Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

Records 1 - 20 / 145

  • help
  • print

    Print search results

  • export

    Export search results

  • alert
    We will mail you new results for this query: q=Clement
Check title to add to marked list
Is triose phosphate utilization involved in the feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in rice under conditions of sink limitation
Fabre, Denis ; Yin, Xinyou ; Dingkuhn, Michael ; Clément-Vidal, Anne ; Roques, Sandrine ; Rouan, Lauriane ; Soutiras, Armelle ; Luquet, Delphine ; Lawson, Tracy - \ 2019
Journal of Experimental Botany 70 (2019)20. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 5773 - 5785.
Climate change - CO enrichment - photosynthesis - rice - sink feedback - source-sink - sucrose - triose phosphate utilization

This study aimed to understand the physiological basis of rice photosynthetic response to C source-sink imbalances, focusing on the dynamics of the photosynthetic parameter triose phosphate utilization (TPU). Here, rice (Oriza sativa L.) indica cultivar IR64 were grown in controlled environment chambers under current ambient CO2 concentration until heading, and thereafter two CO2 treatments (400 and 800 μmol mol-1) were compared in the presence and absence of a panicle-pruning treatment modifying the C sink. At 2 weeks after heading, photosynthetic parameters derived from CO2 response curves, and non-structural carbohydrate content of flag leaf and internodes were measured three to four times of day. Spikelet number per panicle and flag leaf area on the main culm were recorded. Net C assimilation and TPU decreased progressively after midday in panicle-pruned plants, especially under 800 μmol mol-1 CO2. This TPU reduction was explained by sucrose accumulation in the flag leaf resulting from the sink limitation. Taking together, our findings suggest that TPU is involved in the regulation of photosynthesis in rice under elevated CO2 conditions, and that sink limitation effects should be considered in crop models.

Determination of the equilibrium enthalpy of melting of two-phase semi-crystalline polymers by fast scanning calorimetry
Fosse, Clément ; Bourdet, Aurélie ; Ernault, Estève ; Esposito, Antonella ; Delpouve, Nicolas ; Delbreilh, Laurent ; Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam ; Knoop, Rutger J.I. ; Dargent, Eric - \ 2019
Thermochimica Acta 677 (2019). - ISSN 0040-6031 - p. 67 - 78.
Enthalpy of melting - Fast scanning calorimetry - PBF - PEF - Rigid amorphous fraction

The equilibrium enthalpy of melting ΔHm 0 [J·g−1] is an extrapolated thermodynamic quantity attributed to crystallizable macromolecules and widely used to characterize polymers in their semi-crystalline state, for it allows estimating the degree of crystallinity by direct comparison with the enthalpy of melting obtained from differential scanning calorimetry. ΔHm 0 is typically obtained by cross-comparing the results obtained by at least two techniques. This work proposes a simplified experimental protocol to determine ΔHm 0 by the use of Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC). This approach applies to any crystallizable polymer for which a specific microstructure can be obtained (i.e. a two-phase semi-crystalline microstructure with a negligible amount of rigid amorphous fraction) and that can also be quenched to its fully amorphous state. Such a two-phase microstructure can be obtained on nanoscale samples through an annealing process performed in situ on the FSC sensor at crystallization temperatures as close as possible to the melting temperature. The enthalpy of melting is then evaluated from the two-phase model for different crystallization times (i.e. different crystallinities) and the ΔHm 0 is obtained by extrapolating the data to the 100% crystalline state. This procedure was applied on samples whose ΔHm 0 values are already available in the literature, but also on more recent biobased polyesters whose thermal properties are still under investigations.

Can yield variability be explained? Integrated assessment of maize yield gaps across smallholders in Ghana
Loon, Marloes P. van; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel ; Descheemaeker, Katrien ; Akotsen-Mensah, Clement ; Dijk, Michiel van; Morley, Tom ; Ittersum, Martin K. van; Reidsma, Pytrik - \ 2019
Field Crops Research 236 (2019). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 132 - 144.
Crop experiments - Crop modelling - Farm household survey - Integrated assessment - Smallholder farms - Yield gaps - Yield potential

