Modelling approaches for mixed forests dynamics prognosis. Research gaps and opportunities
Bravo, Felipe ; Fabrika, Marek ; Ammer, Christian ; Barreiro, Susana ; Bielak, Kamil ; Coll, Lluis ; Fonseca, Teresa ; Kangur, Ahto ; Löf, Magnus ; Merganičová, Katarina ; Pach, Maciej ; Pretzsch, Hans ; Stojanović, Dejan ; Schuler, Laura ; Peric, Sanja ; Rötzer, Thomas ; Río, Miren Del; Dodan, Martina ; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés - \ 2019
Forest Systems 28 (2019)1. - ISSN 2171-5068 - 18 p.
Classification - Dynamics - Ecology - Empirical - Growth - Yield
Aim of study: Modelling of forest growth and dynamics has focused mainly on pure stands. Mixed-forest management lacks systematic procedures to forecast the impact of silvicultural actions. The main objective of the present work is to review current knowledge and forest model developments that can be applied to mixed forests. Material and methods: Primary research literature was reviewed to determine the state of the art for modelling tree species mixtures, focusing mainly on temperate forests. Main results: The essential principles for predicting stand growth in mixed forests were identified. Forest model applicability in mixtures was analysed. Input data, main model components, output and viewers were presented. Finally, model evaluation procedures and some of the main model platforms were described. Research highlights: Responses to environmental changes and management activities in mixed forests can differ from pure stands. For greater insight into mixed-forest dynamics and ecology, forest scientists and practitioners need new theoretical frameworks, different approaches and innovative solutions for sustainable forest management in the context of environmental and social changes.
State-of-the-art global models underestimate impacts from climate extremes
Schewe, Jacob ; Gosling, Simon N. ; Reyer, Christopher ; Zhao, Fang ; Ciais, Philippe ; Elliott, Joshua ; Francois, Louis ; Huber, Veronika ; Lotze, Heike K. ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Vliet, Michelle T.H. Van; Vautard, Robert ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Breuer, Lutz ; Büchner, Matthias ; Carozza, David A. ; Chang, Jinfeng ; Coll, Marta ; Deryng, Delphine ; Wit, Allard De; Eddy, Tyler D. ; Folberth, Christian ; Frieler, Katja ; Friend, Andrew D. ; Gerten, Dieter ; Gudmundsson, Lukas ; Hanasaki, Naota ; Ito, Akihiko ; Khabarov, Nikolay ; Kim, Hyungjun ; Lawrence, Peter ; Morfopoulos, Catherine ; Müller, Christoph ; Müller Schmied, Hannes ; Orth, René ; Ostberg, Sebastian ; Pokhrel, Yadu ; Pugh, Thomas A.M. ; Sakurai, Gen ; Satoh, Yusuke ; Schmid, Erwin ; Stacke, Tobias ; Steenbeek, Jeroen ; Steinkamp, Jörg ; Tang, Qiuhong ; Tian, Hanqin ; Tittensor, Derek P. ; Volkholz, Jan ; Wang, Xuhui ; Warszawski, Lila - \ 2019
Nature Communications 10 (2019). - ISSN 2041-1723
Global impact models represent process-level understanding of how natural and human systems may be affected by climate change. Their projections are used in integrated assessments of climate change. Here we test, for the first time, systematically across many important systems, how well such impact models capture the impacts of extreme climate conditions. Using the 2003 European heat wave and drought as a historical analogue for comparable events in the future, we find that a majority of models underestimate the extremeness of impacts in important sectors such as agriculture, terrestrial ecosystems, and heat-related human mortality, while impacts on water resources and hydropower are overestimated in some river basins; and the spread across models is often large. This has important implications for economic assessments of climate change impacts that rely on these models. It also means that societal risks from future extreme events may be greater than previously thought.
Knowledge gaps about mixed forests : What do European forest managers want to know and what answers can science provide?
