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Self-pressurised rapid freezing, a time-efficient and affordable cryo-fixation method for ultrastructural observations on unhatched cyst nematodes
Claeys, Myriam ; Handayani, Nurul Dwi ; Yushin, Vladimir V. ; Lestari, Prabowo ; Dikin, Antarjo ; Helder, Johannes ; Bert, Wim - \ 2019
Nematology (2019). - ISSN 1388-5545 - 8 p.
Ultrastructural analysis of the early development of nematodes is hampered by the impermeability of the eggshell to most commonly used fixatives. High-pressure freezing (HPF), a physical cryo-fixation method, facilitates a fast rate of fixation, and by using this method the issue of the uneven delivery of fixative is circumvented. Although HPF results in a superior preservation of the fine structure, the equipment costs impede a wider application of this method. Self-pressurised rapid freezing (SPRF) is an alternative low-cost cryo-fixation method, and its usefulness was evaluated in an ultrastructural study of the eggshell and the cuticle of unhatched second-stage juveniles (J2) of Globodera rostochiensis and Heterodera schachtii. A comparison with conventional (chemical) fixation demonstrates that SPRF fixation results in a remarkably well-preserved ultrastructure of the entire egg including both the eggshell and the cellular details of the unhatched J2. Therefore, SPRF fixation is proposed as an affordable, relatively easy-to-use and time-efficient technique to study the ultrastructure of unhatched J2 and eggs of nematodes.
Food sovereignty and convergence spaces
Claeys, Priscilla ; Duncan, Jessica - \ 2019
Political Geography 75 (2019). - ISSN 0962-6298
Civil Society and Indigenous Peoples' Mechanism - Committee on World Food Security - Convergence space - Diversity - Food sovereignty - Inclusion - Institutionalization - Social movements
In this paper we reflect on the Civil Society and Indigenous Peoples’ Mechanism to the UN Committee on World Food Security as a policy convergence space for the global food sovereignty movement. Addressing a gap in the convergence literature around inclusivity, we assess the extent to which the Mechanism is a diverse and inclusive space. More specifically, we analyze whether constituencies and quotas have worked as effective tools to protect diversity while avoiding fragmentation. We further contribute to the growing literature on convergence spaces by highlighting what changes and challenges occur when convergence is situated and managed in relation to a more formal institutional space. Analyzing how the it has addressed the two challenges of fragmentation and institutionalization, we show how the Mechanism has moved towards greater inclusivity and diversity by reinforcing weaker constituencies, changing its name, and opening up to new constituencies. At the same time, we identify five issues which require further attention if the Mechanism is to remain an inclusive convergence space: risk of a concentration of power; the role of NGOs; gender equality and generational balance; multiple identities that cut across constituency categories; and, tensions related to sub-regions.
Do we need to categorize it? Reflections on constituencies and quotas as tools for negotiating difference in the global food sovereignty convergence space
Claeys, Priscilla ; Duncan, Jessica - \ 2019
The Journal of Peasant Studies 46 (2019)7. - ISSN 0306-6150 - p. 1477 - 1498.
Alliance building - constituencies - convergence space - food sovereignty - global governance - quotas - representation
Convergence–as an objective and as a process–designates the coming together of different social actors across strategic, political, ideological, sectoral and geographic divides. In this paper, we analyze the global food sovereignty movement (GFSM) as a convergence space, with a focus on constituencies and quotas as tools to maintain diversity while facilitating convergence. We show how the use of constituencies and quotas has supported two objectives of the GFSM: alliances building and effective direct representation in global policy-making spaces. We conclude by pointing to some convergence challenges the GFSM faces as it expands beyond its agrarian origins.
Politicizing food security governance through participation : opportunities and opposition
Duncan, Jessica ; Claeys, Priscilla - \ 2018
Food Security 10 (2018)6. - ISSN 1876-4517 - p. 1411 - 1424.
Civil society - Committee on world food security - Depoliticisation - Multi-stakeholder processes - Participation - Politicization
Since the 2007/08 food price crisis there has been a proliferation of multi-stakeholder processes (MSPs) devoted to bringing diverse perspectives together to inform and improve food security policy. While much of the literature highlights the positive contributions to be gained from an opening-up of traditionally state-led processes, there is a strong critique emerging to show that, in many instances, MSPs have de-politicizing effects. In this paper, we scrutinize MSPs in relation to de-politicization. We argue that re-building sustainable and just food systems requires alternative visions that can best be made visible through politicized policy processes. Focusing on three key conditions of politicization, we examine the UN Committee on World Food Security as a MSP where we see a process of politicization playing out through the endorsement of the ‘most-affected’ principle, which is in turn being actively contested by traditionally powerful actors. We conclude that there is a need to implement and reinforce mechanisms that deliberately politicize participation in MSPs, notably by clearly distinguishing between states and other stakeholders, as well as between categories of non-state actors.
Transcriptional coordination between leaf cell differentiation and chloroplast development established by TCP20 and theand chloroplast development established by TCP20 and theand chloroplast development established by TCP20 and the subgroup Ib bHLH transcription factors
Andriankaja, M.E. ; Danisman, S.D. ; Mignolet-Spruyt, L.F. ; Claeys, H. ; Kochanke, I. ; Vermeersch, M. ; Milde, L. De; Bodt, S. De; Storme, V. ; Skirycz, A. ; Maurer, F. ; Bauer, P. ; Mühlenbock, P. ; Breusegem, F. Van; Angenent, G.C. ; Immink, R.G.H. ; Inzé, D. - \ 2014
Plant Molecular Biology 85 (2014)3. - ISSN 0167-4412 - p. 233 - 245.