Agricultural production in Ghana should more than double to fulfil the estimated food demand in 2050, but this is a challenge as the productivity of food crops has been low, extremely variable and prone to stagnation. Yield gap estimations and explanations can help to identify the potential for intensification on existing agricultural land. However, to date most yield gap analyses had a disciplinary focus. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of crop management, soil and household factors on maize (Zea mays) yields in two major maize growing regions in Ghana through an integrated approach. We applied a variety of complementary methods to study sites in the Brong Ahafo and Northern region. Farm household surveys, yield measurements and soil sampling were undertaken in 2015 and 2016. Water-limited potential yield (Y w ) was estimated with a crop growth simulation model, and two different on-farm demonstration experiments were carried out in 2016 and 2017. There is great potential to increase maize yields across the study sites. Estimated yield gaps ranged between 3.8 Mg ha −1 (67% of Y w ) and 13.6 Mg ha −1 (84% of Y w ). However, there was no consistency in factors affecting maize yield and yield gaps when using complementary methods. Demonstration experiments showed the potential of improved varieties, fertilizers and improved planting densities, with yields up to 9 Mg ha −1 . This was not confirmed in the analysis of the household surveys, as the large yield variation across years on the same farms impeded the disclosure of effects of management, soil and household factors. The low-input nature of the farming system and the incidence of fall armyworm led to relatively uniform and low yields across the entire population. So, farmers’ yields were determined by interacting, and strongly varying, household, soil and management factors. We found that for highly variable and complex smallholder farming systems there is a danger in drawing oversimplified conclusions based on results from a single methodological approach. Integrating household surveys, crop growth simulation modelling and demonstration experiments can add value to yield gap analysis. However, the challenge remains to improve upon this type of integrated assessment to be able to satisfactorily disentangle the interacting factors that can be managed by farmers in order to increase crop yields.

Growth rings of Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) as a living record of historical human disturbance in Central Amazonia
Caetano Andrade, Victor L. ; Flores, Bernardo M. ; Levis, Carolina ; Clement, Charles R. ; Roberts, Patrick ; Schöngart, Jochen - \ 2019
PLoS ONE 14 (2019)4. - ISSN 1932-6203

The Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) is an iconic and economically valuable species that dominates vast swathes of the Amazon Basin. This species seems to have been an important part of human subsistence strategies in the region from at least the Early Holocene, and its current distribution may be a legacy of past human settlement. Because B. excelsa is a long-lived pioneer tree it requires natural or human disturbances to increase light availability in the understory for a successful establishment. However, it remains unclear how the long-term population dynamics of this species have been shaped by pre-colonial and post-colonial human practices. Here, we use tree-ring analyses to look at changes in growing conditions over the past 400 years in a Brazil nut tree population in Central Amazonia. We identify changes in tree recruitment and growth rates associated not only with regional climatic variability, but also major political and socio-economic activities recorded by historical documents in the vicinity of Manaus. We demonstrate that the expansion of a post-colonial political center (Manaus) from the middle of the 18 th century onwards coincided with a reduction in recruitment of B. excelsa. We argue that this hiatus suggests the interruption of indigenous management practices, probably due to the collapse of pre-Columbian societies. A second recruitment pulse, and unprecedented cycles of growth release and suppression, aligns with a shift to modern exploitation of the forest into the 20 th century. Our findings shed light on how past histories of human-forest interactions can be revealed by the growth rings of trees in Amazonia. Future interdisciplinary analysis of these trees should enable more detailed investigation of how human forest management has changed in this part of the world, through pre-colonial, colonial, and industrial periods of human activity, with potential implications for conservation.

Impact of human activities on the reproduction of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in Burkina Faso
Daboné, Clément ; Buij, Ralph ; Oueda, Adama ; Adjakpa, Jacques Boko ; Guenda, Wendengoudi ; Weesie, Peter D.M. - \ 2019
Ostrich 90 (2019)1. - ISSN 0030-6525 - p. 53 - 61.
Burkina Faso - conservation - Hooded Vulture - human impact - reproduction

During the last decades, the critically endangered Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus has strongly declined across its African range. Although direct persecution has been suggested as a major cause of this decline, little is known about the impact of humans on reproductive output in West Africa. We studied the impact of human activities on the reproductive output of Hooded Vultures in the Garango area of Burkina Faso. Twenty and 56 nesting attempts were monitored, respectively, during the breeding season in 2013/14 and 2014/15, to determine reproductive success and identify causes of nest failure. Annual breeding success varied between 0.68 and 0.71 chicks fledged per breeding pair per year and productivity was assessed at 0.57 chicks fledged per territorial pair in 2014/15. The main threats imposed by humans were poaching of eggs, chicks and collection of nest materials, leading to 20% (13 out of 64 breeding attempts) of nest failures over the two years. An additional important reason for nest failure was the pruning and (partial) cutting of nest trees. Despite this high level of human interference, we found that Hooded Vulture nest success increased with proximity to human settlements, probably because breeding vultures benefit from protection by people against persecution and disturbance.