Coll, Lluís ; Ameztegui, Aitor ; Collet, Catherine ; Löf, Magnus ; Mason, Bill ; Pach, Maciej ; Verheyen, Kris ; Abrudan, Ioan ; Barbati, Anna ; Barreiro, Susana ; Bielak, Kamil ; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés ; Ferrari, Barbara ; Govedar, Zoran ; Kulhavy, Jiri ; Lazdina, Dagnija ; Metslaid, Marek ; Mohren, Frits ; Pereira, Mário ; Peric, Sanja ; Rasztovits, Ervin ; Short, Ian ; Spathelf, Peter ; Sterba, Hubert ; Stojanovic, Dejan ; Valsta, Lauri ; Zlatanov, Tzvetan ; Ponette, Quentin - \ 2018
Forest Ecology and Management 407 (2018). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 106 - 115.
Ecosystem services - Forest management and functioning - Forest stability - Participatory process - Research challenges - Review - Species mixtures
Research into mixed-forests has increased substantially in the last decades but the extent to which the new knowledge generated meets practitioners’ concerns and is adequately transmitted to them is unknown. Here we provide the current state of knowledge and future research directions with regards to 10 questions about mixed-forest functioning and management identified and selected by a range of European forest managers during an extensive participatory process. The set of 10 questions were the highest ranked questions from an online prioritization exercise involving 168 managers from 22 different European countries. In general, the topics of major concern for forest managers coincided with the ones that are at the heart of most research projects. They covered important issues related to the management of mixed forests and the role of mixtures for the stability of forests faced with environmental changes and the provision of ecosystem services to society. Our analysis showed that the current scientific knowledge about these questions was rather variable and particularly low for those related to the management of mixed forests over time and the associated costs. We also found that whereas most research projects have sought to evaluate whether mixed forests are more stable or provide more goods and services than monocultures, there is still little information on the underlying mechanisms and trade-offs behind these effects. Similarly, we identified a lack of knowledge on the spatio-temporal scales at which the effects of mixtures on the resistance and adaptability to environmental changes are operating. Our analysis may help researchers to identify what knowledge needs to be better transferred and to better design future research initiatives meeting practitioner's concerns.
Effects of crown architecture and stand structure on light absorption in mixed and monospecific Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris forests along a productivity and climate gradient through Europe
Forrester, David Ian ; Ammer, Christian ; Annighöfer, Peter J. ; Barbeito, Ignacio ; Bielak, Kamil ; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés ; Coll, Lluis ; Río, Miren del; Drössler, Lars ; Heym, Michael ; Hurt, Václav ; Löf, Magnus ; Ouden, Jan den - \ 2018
Journal of Ecology 106 (2018). - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 746 - 760.
Allometric equation - Biodiversity - Complementarity - Maestra model - Plant-plant interactions - Resource availability - Tree height
When tree-species mixtures are more productive than monocultures, higher light absorption is often suggested as a cause. However, few studies have quantified this effect and even fewer have examined which light-related interactions are most important, such as the effects of species interactions on tree allometric relationships and crown architecture, differences in vertical or horizontal canopy structure, phenology of deciduous species or the mixing effects on tree size and stand density. In this study, measurements of tree sizes and stand structures were combined with a detailed tree-level light model (Maestra) to examine the contribution of each light-related interaction on tree- and stand-level light absorption at 21 sites, each of which contained a triplet of plots including a mixture and monocultures of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris (63 plots). These sites were distributed across the current distribution of these species within Europe. Averaged across all sites, the light absorption of mixtures was 14% higher than the mean of the monocultures. At the whole community level, this positive effect of mixing on light absorption increased as canopy volume or site productivity increased, but was unrelated to climate. At the species population or individual tree levels, the mixing effect on light absorption resulted from light-related interactions involving vertical canopy structure, stand density, the presence of a deciduous species (F. sylvatica), as well as the effects of mixing on tree size and allometric relationships between diameter and height, crown diameter and crown length. The mixing effects on light absorption were only correlated with the mixing effects on growth for P. sylvestris, suggesting that the mixing effects on this species were driven by the light-related interactions, whereas mixing effects on F. sylvatica or whole community growth were probably driven by non-light-related interactions. Synthesis. The overall positive effect of mixing on light absorption was the result of a range of light-related interactions. However, the relative importance of these interactions varied between sites and is likely to vary between other species combinations and as stands develop.
