, Saritha Sudharmma - \ 2020
    Nature Communications 11 (2020)1. - ISSN 2041-1723

    Many countries have implemented national climate policies to accomplish pledged Nationally Determined Contributions and to contribute to the temperature objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change. In 2023, the global stocktake will assess the combined effort of countries. Here, based on a public policy database and a multi-model scenario analysis, we show that implementation of current policies leaves a median emission gap of 22.4 to 28.2 GtCO2eq by 2030 with the optimal pathways to implement the well below 2 °C and 1.5 °C Paris goals. If Nationally Determined Contributions would be fully implemented, this gap would be reduced by a third. Interestingly, the countries evaluated were found to not achieve their pledged contributions with implemented policies (implementation gap), or to have an ambition gap with optimal pathways towards well below 2 °C. This shows that all countries would need to accelerate the implementation of policies for renewable technologies, while efficiency improvements are especially important in emerging countries and fossil-fuel-dependent countries.

    Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer–Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer
    Archambault, Alexi N. ; Su, Yu Ru ; Jeon, Jihyoun ; Thomas, Minta ; Lin, Yi ; Conti, David V. ; Win, Aung Ko ; Sakoda, Lori C. ; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris ; Peterse, Elisabeth F.P. ; Zauber, Ann G. ; Duggan, David ; Holowatyj, Andreana N. ; Huyghe, Jeroen R. ; Brenner, Hermann ; Cotterchio, Michelle ; Bézieau, Stéphane ; Schmit, Stephanie L. ; Edlund, Christopher K. ; Southey, Melissa C. ; MacInnis, Robert J. ; Campbell, Peter T. ; Chang-Claude, Jenny ; Slattery, Martha L. ; Chan, Andrew T. ; Joshi, Amit D. ; Song, Mingyang ; Cao, Yin ; Woods, Michael O. ; White, Emily ; Weinstein, Stephanie J. ; Ulrich, Cornelia M. ; Hoffmeister, Michael ; Bien, Stephanie A. ; Harrison, Tabitha A. ; Hampe, Jochen ; Li, Christopher I. ; Schafmayer, Clemens ; Offit, Kenneth ; Pharoah, Paul D. ; Moreno, Victor ; Lindblom, Annika ; Wolk, Alicja ; Wu, Anna H. ; Li, Li ; Gunter, Marc J. ; Gsur, Andrea ; Keku, Temitope O. ; Pearlman, Rachel ; Bishop, D.T. ; Castellví-Bel, Sergi ; Moreira, Leticia ; Vodicka, Pavel ; Kampman, Ellen ; Giles, Graham G. ; Albanes, Demetrius ; Baron, John A. ; Berndt, Sonja I. ; Brezina, Stefanie ; Buch, Stephan ; Buchanan, Daniel D. ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Severi, Gianluca ; Chirlaque, María Dolores ; Sánchez, Maria José ; Palli, Domenico ; Kühn, Tilman ; Murphy, Neil ; Cross, Amanda J. ; Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N. ; Chanock, Stephen J. ; Chapelle, Albert de la; Easton, Douglas F. ; Elliott, Faye ; English, Dallas R. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; FitzGerald, Liesel M. ; Goodman, Phyllis J. ; Hopper, John L. ; Hudson, Thomas J. ; Hunter, David J. ; Jacobs, Eric J. ; Joshu, Corinne E. ; Küry, Sébastien ; Markowitz, Sanford D. ; Milne, Roger L. ; Platz, Elizabeth A. ; Rennert, Gad ; Rennert, Hedy S. ; Schumacher, Fredrick R. ; Sandler, Robert S. ; Seminara, Daniela ; Tangen, Catherine M. ; Thibodeau, Stephen N. ; Toland, Amanda E. ; Duijnhoven, Franzel J.B. van; Visvanathan, Kala ; Vodickova, Ludmila ; Potter, John D. ; Männistö, Satu ; Weigl, Korbinian ; Figueiredo, Jane ; Martín, Vicente ; Larsson, Susanna C. ; Parfrey, Patrick S. ; Huang, Wen Yi ; Lenz, Heinz Josef ; Castelao, Jose E. ; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela ; Muñoz-Garzón, Victor ; Mancao, Christoph ; Haiman, Christopher A. ; Wilkens, Lynne R. ; Siegel, Erin ; Barry, Elizabeth ; Younghusband, Ban ; Guelpen, Bethany Van; Harlid, Sophia ; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne ; Liang, Peter S. ; Du, Mengmeng ; Casey, Graham ; Lindor, Noralane M. ; Marchand, Loic Le; Gallinger, Steven J. ; Jenkins, Mark A. ; Newcomb, Polly A. ; Gruber, Stephen B. ; Schoen, Robert E. ; Hampel, Heather ; Corley, Douglas A. ; Hsu, Li ; Peters, Ulrike ; Hayes, Richard B. - \ 2020
    Gastroenterology 158 (2020)5. - ISSN 0016-5085 - p. 1274 - 1286.e12.
    Colon Cancer - EOCRC - Penetrance - SNP