Compositional response of Amazon forests to climate change
Esquivel-Muelbert, Adriane ; Baker, Timothy R. ; Dexter, Kyle G. ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Brienen, Roel J.W. ; Feldpausch, Ted R. ; Lloyd, Jon ; Monteagudo-Mendoza, Abel ; Arroyo, Luzmila ; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban ; Higuchi, Niro ; Marimon, Beatriz S. ; Marimon-Junior, Ben Hur ; Silveira, Marcos ; Vilanova, Emilio ; Gloor, Emanuel ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Chave, Jerôme ; Barlow, Jos ; Bonal, Damien ; Davila Cardozo, Nallaret ; Erwin, Terry ; Fauset, Sophie ; Hérault, Bruno ; Laurance, Susan ; Poorter, Lourens ; Qie, Lan ; Stahl, Clement ; Sullivan, Martin J.P. ; Steege, Hans ter; Vos, Vincent Antoine ; Zuidema, Pieter A. ; Almeida, Everton ; Almeida de Oliveira, Edmar ; Andrade, Ana ; Vieira, Simone Aparecida ; Aragão, Luiz ; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro ; Arets, Eric ; Aymard C, Gerardo A. ; Baraloto, Christopher ; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa ; Barroso, Jorcely G. ; Bongers, Frans ; Boot, Rene ; Camargo, José Luís ; Castro, Wendeson ; Chama Moscoso, Victor ; Comiskey, James ; Peña-Claros, Marielos - \ 2019
Global Change Biology 25 (2019)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 39 - 56.
bioclimatic niches - climate change - compositional shifts - functional traits - temporal trends - tropical forests

Most of the planet's diversity is concentrated in the tropics, which includes many regions undergoing rapid climate change. Yet, while climate-induced biodiversity changes are widely documented elsewhere, few studies have addressed this issue for lowland tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate whether the floristic and functional composition of intact lowland Amazonian forests have been changing by evaluating records from 106 long-term inventory plots spanning 30 years. We analyse three traits that have been hypothesized to respond to different environmental drivers (increase in moisture stress and atmospheric CO2 concentrations): maximum tree size, biogeographic water-deficit affiliation and wood density. Tree communities have become increasingly dominated by large-statured taxa, but to date there has been no detectable change in mean wood density or water deficit affiliation at the community level, despite most forest plots having experienced an intensification of the dry season. However, among newly recruited trees, dry-affiliated genera have become more abundant, while the mortality of wet-affiliated genera has increased in those plots where the dry season has intensified most. Thus, a slow shift to a more dry-affiliated Amazonia is underway, with changes in compositional dynamics (recruits and mortality) consistent with climate-change drivers, but yet to significantly impact whole-community composition. The Amazon observational record suggests that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is driving a shift within tree communities to large-statured species and that climate changes to date will impact forest composition, but long generation times of tropical trees mean that biodiversity change is lagging behind climate change.

The role of fertile anthropogenic soils in the conservation of native and exotic agrobiodiversity in Amazonian homegardens
Souza, Nathalia B. de; Junqueira, André Braga ; Struik, Paul C. ; Stomph, Tjeerdjan ; Clement, Charles R. - \ 2019
Agroforestry Systems 93 (2019)2. - ISSN 0167-4366 - p. 471 - 482.
Agroecosystems - Amazonian dark earths - Geographical origin of species - Soil fertility - Spontaneous plants