Predicting the spatial and temporal dynamics of species interactions in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris forests across Europe
Forrester, David Ian ; Ammer, Ch ; Annighöfer, Peter J. ; Avdagic, A. ; Barbeito, I. ; Bielak, Kamil ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Coll, L. ; Río, M. del; Drössler, L. ; Heym, Michael ; Hurt, Václav ; Löf, Magnus ; Matović, B. ; Meloni, F. ; Ouden, J. den; Pach, Maciej ; Pereira, M.G. ; Ponette, Quentin ; Pretzsch, H. ; Skrzyszewski, Jerzy ; Stojanović, D. ; Svoboda, M. ; Ruiz-Peinado, R. ; Vacchiano, G. ; Verheyen, K. ; Zlatanov, T. ; Bravo-Oviedo, A. - \ 2017
Forest Ecology and Management 405 (2017). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 112 - 133.
Biodiversity - Climate - Competition - Complementarity - Forest growth model - Mixed-species - Silviculture
The productivity and functioning of mixed-species forests often differs from that of monocultures. However, the magnitude and direction of these differences are difficult to predict because species interactions can be modified by many potentially interacting climatic and edaphic conditions, stand structure and previous management. Process-based forest growth models could potentially be used to disentangle the effects of these factors and thereby improve our understanding of mixed forest functioning while facilitating their design and silvicultural management. However, to date, the predicted mixing effects of forest growth models have not been compared with measured mixing effects. In this study, 26 sites across Europe, each containing a mixture and monocultures of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, were used to calculate mixing effects on growth and yield and compare them with the mixing effects predicted by the forest growth model 3-PGmix. The climate and edaphic conditions, stand structures and ages varied greatly between sites. The model performed well when predicting the stem mass and total mass (and mixing effects on these components), with model efficiency that was usually >0.7. The model efficiency was lower for growth or smaller components such as foliage mass and root mass. The model was also used to predict how mixing effects would change along gradients in precipitation, temperature, potential available soil water, age, thinning intensity and soil fertility. The predicted patterns were consistent with measurements of mixing effects from published studies. The 3-PG model is a widely used management tool for monospecific stands and this study shows that 3-PGmix can be used to examine the dynamics of mixed-species stands and determine how they may need to be managed.
Data from: EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) through Europe
Heym, Michael ; Ruíz-Peinado, Ricardo ; Río, Miren del; Bielak, Kamil ; Forrester, David Ian ; Dirnberger, Gerald ; Barbeito, I. ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Ruškytkė, Indré ; Coll, L. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2017
Technische Universitat Munchen
Fagus sylvatica - Pinus sylvestris
This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 trees and 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed stand dynamics.
EuMIXFOR empirical forest mensuration and ring width data from pure and mixed stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) through Europe
Heym, Michael ; Ruíz-Peinado, Ricardo ; Río, Miren del; Bielak, Kamil ; Forrester, David Ian ; Dirnberger, Gerald ; Barbeito, I. ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Ruškytkė, Indré ; Coll, L. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2017
Annals of Forest Science 74 (2017)3. - ISSN 1286-4560 - 9 p.
This data set provides unique empirical data from triplets of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.) and European beech (Fagus sylvaticaL.) across Europe. Dendrometric variables are provided for 32 triplets, 96 plots, 7555 treesand 4695 core samples. These data contribute to our understanding of mixed stand dynamics.
Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe
Río, Miren del; Pretzsch, Hans ; Ruíz-Peinado, Ricardo ; Ampoorter, Evy ; Annighöfer, Peter ; Barbeito, Ignacio ; Bielak, Kamil ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Coll, Lluís ; Drössler, Lars ; Mohren, Frits ; Ouden, Jan den; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés - \ 2017
Journal of Ecology 105 (2017)4. - ISSN 0022-0477 - p. 1032 - 1043.