    Background & Aims: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. Methods: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. Results: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28–4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80–3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10–5). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61–5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70–3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. Conclusions: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.

    Author Correction: A global database for metacommunity ecology, integrating species, traits, environment and space
    Jeliazkov, Alienor ; Mijatovic, Darko ; Chantepie, Stéphane ; Andrew, Nigel ; Arlettaz, Raphaël ; Barbaro, Luc ; Barsoum, Nadia ; Bartonova, Alena ; Belskaya, Elena ; Bonada, Núria ; Brind’Amour, Anik ; Carvalho, Rodrigo ; Castro, Helena ; Chmura, Damian ; Choler, Philippe ; Chong-Seng, Karen ; Cleary, Daniel ; Cormont, Anouk ; Cornwell, William ; Campos, Ramiro de; Voogd, Nicole de; Doledec, Sylvain ; Drew, Joshua ; Dziock, Frank ; Eallonardo, Anthony ; Edgar, Melanie J. ; Farneda, Fábio ; Hernandez, Domingo Flores ; Frenette-Dussault, Cédric ; Fried, Guillaume ; Gallardo, Belinda ; Gibb, Heloise ; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago ; Higuti, Janet ; Humbert, Jean Yves ; Krasnov, Boris R. ; Saux, Eric Le ; Lindo, Zoe ; Lopez-Baucells, Adria ; Lowe, Elizabeth ; Marteinsdottir, Bryndis ; Martens, Koen ; Meffert, Peter ; Mellado-Díaz, Andres ; Menz, Myles H.M. ; Meyer, Christoph F.J. ; Miranda, Julia Ramos ; Mouillot, David ; Ossola, Alessandro ; Pakeman, Robin ; Pavoine, Sandrine ; Pekin, Burak ; Pino, Joan ; Pocheville, Arnaud ; Pomati, Francesco ; Poschlod, Peter ; Prentice, Honor C. ; Purschke, Oliver ; Raevel, Valerie ; Reitalu, Triin ; Renema, Willem ; Ribera, Ignacio ; Robinson, Natalie ; Robroek, Bjorn ; Rocha, Ricardo ; Shieh, Sen Her ; Spake, Rebecca ; Staniaszek-Kik, Monika ; Stanko, Michal ; Tejerina-Garro, Francisco Leonardo ; Braak, Cajo ter; Urban, Mark C. ; Klink, Roel van; Villéger, Sébastien ; Wegman, Ruut ; Westgate, Martin J. ; Wolff, Jonas ; Żarnowiec, Jan ; Zolotarev, Maxim ; Chase, Jonathan M. - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    Following publication of this Data Descriptor it was found that the affiliation of Oliver Purschke was stated incorrectly. The correct affiliations are stated below: Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden Biodiversity, Department of Biology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 37, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden This has been corrected in both the HTML and PDF versions.