Amazonian dark earths (ADE) are anthropogenic soils mostly created between 500 and 2500 years ago by pre-Columbian populations. ADE are currently used by local people for different agricultural and agroforestry systems. Because of their high fertility they may play an important role in the conservation of non-native agrobiodiversity. This study aimed to investigate the variation in richness and abundance of exotic and native species in homegardens along the ADE-background soil continuum. We conducted floristic inventories in 70 homegardens located in 7 riverside communities along the lower and middle Madeira River, Central Amazonia. Each species sampled was classified according to its origin: native Amazonian, American (from outside Amazonia) and non-American, and each individual was classified according to its form of establishment: cultivated or spontaneous. The floristic diversity was significantly related to soil fertility, texture and homegarden size. We found a positive relationship between soil fertility and richness of species and landraces. Homegardens on more fertile soils tended to have a higher richness and abundance of cultivated non-American species, as well as a higher richness and abundance of spontaneously established American species. Homegardens at the fertile end of the fertility gradient provided conditions for the establishment and growth of many species, especially exotic species, that are generally more nutrient-demanding than Amazonian species. Our results show that homegarden agroecosystems on ADE favour experimentation with the introduction of a wide range of species from various regions of the globe.

Satellite and in situ observations for advancing global earth surface modelling : A review
Balsamo, Gianpaolo ; Agusti-Panareda, Anna ; Albergel, Clement ; Arduini, Gabriele ; Beljaars, Anton ; Bidlot, Jean ; Bousserez, Nicolas ; Boussetta, Souhail ; Brown, Andy ; Buizza, Roberto ; Buontempo, Carlo ; Chevallier, Frederic ; Choulga, Margarita ; Cloke, Hannah ; Cronin, Meghan F. ; Dahoui, Mohamed ; Rosnay, Patricia De ; Dirmeyer, Paul A. ; Drusch, Matthias ; Dutra, Emanuel ; Ek, Michael B. ; Gentine, Pierre ; Hewitt, Helene ; Keeley, Sarah P.E. ; Kerr, Yann ; Kumar, Sujay ; Lupu, Cristina ; Mahfouf, Jean Francois ; McNorton, Joe ; Mecklenburg, Susanne ; Mogensen, Kristian ; Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquín ; Orth, Rene ; Rabier, Florence ; Reichle, Rolf ; Ruston, Ben ; Pappenberger, Florian ; Sandu, Irina ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Tietsche, Steffen ; Trigo, Isabel F. ; Uijlenhoet, Remko ; Wedi, Nils ; Woolway, R.I. ; Zeng, Xubin - \ 2018
Remote Sensing 10 (2018)12. - ISSN 2072-4292
Direct and inverse methods - Earth system modelling - Earth-observations

In this paper, we review the use of satellite-based remote sensing in combination with in situ data to inform Earth surface modelling. This involves verification and optimization methods that can handle both random and systematic errors and result in effective model improvement for both surface monitoring and prediction applications. The reasons for diverse remote sensing data and products include (i) their complementary areal and temporal coverage, (ii) their diverse and covariant information content, and (iii) their ability to complement in situ observations, which are often sparse and only locally representative. To improve our understanding of the complex behavior of the Earth system at the surface and sub-surface, we need large volumes of data from high-resolution modelling and remote sensing, since the Earth surface exhibits a high degree of heterogeneity and discontinuities in space and time. The spatial and temporal variability of the biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and anthroposphere calls for an increased use of Earth observation (EO) data attaining volumes previously considered prohibitive. We review data availability and discuss recent examples where satellite remote sensing is used to infer observable surface quantities directly or indirectly, with particular emphasis on key parameters necessary for weather and climate prediction. Coordinated high-resolution remote-sensing and modelling/assimilation capabilities for the Earth surface are required to support an international application-focused effort.