Asynchrony - Mixed-species forests - Niche complementarity - Organizational levels - Overyielding - Plant-plant interactions - Temporal variability
There is increasing evidence that species diversity enhances the temporal stability (TS) of community productivity in different ecosystems, although its effect at the population and tree levels seems to be negative or neutral. Asynchrony in species responses to environmental conditions was found to be one of the main drivers of this stabilizing process. However, the effect of species mixing on the stability of productivity, and the relative importance of the associated mechanisms, remain poorly understood in forest communities. We investigated the way mixing species influenced the TS of productivity in Pinus sylvestris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. forests, and attempted to determine the main drivers among overyielding, asynchrony between species annual growth responses to environmental conditions, and temporal shifts in species interactions. We used a network of 93 experimental plots distributed across Europe to compare the TS of basal area growth over a 15-year period (1999-2013) in mixed and monospecific forest stands at different organizational levels, namely the community, population and individual tree levels. Mixed stands showed a higher TS of basal area growth than monospecific stands at the community level, but not at the population or individual tree levels. The TS at the community level was related to asynchrony between species growth in mixtures, but not to overyielding nor to asynchrony between species growth in monospecific stands. Temporal shifts in species interactions were also related to asynchrony and to the mixing effect on the TS. Synthesis. Our findings confirm that species mixing can stabilize productivity at the community level, whereas there is a neutral or negative effect on stability at the population and individual tree levels. The contrasting findings regarding the relationships between the temporal stability and asynchrony in species growth in mixed and monospecific stands suggest that the main driver in the stabilizing process may be the temporal niche complementarity between species rather than differences in species' intrinsic responses to environmental conditions.
Fishing impact and environmental status in European seas: a diagnosis from stock assessments and ecosystem indicators
Gascuel, Didier ; Coll, Marta ; Fox, Clive ; Guénette, Sylvie ; Guitton, Jérome ; Kenny, Andrew ; Knittweis, Leyla ; Nielsen, J.R. ; Piet, Gerjan ; Raid, Tiit ; Travers-Trolet, Morgane ; Shephard, Samuel - \ 2016
Fish and Fisheries 17 (2016)1. - ISSN 1467-2960 - p. 31 - 55.
Ecosystem approach to fisheries management - ecoystem indicators - good environmental status - marine strategy framework directive - stock assessment - trophic level
Stock-based and ecosystem-based indicators are used to provide a new diagnosis of the ﬁshing impact and environmental status of European seas. In the seven European marine ecosystems covering the Baltic and the North-east Atlantic, (i) trends in landings since 1950 were examined; (ii) syntheses of the status and trends in ﬁsh stocks were consolidated at the ecosystem level; and (iii) trends in ecosystem indicators based on landings and surveys were analysed. We show that yields began to decrease everywhere (except in the Baltic) from the mid-1970s, as a result of the over-exploitation of some major stocks. Fishermen adapted by increasing ﬁshing effort and exploiting a wider part of the ecosystems. This was insufﬁcient to compensate for the decrease in abundance of many stocks, and total landings have halved over the last 30 years. The highest ﬁshing impact took place in the late 1990s, with a clear decrease in stock-based and ecosystem indicators. In particular, trophic-based indicators exhibited a continuous decreasing trend in almost all ecosystems. Over the past decade, a decrease in ﬁshing pressure has been observed, the mean ﬁshing mortality rate of assessed stocks being almost halved in all the considered ecosystems, but no clear recovery in the biomass and ecosystem indicators is yet apparent. In addition, the mean recruitment index was shown to decrease by around 50% in all ecosystems (except the Baltic). We conclude that building this kind of diagnosis is a key step on the path to implementing an ecosystem approach to ﬁsheries management.
Data from: Species interactions increase the temporal stability of community productivity in Pinus sylvestris-Fagus sylvatica mixtures across Europe
Río, Miren del; Pretzsch, Hans ; Ruíz-Peinado, Ricardo ; Ampoorter, Evy ; Annighöfer, Peter ; Barbeito, Ignacio ; Bielak, Kamil ; Brazaitis, Gediminas ; Coll, Lluís ; Drössler, L. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés - \ 2016
Wageningen University & Research
Main data are basal area increments by triplet, species composition and year, for the study period 1999-2013. Dataset includes data at community level (stand basal area increment), population level (species basal area increment in mixed and monospecific stands), and individual tree level (basal area increments by core, two cores by tree). Moreover data describing the trees used in the analysis is included.