    Debris-flow-dominated sediment transport through a channel network after wildfire
    Nyman, Petter ; Box, Walter A.C. ; Stout, Justin C. ; Sheridan, Gary J. ; Keesstra, Saskia D. ; Lane, Patrick N.J. ; Langhans, Christoph - \ 2020
    Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 45 (2020)5. - ISSN 0197-9337 - p. 1155 - 1167.
    channel network - debris flow - sediment budget - sediment deposition - wildfire

    Field studies that investigate sediment transport between debris-flow-producing headwaters and rivers are uncommon, particularly in forested settings, where debris flows are infrequent and opportunities for collecting data are limited. This study quantifies the volume and composition of sediment deposited in the arterial channel network of a 14-km2 catchment (Washington Creek) that connects small, burned and debris-flow-producing headwaters (<1 km2) with the Ovens River in SE Australia. We construct a sediment budget by combining new data on deposition with a sediment delivery model for post-fire debris flows. Data on deposits were plotted alongside the slope–area curve to examine links between processes, catchment morphometry and geomorphic process domains. The results show that large deposits are concentrated in the proximity of three major channel junctions, which correspond to breaks in channel slope. Hyperconcentrated flows are more prominent towards the catchment outlet, where the slope–area curve indicates a transition from debris flow to fluvial domains. This shift corresponds to a change in efficiency of the flow, determined from the ratio of median grain size to channel slope. Our sediment budget suggests a total sediment efflux from Washington Creek catchment of 61 × 103 m3. There are similar contributions from hillslopes (43 ± 14 × 103 m3), first to third stream order channel (35 ± 12 × 103 m3) and the arterial fourth to fifth stream order channel (31 ± 17 × 103 m3) to the total volume of erosion. Deposition (39 ± 17 × 103 m3) within the arterial channel was higher than erosion (31 ± 17 × 103 m3), which means a net sediment gain of about 8 × 103 m3 in the arterial channel. The ratio of total deposition to total erosion was 0.44. For fines <63 μm, this ratio was much smaller (0.11), which means that fines are preferentially exported. This has important implications for suspended sediment and water quality in downstream rivers.

    Biodiversity increases multitrophic energy use efficiency, flow and storage in grasslands
    Buzhdygan, Oksana Y. ; Meyer, Sebastian T. ; Weisser, Wolfgang W. ; Eisenhauer, Nico ; Ebeling, Anne ; Borrett, Stuart R. ; Buchmann, Nina ; Cortois, Roeland ; Deyn, Gerlinde B. De; Kroon, Hans de; Gleixner, Gerd ; Hertzog, Lionel R. ; Hines, Jes ; Lange, Markus ; Mommer, Liesje ; Ravenek, Janneke ; Scherber, Christoph ; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael ; Scheu, Stefan ; Schmid, Bernhard ; Steinauer, Katja ; Strecker, Tanja ; Tietjen, Britta ; Vogel, Anja ; Weigelt, Alexandra ; Petermann, Jana S. - \ 2020
    Nature Ecology & Evolution 4 (2020)4. - ISSN 2397-334X - p. 393 - 405.

    The continuing loss of global biodiversity has raised questions about the risk that species extinctions pose for the functioning of natural ecosystems and the services that they provide for human wellbeing. There is consensus that, on single trophic levels, biodiversity sustains functions; however, to understand the full range of biodiversity effects, a holistic and multitrophic perspective is needed. Here, we apply methods from ecosystem ecology that quantify the structure and dynamics of the trophic network using ecosystem energetics to data from a large grassland biodiversity experiment. We show that higher plant diversity leads to more energy stored, greater energy flow and higher community-energy-use efficiency across the entire trophic network. These effects of biodiversity on energy dynamics were not restricted to only plants but were also expressed by other trophic groups and, to a similar degree, in aboveground and belowground parts of the ecosystem, even though plants are by far the dominating group in the system. The positive effects of biodiversity on one trophic level were not counteracted by the negative effects on adjacent levels. Trophic levels jointly increased the performance of the community, indicating ecosystem-wide multitrophic complementarity, which is potentially an important prerequisite for the provisioning of ecosystem services.