Data from: Estimating sensitivity of seabed habitats to disturbance by bottom trawling based on the longevity of benthic fauna
Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Garcia, Clement ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Hintzen, N.T. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, T. van - \ 2018
benthos
Bottom fishing such as trawling and dredging may pose serious risks to the seabed and benthic habitats, calling for a quantitative assessment method to evaluate the impact and guide management to develop mitigation measures. We provide a method to estimate the sensitivity of benthic habitats based on the longevity composition of the invertebrate community. We hypothesize that long-lived species are more sensitive to trawling mortality due to their lower pace of life (i.e. slower growth, late maturation). We analyse data from box-core and grab samples taken from 401 stations in the English Channel and southern North Sea to estimate the habitat-specific longevity composition of the benthic invertebrate community and of specific functional groups (i.e. suspension feeders and bioturbators), and examine how bottom trawling affects the longevity biomass composition. The longevity biomass composition differed between habitats governed by differences in sediment composition (gravel and mud content) and tidal bed-shear stress. The biomass proportion of long-lived species increased with gravel content and decreased with mud content and shear stress. Bioturbators had a higher median longevity than suspension feeders. Trawling, in particular by gears that penetrate the seabed >2cm, shifted the community towards shorter-lived species. Changes from bottom trawling were highest in habitats with many long-lived species (hence increasing with gravel content, decreasing with mud content). Benthic communities in high shear stress habitats were less affected by bottom trawling. Using these relationships, we predicted the sensitivity of the benthic community from bottom trawling impact at large spatial scale (the North Sea). We derived different benthic sensitivity metrics that provide a basis to estimate indicators of trawling impact on a continuous scale for the total community and specific functional groups. In combination with high resolution data of trawling pressure, our approach can be used to monitor and assess trawling impact and seabed status at the scale of the region or broadscale habitat and to compare the environmental impact of bottom-contacting fishing gears across fisheries.
Crop traits drive soil carbon sequestration under organic farming
García-Palacios, Pablo ; Gattinger, Andreas ; Bracht-Jørgensen, Helene ; Brussaard, Lijbert ; Carvalho, Filipe ; Castro, Helena ; Clément, Jean Christophe ; Deyn, Gerlinde De; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Foulquier, Arnaud ; Hedlund, Katarina ; Lavorel, Sandra ; Legay, Nicolas ; Lori, Martina ; Mäder, Paul ; Martínez-García, Laura B. ; Martins da Silva, Pedro ; Muller, Adrian ; Nascimento, Eduardo ; Reis, Filipa ; Symanczik, Sarah ; Paulo Sousa, José ; Milla, Rubén - \ 2018
Journal of Applied Ecology 55 (2018)5. - ISSN 0021-8901 - p. 2496 - 2505.
climate change mitigation - crop residue - ecological intensification - leaf nitrogen - meta-analysis - organic farming - resource economics traits - soil carbon stocks

Organic farming (OF) enhances top soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in croplands compared with conventional farming (CF), which can contribute to sequester C. As farming system differences in the amount of C inputs to soil (e.g. fertilization and crop residues) are not enough to explain such increase, shifts in crop residue traits important for soil C losses such as litter decomposition may also play a role. To assess whether crop residue (leaf and root) traits determined SOC sequestration responses to OF, we coupled a global meta-analysis with field measurements across a European-wide network of sites. In the meta-analysis, we related crop species averages of leaf N, leaf-dry matter content, fine-root C and N, with SOC stocks and sequestration responses in OF vs. CF. Across six European sites, we measured the management-induced changes in SOC stocks and leaf litter traits after long-term ecological intensive (e.g. OF) vs. CF comparisons. Our global meta-analysis showed that the positive OF-effects on soil respiration, SOC stocks, and SOC sequestration rates were significant even in organic farms with low manure application rates. Although fertilization intensity was the main driver of OF-effects on SOC, leaf and root N concentrations also played a significant role. Across the six European sites, changes towards higher leaf litter N in CF also promoted lower SOC stocks. Our results highlight that crop species displaying traits indicative of resource-acquisitive strategies (e.g. high leaf and root N) increase the difference in SOC between OF and CF. Indeed, changes towards higher crop residue decomposability was related with decreased SOC stocks under CF across European sites. Synthesis and applications. Our study emphasizes that, with management, changes in crop residue traits contribute to the positive effects of organic farming (OF) on soil carbon sequestration. These results provide a clear message to land managers: the choice of crop species, and more importantly their functional traits (e.g. leave and root nitrogen), should be considered in addition to management practices and climate, when evaluating the potential of OF for climate change mitigation.