Characterisation of cell-wall polysaccharides from mandarin segment membranes
Coll-Almela, L. ; Saura-Lopez, D. ; Laencina-Sanchez, J. ; Schols, H.A. ; Voragen, A.G.J. ; Ros-García, J.M. - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 175 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 36 - 42.
hairy ramified regions - cross-flow filtration - pectolytic enzyme - citrus-fruit - pectins - degradation - extraction - skin - rhamnogalacturonase - populations
In an attempt to develop a process of enzymatic peeling of mandarin segments suitable for use on an industrial scale, the cell wall fraction of the segment membrane of Satsuma mandarin fruits was extracted to obtain a chelating agent-soluble pectin fraction (ChSS), a dilute sodium hydroxide-soluble pectin fraction (DASS), a 1 M sodium hydroxide-soluble hemicellulose fraction (1MASS), a 4 M sodium hydroxide-soluble hemicellulose fraction (4MASS) and a cellulose-rich residue (3.1, 0.9, 0.4, 0.7 and 1.6% w/w of fresh membrane, respectively). The ChSS pectin consisted mainly of galacturonic acid followed by arabinose and galactose. The DASS fraction contained less galacturonic acid and more neutral sugars than ChSS. Eighty-nine percent of the galacturonic acid present in the segment membranes was recovered in the above two pectin fractions. The two hemicellulosic fractions consisted of two different molecular weight populations, which also differed in their sugar composition. Arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose were the main sugar constituents of these hemicellulose fractions. In addition to an (arabino)xylan and a xyloglucan, the presence of an arabinogalactan is suggested by the sugar composition of both hemicelluloses. The pectin fractions were also characterised by their degradability by the pectic enzymes polygalacturonase, pectinmethylesterase and rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase. However the degree of degradation of the pectin fractions by enzymes differed, and the amount of the polymeric materials resistant to further degradation and the oligomeric products also differed. Using pectic enzymes it is possible to obtain peeled mandarin segments ready to eat or for canning.
European Mixed Forests: Definition and research perspectives
Bravo-Oviedo, A. ; Pretzsch, H. ; Ammer, C. ; Andenmatten, E. ; Barbati, A. ; Barreiro, S. ; Brang, P. ; Bravo, F. ; Coll, L. ; Corona, P. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2014
Forest Systems 23 (2014)3. - ISSN 2171-5068 - p. 518 - 533.
stand-density index - fagus-sylvatica l. - species stands - norway spruce - picea-abies - pure stands - biomass allocation - climate-change - biodiversity - productivity
Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) briefly review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material and methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients). The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time. The research perspectives identified are (i) species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii) the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.
Structural Basis for DNA Binding Specificity by the Auxin-Dependent ARF Transcription Factors
Boer, D.R. ; Freire Rios, A. ; Berg, W.A.M. van den; Saaki, T. ; Manfield, I.W. ; Kepinski, S. ; López-Vidrieo, I. ; Franco-Zorilla, J.M. ; Vries, S.C. de; Solano, R. ; Weijers, D. ; Coll, M. - \ 2014
Cell 156 (2014). - ISSN 0092-8674 - p. 577 - 589.
arabidopsis gene monopteros - response elements - vascular development - plant development - domains - family - embryo - embryogenesis - dimerization - recognition
Auxin regulates numerous plant developmental processes by controlling gene expression via a family of functionally distinct DNA-binding auxin response factors (ARFs), yet the mechanistic basis for generating specificity in auxin response is unknown. Here, we address this question by solving high-resolution crystal structures of the pivotal Arabidopsis developmental regulator ARF5/MONOPTEROS (MP), its divergent paralog ARF1, and a complex of ARF1 and a generic auxin response DNA element (AuxRE). We show that ARF DNA-binding domains also homodimerize to generate cooperative DNA binding, which is critical for in vivo ARF5/MP function. Strikingly, DNA-contacting residues are conserved between ARFs, and we discover that monomers have the same intrinsic specificity. ARF1 and ARF5 homodimers, however, differ in spacing tolerated between binding sites. Our data identify the DNA-binding domain as an ARF dimerization domain, suggest that ARF dimers bind complex sites as molecular calipers with ARF-specific spacing preference, and provide an atomic-scale mechanistic model for specificity in auxin response.