iron-deficiency responses - arabidopsis-thaliana - plant-growth - gene-expression - chromatin immunoprecipitation - metal transporter - oxidative stress - circadian clock - pale cress - in-vivo
The establishment of the photosynthetic apparatus during chloroplast development creates a high demand for iron as a redox metal. However, iron in too high quantities becomes toxic to the plant, thus plants have evolved a complex network of iron uptake and regulation mechanisms. Here, we examined whether four of the subgroup Ib basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (bHLH38, bHLH39, bHLH100, bHLH101), previously implicated in iron homeostasis in roots, also play a role in regulating iron metabolism in developing leaves. These transcription factor genes were strongly up-regulated during the transition from cell proliferation to expansion, and thus sink-source transition, in young developing leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The four subgroup Ib bHLH genes also showed reduced expression levels in developing leaves of plants treated with norflurazon, indicating their expression was tightly linked to the onset of photosynthetic activity in young leaves. In addition, we provide evidence for a mechanism whereby the transcriptional regulators SAC51 and TCP20 antagonistically regulate the expression of these four subgroup Ib bHLH genes. A loss-offunction mutant analysis also revealed that single mutants of bHLH38, bHLH39, bHLH100, and bHLH101 developed smaller rosettes than wild-type plants in soil. When grown in agar plates with reduced iron concentration, triple bhlh39 bhlh100 bhlh101 mutant plants were smaller than wildtype plants. However, measurements of the iron content in single and multiple subgroup Ib bHLH genes, as well as transcript profiling of iron response genes during early leaf development, do not support a role for bHLH38, bHLH39, bHLH100, and bHLH101 in iron homeostasis during early leaf development.
|Steps Towards Sustainability and Tools for Restoring Natural Capital: Etang de Berre (southern France) case study
Aronson, J. ; Claeys, F. ; Westerberg, V. ; Picon, P. ; Bernard, G. ; Bocognano, J.M. ; Groot, R.S. de - \ 2011
In: International Symposium on "Sustainability Science: The Emerging Paradigm and the Urban Environment", Montclair, New Jersey, USA, 25 - 27 October, 2011. - Springer - ISBN 9781461431879 - p. 111 - 138.
Communities, nations, not-for-pro fi t groups, and some mining, infrastructure, and energy corporations are catching on to the fact that the ecological restoration of degraded ecosystems is vital to their search for sustainability and ecological accountability. The science of restoration ecology can provide the tools and major building blocks necessary to develop a transdisciplinary sustainability science and is a problem-solving toolkit used on the road to global, regional, national, and local sustainability. We discuss a landscape-scale restoration program for the large (155 km²) and heavily polluted Étang de Berre (Berre Lagoon) to illustrate these ideas. This lagoon is situated between Marseille, Salon-de-Provence, and Aix-en- Provence in southern France. We illustrate the use of (a) sequential references, which is a technique from the fi eld of restoration ecology that helps clarify goals and develop consensus among stakeholders and scientists of differing backgrounds; and (b) HMCA (historical multicriteria analysis), which is a variation of MCA that is often used in ecological and environmental economics. We show how to use a HMCA to synthesize ecological, social, and economic criteria across different historical time periods and be applied to a large scale, multifaceted project of this sort when a sequential reference exercise has been performed. Lastly, we note that ecological restoration is the key means for restoring natural capital (RNC) and to simultaneously recover and revitalize social capital. In the ecologically and economically beleaguered and vulnerable area as the one considered here, and indeed many others around the world, the road to sustainability passes through a portal of what we call “RNC thinking.”
|Integrated Modelling Frameworks for Environmental Assessment and Decision Support
Rizzoli, A.E. ; Leavesley, G. ; Ascough, J.C. ; Argent, R.M. ; Athanasiadis, I.N. ; Brilhante, V. ; Claeys, F.H.A. ; David, O. ; Donatelli, M. ; Gijsbers, P. ; Havlik, D. ; Kassahun, A. ; Krause, P. ; Quinn, N.W.T. ; Scholten, H. ; Sojda, R.S. ; Villa, F. - \ 2008
In: State of the Art and new perspective / Jakeman, A.J., Voinov, A.A., Rizzoli, A.E., Chen, S.H., Elsevier (Environmental modelling, software and decision support 3) - ISBN 9780080568867 - p. Chap. 7 - Chap. 7.
Modern management of environmental resources defines problems from a holistic and integrated perspective, imposing strong requirements to Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSSs) and Integrated Assessment Tools (IATs), which tend to be increasingly complex in terms of software architecture and computational power in order to cope with the type of problems they must solve. Such systems need to support methodologies and techniques ranging from agent-based modelling to participatory decision-making. Sometimes EDSSs and IATs are built from scratch, often with limited resources, by non-programmers. The disadvantages of this approach, which can quickly become overly expensive in terms of delivery time and resources required, have been addressed by the development of suites of software engineering tools called Environmental Integrated Modelling Frameworks (EIMFs). EIMFs have typically been designed as a response to the increasing complexity of building and delivering EDSSs and IATs. Modelling and simulation tools and frameworks have been adopted at a large scale in the management science and operations research disciplines, and standards for developing and expanding them have been developed. In contrast, no modelling framework has been universally adopted within the environmental modelling domain, and the number of environmental modelling frameworks is still growing. In this book chapter, we strive to address the above issues and clearly identify the essential characteristics of an EIMF. This book chapter also advocates the development of open standards for the exchange and re-use of modelling knowledge, including data sets, models, and procedures in order to facilitate improved communication among the leading EIMFs
Beproeving Claeys maaidorser type M 73
Anonymous, - \ 1958
Wageningen : [s.n.] (Bulletin / Instituut voor landbouwtechniek en rationalisatie no. 61) - 7
graansoorten - voedselgewassen - maaidorsers - cereals - food crops - combine harvesters