SPIMA - Spatial dynamics and strategic planning in metropolitan areas: Targeted Analysis : Final report
Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der; Eupen, M. van; Clement, J. ; Baraggia, Andrea ; Grift, E.A. van der; Sandkjær Hanssen, Gro ; hofstad, Hege ; Tosics, I. ; Gerohazi, Eva - \ 2018
Luxembourg : ESPON - 87 p.
This Targeted Analysis activity is conducted within the framework of the ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme, partly financed by the European Regional Development Fund.
The ESPON EGTC is the Single Beneficiary of the ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme. The Single Operation within the programme is implemented by the ESPON EGTC and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund, the EU Member States and the Partner States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
This delivery does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the members of the ESPON 2020 Monitoring Committee.
SPIMA – Spatial dynamics and strategic planning in metropolitan areas: Targeted Analysis : Annex 2 to Final Report Profiles of the metropolitan areas
Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der; Eupen, M. van; Clement, J. ; Baraggia, Andrea ; Grift, E.A. van der; Sandkjær Hanssen, Gro ; Hofstad, Hege ; Tosic, Ivan ; Gerohazi, Eva - \ 2018
Luxembourg : ESPON - 122 p.
This targeted analysis activity is conducted within the framework of the ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme, partly financed by the European Regional Development Fund.
The ESPON EGTC is the Single Beneficiary of the ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme. The Single Operation within the programme is implemented by the ESPON EGTC and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund, the EU Member States and the Partner States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
This delivery does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the members of the ESPON 2020 Monitoring Committee.
SPIMA – Spatial dynamics and strategic planning in metropolitan areas: Targeted Analysis : Annex 1 to Final Report Guidelines for metropolitan planning approach
Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der; Eupen, M. van; Clement, J. ; Baraggia, Andrea ; Sandkjær Hanssen, Gro ; hofstad, Hege ; Tosic, Ivan ; Gerohazi, Eva - \ 2018
Luxembourg : ESPON - 39 p.
This targeted analysys activity is conducted within the framework of the ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme, partly financed by the European Regional Development Fund.
The ESPON EGTC is the Single Beneficiary of the ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme. The Single Operation within the programme is implemented by the ESPON EGTC and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund, the EU Member States and the Partner States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
This delivery does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the members of the ESPON 2020 Monitoring Committee.
SPIMA – Spatial dynamics and strategic planning in metropolitan areas: Targeted Analysis : Annex 3 to Final Report Figures, Maps and Tables
Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der; Eupen, M. van; Clement, J. ; Baraggia, Andrea ; Sandkjær Hanssen, Gro ; Hofstad, Hege ; Tosic, Ivan ; Gerohazi, Eva - \ 2018
Luxembourg : ESPON - 90 p.
This targeted analysis activity is conducted within the framework of the ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme, partly financed by the European Regional Development Fund.
The ESPON EGTC is the Single Beneficiary of the ESPON 2020 Cooperation Programme. The Single Operation within the programme is implemented by the ESPON EGTC and co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund, the EU Member States and the Partner States, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
This delivery does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the members of the ESPON 2020 Monitoring Committee.
Understanding the influence of man-made structures on the ecosystem functions of the North Sea (UNDINE)
Dannheim, Jennifer ; Beerman, Jan ; Lacroix, Geneviève ; Mesel, Ilse De; Kerckhof, Francis ; Schon, Isa ; Degraer, Steven ; Birchenough, Silvana N.R. ; Garcia, Clement ; Coolen, J.W.P. ; Lindeboom, H.J. ; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C. - \ 2018
Wageningen : Wageningen Marine Research - 47 p.
Estimating sensitivity of seabed habitats to disturbance by bottom trawling based on the longevity of benthic fauna
Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D. ; Bolam, Stefan G. ; Garcia, Clement ; Hiddink, Jan Geert ; Hintzen, Niels T. ; Denderen, P.D. van; Kooten, Tobias van - \ 2018
Ecological Applications 28 (2018)5. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 1302 - 1312.
benthic fauna - ecosystem-based management - effects of trawling - impact assessment - indicators - sea floor

Bottom fishing such as trawling and dredging may pose serious risks to the seabed and benthic habitats, calling for a quantitative assessment method to evaluate the impact and guide management to develop mitigation measures. We provide a method to estimate the sensitivity of benthic habitats based on the longevity composition of the invertebrate community. We hypothesize that long-lived species are more sensitive to trawling mortality due to their lower pace of life (i.e., slower growth, late maturation). We analyze data from box-core and grab samples taken from 401 stations in the English Channel and southern North Sea to estimate the habitat-specific longevity composition of the benthic invertebrate community and of specific functional groups (i.e., suspension feeders and bioturbators), and examine how bottom trawling affects the longevity biomass composition. The longevity biomass composition differed between habitats governed by differences in sediment composition (gravel and mud content) and tidal bed-shear stress. The biomass proportion of long-lived species increased with gravel content and decreased with mud content and shear stress. Bioturbators had a higher median longevity than suspension feeders. Trawling, in particular by gears that penetrate the seabed >2 cm, shifted the community toward shorter-lived species. Changes from bottom trawling were highest in habitats with many long-lived species (hence increasing with gravel content, decreasing with mud content). Benthic communities in high shear stress habitats were less affected by bottom trawling. Using these relationships, we predicted the sensitivity of the benthic community from bottom trawling impact at large spatial scale (the North Sea). We derived different benthic sensitivity metrics that provide a basis to estimate indicators of trawling impact on a continuous scale for the total community and specific functional groups. In combination with high resolution data of trawling pressure, our approach can be used to monitor and assess trawling impact and seabed status at the scale of the region or broadscale habitat and to compare the environmental impact of bottom-contacting fishing gears across fisheries.