In vitro neutralization of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus by plasma from immunized zebrafish
Chinchilla, B. ; Gomez-Casado, E. ; Encinas, P. ; Falco Gracia, J.A. ; Estepa, A. ; Coll, J. - \ 2013
Zebrafish 10 (2013)1. - ISSN 1545-8547 - p. 43 - 51.
hematopoietic necrosis virus - rainbow-trout - egtved virus - danio-rerio - spring viremia - monoclonal-antibodies - carp virus - vhs virus - g-protein - infection
We studied humoral long-term adaptive viral neutralization responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly useful vertebrate model for viral diseases actually limited by the absence of standardized anti-zebrafish immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. We established an alternative method, similar to those used in other fish, to achieve a first estimation of zebrafish anti-viral antibody-like responses. We used the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) model because, although protection after this non-natural infection was demonstrated in cold-acclimatized zebrafish, little is known about their induced anti-VHSV antibody-like responses. Therefore, we first optimized a micro-neutralization method based on immunostaining VHSV-infected fish cell monolayers to detect zebrafish neutralizing activity in plasma samples in one day. We then used the method to measure the specific anti-VHSV neutralization in plasma obtained from individual zebrafish under various VHSV challenges or immunization protocols. The neutralizing activity was inhibited by protein A-sepharose and rabbit anti-zebrafish IgM antibodies, suggesting the implication of IgM zebrafish antibodies in such responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate detectable and significant VHSV neutralization titers in zebrafish surviving VHSV infections. This micro-method might be useful, not only for the follow-up of infection/vaccine development in the zebrafish/VHSV model in particular, but also for similar work involving other in vitro neutralizable zebrafish pathogens. This technique might also further the development of alternative ELISA assay methods to measure specific immunoglobulins in zebrafish.
Melittin-loaded immunoliposomes against viral surface proteins, a new approach to antiviral therapy
Falco Gracia, J.A. ; Barrajon-Catalan, E. ; Menendez-Gutierrez, M.P. ; Coll, J. ; Micol, V. ; Estepa, A. - \ 2013
Antiviral Research 97 (2013)2. - ISSN 0166-3542 - p. 218 - 221.
antimicrobial peptides - hemorrhagic septicemia - rhabdovirus - defense - virus - assay
In this study, melittin, a well-characterized pore-forming lytic amphiphilic peptide susceptible to be vehiculized in lipid membranes, has been utilized to study their antiviral properties. For this purpose, an assay based on melittin loaded-immunoliposomes previously described by our group was adapted to antiviral purposes by means of monoclonal antibodies targeting the surface G glycoprotein of the fish viral haemorrhagic septicemia rhabdovirus (VHSV). We also studied the antiviral action of these immunoliposomes in vitro and the results showed that they are capable of inhibiting the VHSV infectivity by 95.2% via direct inactivation of the virus. Furthermore, the inhibition of the infectivity when treatments were added at different times post-infection and the analysis of the infection foci sizes suggested altogether that they also act by reducing the VHSV spread in cell culture and by killing the infected cells which express the G glycoprotein in their plasmatic membranes.