    Trained Immunity: Linking Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease across the Life-Course?
    Bekkering, Siroon ; Saner, Christoph ; Riksen, Niels P. ; Netea, Mihai G. ; Sabin, Matthew A. ; Saffery, Richard ; Stienstra, Rinke ; Burgner, David P. - \ 2020
    Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 31 (2020)5. - ISSN 1043-2760 - p. 378 - 389.
    atherosclerosis - cardiovascular disease - inflammation - obesity - trained immunity

    Obesity, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood. Recent developments have challenged the dogma of immunological memory occurring exclusively in the adaptive immune system and show that the innate immune system has potential to be reprogrammed. This innate immune memory (trained immunity) is characterized by epigenetic and metabolic reprogramming of myeloid cells following endogenous or exogenous stimulation, resulting in enhanced inflammation to subsequent stimuli. Trained immunity phenotypes have now been reported for other immune and non-immune cells. Here, we provide a novel perspective on the putative role of trained immunity in mediating the adverse cardiovascular effects of obesity and highlight potential translational pathways.

    A framework for nitrogen futures in the shared socioeconomic pathways
    Kanter, David R. ; Winiwarter, Wilfried ; Bodirsky, Benjamin L. ; Bouwman, Lex ; Boyer, Elizabeth ; Buckle, Simon ; Compton, Jana E. ; Dalgaard, Tommy ; Vries, Wim de; Leclère, David ; Leip, Adrian ; Müller, Christoph ; Popp, Alexander ; Raghuram, Nandula ; Rao, Shilpa ; Sutton, Mark A. ; Tian, Hanqin ; Westhoek, Henk ; Zhang, Xin ; Zurek, Monika - \ 2020
    Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 61 (2020). - ISSN 0959-3780
    Environmental policy - Nitrogen pollution - Scenarios

    Humanity's transformation of the nitrogen cycle has major consequences for ecosystems, climate and human health, making it one of the key environmental issues of our time. Understanding how trends could evolve over the course of the 21st century is crucial for scientists and decision-makers from local to global scales. Scenario analysis is the primary tool for doing so, and has been applied across all major environmental issues, including nitrogen pollution. However, to date most scenario efforts addressing nitrogen flows have either taken a narrow approach, focusing on a singular impact or sector, or have not been integrated within a broader scenario framework – a missed opportunity given the multiple environmental and socio-economic impacts that nitrogen pollution exacerbates. Capitalizing on our expanding knowledge of nitrogen flows, this study introduces a framework for new nitrogen-focused narratives based on the widely used Shared Socioeconomic Pathways that include all the major nitrogen-polluting sectors (agriculture, industry, transport and wastewater). These new narratives are the first to integrate the influence of climate and other environmental pollution control policies, while also incorporating explicit nitrogen-control measures. The next step is for them to be used as model inputs to evaluate the impact of different nitrogen production, consumption and loss trajectories, and thus advance understanding of how to address environmental impacts while simultaneously meeting key development goals. This effort is an important step in assessing how humanity can return to the planetary boundary of this essential element over the coming century.

    Predictability of species diversity by family diversity across global terrestrial animal taxa
    Zou, Yi ; Werf, Wopke van der; Liu, Yunhui ; Axmacher, Jan Christoph - \ 2020
    Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (2020)4. - ISSN 1466-822X - p. 629 - 644.
    arthropods - biodiversity conservation - biogeographical distribution - higher taxa surrogate - meta-analyses - PREDICTS database - Shannon diversity

    Aim: Although biodiversity is in sharp decline around the globe, collectiing precise information on changes in overall species richness remains extremely challenging. Efficient and reliable proxy methods are therefore needed, with the diversity of higher taxa representing one such potential proxy for species-level diversity. Nonetheless, the stability of using this measure across different regions and animal taxa at the global scale has never been investigated thoroughly. Location: Global. Time period: Up to 2016. Major taxa studied: Animalia. Methods: We used a large global dataset containing published studies on diversity in the terrestrial Animalia to analyse the relationship between diversity at the family, genus and species level across different orders. Results: Family and species diversity were positively correlated, with the strongest correlations in Diptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera. Correlations were slightly weaker in family–species than in genus–species relationships, whereas differences were stronger in observed richness than in diversity indices. Across all taxa, family–species correlations of Shannon diversity index values were independent of sample size, and they showed limited variation across biomes for the three orders containing sufficient case studies for this analysis. Based on the Shannon diversity index, the species diversity per site increased linearly with the increase in family diversity, with an average species : family diversity index ratio of 2.5, slightly lower than the ratio of 2.7 for observed species and family richness values. Main conclusions: Our study confirmed that recording family-level diversity can be a meaningful proxy for determining species-level diversity patterns in biodiversity studies, and trade-offs between identification costs and retained information content need to be considered when using higher taxon surrogacy.