Correction to: Genome and transcriptome of the natural isopropanol producer Clostridium beijerinckii DSM6423
Gérando, Hadrien Máté de; Wasels, François ; Bisson, Angélique ; Clement, Benjamin ; Bidard, Frédérique ; Jourdier, Etienne ; López-Contreras, Ana María ; Ferreira, Nicolas Lopes - \ 2018
BMC Genomics 19 (2018). - ISSN 1471-2164
Following the publication of this article [1], the authors noticed that Figs. 2, 3 and 4 were in the incorrect order and thus had incorrect captions.
Domestication of Amazonian forests
Levis, Carolina - \ 2018
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F.J.J.M. Bongers, co-promotor(en): M. Peña-Claros; F.R.C. Costa; C.R. Clement. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438735 - 267
Cum laude
Genome and transcriptome of the natural isopropanol producer Clostridium beijerinckii DSM6423
Máté de Gérando, Hadrien ; Wasels, François ; Bisson, Angélique ; Clement, Benjamin ; Bidard, Frédérique ; Jourdier, Etienne ; López-Contreras, Ana María ; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas - \ 2018
BMC Genomics 19 (2018). - ISSN 1471-2164
Clostridium beijerinckii - Clustering - DSM6423 - Genome - IBE fermentation - Isopropanol - RNA-seq transcriptome
Background: There is a worldwide interest for sustainable and environmentally-friendly ways to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable resources. Among them, the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) or Isopropanol, Butanol and Ethanol (IBE) by anaerobic fermentation has already a long industrial history. Isopropanol has recently received a specific interest and the best studied natural isopropanol producer is C. beijerinckii DSM 6423 (NRRL B-593). This strain metabolizes sugars into a mix of IBE with only low concentrations of ethanol produced (< 1 g/L). However, despite its relative ancient discovery, few genomic details have been described for this strain. Research efforts including omics and genetic engineering approaches are therefore needed to enable the use of C. beijerinckii as a microbial cell factory for production of isopropanol. Results: The complete genome sequence and a first transcriptome analysis of C. beijerinckii DSM 6423 are described in this manuscript. The combination of MiSeq and de novo PacBio sequencing revealed a 6.38 Mbp chromosome containing 6254 genomic objects. Three Mobile Genetic Elements (MGE) were also detected: a linear double stranded DNA bacteriophage (ϕ6423) and two plasmids (pNF1 and pNF2) highlighting the genomic complexity of this strain. A first RNA-seq transcriptomic study was then performed on 3 independent glucose fermentations. Clustering analysis allowed us to detect some key gene clusters involved in the main life cycle steps (acidogenesis, solvantogenesis and sporulation) and differentially regulated among the fermentation. These putative clusters included some putative metabolic operons comparable to those found in other reference strains such as C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 or C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. Interestingly, only one gene was encoding for an alcohol dehydrogenase converting acetone into isopropanol, suggesting a single genomic event occurred on this strain to produce isopropanol. Conclusions: We present the full genome sequence of Clostridium beijerinckii DSM 6423, providing a complete genetic background of this strain. This offer a great opportunity for the development of dedicated genetic tools currently lacking for this strain. Moreover, a first RNA-seq analysis allow us to better understand the global metabolism of this natural isopropanol producer, opening the door to future targeted engineering approaches.
The Influence of Soil Quality and Market Orientation on Manioc (Manihot esculenta) Varietal Choice by Smallholder Farmers along the Lower Tapajós River, Pará, Brazil
Chaves, Raquel Sousa ; Junqueira, André Braga ; Clement, Charles R. - \ 2018
Human Ecology 46 (2018)2. - ISSN 0300-7839 - p. 229 - 239.
Check title to add to marked list
<< previous | next >>

Show 20 50 100 records per page

 
Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.