    A global database for metacommunity ecology, integrating species, traits, environment and space
    Jeliazkov, Alienor ; Mijatovic, Darko ; Chantepie, Stéphane ; Andrew, Nigel ; Arlettaz, Raphaël ; Barbaro, Luc ; Barsoum, Nadia ; Bartonova, Alena ; Belskaya, Elena ; Bonada, Núria ; Brind’Amour, Anik ; Carvalho, Rodrigo ; Castro, Helena ; Chmura, Damian ; Choler, Philippe ; Chong-Seng, Karen ; Cleary, Daniel ; Cormont, Anouk ; Cornwell, William ; Campos, Ramiro de; Voogd, Nicole de; Doledec, Sylvain ; Drew, Joshua ; Dziock, Frank ; Eallonardo, Anthony ; Edgar, Melanie J. ; Farneda, Fábio ; Hernandez, Domingo Flores ; Frenette-Dussault, Cédric ; Fried, Guillaume ; Gallardo, Belinda ; Gibb, Heloise ; Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago ; Higuti, Janet ; Humbert, Jean Yves ; Krasnov, Boris R. ; Saux, Eric Le ; Lindo, Zoe ; Lopez-Baucells, Adria ; Lowe, Elizabeth ; Marteinsdottir, Bryndis ; Martens, Koen ; Meffert, Peter ; Mellado-Díaz, Andres ; Menz, Myles H.M. ; Meyer, Christoph F.J. ; Miranda, Julia Ramos ; Mouillot, David ; Ossola, Alessandro ; Pakeman, Robin ; Pavoine, Sandrine ; Pekin, Burak ; Pino, Joan ; Pocheville, Arnaud ; Pomati, Francesco ; Poschlod, Peter ; Prentice, Honor C. ; Purschke, Oliver ; Raevel, Valerie ; Reitalu, Triin ; Renema, Willem ; Ribera, Ignacio ; Robinson, Natalie ; Robroek, Bjorn ; Rocha, Ricardo ; Shieh, Sen Her ; Spake, Rebecca ; Staniaszek-Kik, Monika ; Stanko, Michal ; Tejerina-Garro, Francisco Leonardo ; Braak, Cajo ter; Urban, Mark C. ; Klink, Roel van; Villéger, Sébastien ; Wegman, Ruut ; Westgate, Martin J. ; Wolff, Jonas ; Żarnowiec, Jan ; Zolotarev, Maxim ; Chase, Jonathan M. - \ 2020
    Scientific Data 7 (2020)1. - ISSN 2052-4463

    The use of functional information in the form of species traits plays an important role in explaining biodiversity patterns and responses to environmental changes. Although relationships between species composition, their traits, and the environment have been extensively studied on a case-by-case basis, results are variable, and it remains unclear how generalizable these relationships are across ecosystems, taxa and spatial scales. To address this gap, we collated 80 datasets from trait-based studies into a global database for metaCommunity Ecology: Species, Traits, Environment and Space; “CESTES”. Each dataset includes four matrices: species community abundances or presences/absences across multiple sites, species trait information, environmental variables and spatial coordinates of the sampling sites. The CESTES database is a live database: it will be maintained and expanded in the future as new datasets become available. By its harmonized structure, and the diversity of ecosystem types, taxonomic groups, and spatial scales it covers, the CESTES database provides an important opportunity for synthetic trait-based research in community ecology.

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