New Multiplexing Tools for Reliable GMO Detection
Pla, M. ; Nadal, A. ; Baeten, V. ; Bahrdt, C. ; Berben, G. ; Bertheau, Y. ; Coll, A. ; Dijk, J.P. van; Dobnik, D. ; Fernandez-Pierna, J.A. ; Gruden, K. ; Hamels, S. ; Holck, A. ; Holst-Jensen, A. ; Janssen, E. ; Kok, E.J. ; Paz, J.L. La; Laval, V. ; Leimanis, S. ; Malcevschi, A. ; Marmiroli, N. ; Morisset, D. ; Prins, T.W. ; Remacle, J. ; Ujhelyi, G. ; Wulff, D. - \ 2012
In: Genetically Modified and Non-Genetically Modified Food Supply Chains / Bertheau, Y., Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell - ISBN 9781444337785 - p. 333 - 366.
Among the available methods for GMO detection, enforcement and routine laboratories use in practice PCR, based on the detection of transgenic DNA. The cost required for GMO analysis is constantly increasing due to the progress of GMO commercialization, with inclusion of higher diversity of species, traits and introduced genetic elements. Thus, analytical technologies must evolve towards high throughput GMO diagnostics. This chapter describes different strategies recently developed tosimultaneously detect/identify many GMOs. The combination of two or more PCR assays into one single tube is known as multiplexing. Multiplex PCRs combining a limited number of targets are available for GMO analysis. In some cases, several of these reactions can be performed in parallel and the resulting products mixed and detected together by capillary electrophoresis or array hybridization. Non PCR-based approaches (e.g. NAIMA) have also been explored for higher multiplexing potential. Simultaneous detection of very high numbers of targetsis possible bya SNPlex method based on single nucleotide polymorphisms and the Padlock ligation microarray system, relying on a first ligation that only occurs after hybridization to the target, followed by PCR and detection by array. Multiplex assays are most often qualitative, andif necessary, they can be coupled to specific simplex assays for quantification.Nevertheless, we discuss some strategies developed to achieve quantitative results with a multiplex approach.
Suppression of Pythium root rot of cucumber in the soil previously subjected to anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD).
Streminska, M.A. ; Slooten, M.A. van; Roig-Coll, S. ; Wurff, A.W.G. van der - \ 2012
|Site-specific and reversible attachment of DNA-conjugates to fused silica microchannels
Vong, T.H. ; Maat, J. ter; Beek, T.A. van; Lagen, B. van; Giesbers, M. ; Hest, J.C.M. van; Zuilhof, H. - \ 2010
Abstracts of papers of the American Chemical Society 239 (2010). - ISSN 0065-7727
LC-MS-SPE-NMR for the Isolation and Characterization of neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Teucrium luteum subsp. flavovirens
Castro, A. ; Moco, S.I.A. ; Coll, J. ; Vervoort, J.J.M. - \ 2010
Journal of Natural Products 73 (2010)5. - ISSN 0163-3864 - p. 962 - 965.
cytotoxic clerodane diterpenoids - antifeedant activity - structural elucidation - biological-activity - croton-cajucara - rain-forest - ajuga - stereochemistry - scutellaria - madagascar
neo-Clerodane diterpenes of plant origin are molecules difficult to monitor due to their nonspecific UV/vis absorption. The present work describes for the first time the application of the LC-MS-SPE-NMR technique for the isolation and characterization of three new neo-clerodane diterpenes, 3ß-hydroxyteucroxylepin and teuluteumin A and teuluteumin B, from Teucrium luteum subsp. flavovirens, harvested from two different locations
Nutritional assessment of residents in long-term care facilities (LTCFS): recommendations of the task force on nutrition and ageing of the IAGG Europe region and the IANA
Salva, A. ; Coll-Planas, L. ; Bruce, S. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Andrieu, S. ; Abellan, G. ; Vellas, B. - \ 2009
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 13 (2009)6. - ISSN 1279-7707 - p. 475 - 483.
nursing-home residents - randomized controlled-trial - body-mass index - vitamin-d supplementation - minimum data set - quality-of-life - continuous process improvement - protein-calorie malnutrition - elderly-patients - older-people
Unintentional weight loss and Undernutrition are major problems among older people living in Long-Term Care Facilities (LTCF). Undernutrition manifests in LTCF particularly as weight loss and low Body Mass Index (BMI) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as with functional decline. There are many factors associated with poor nutritional status and affecting protein-energy intake and/or energy expenditure. These include age of 85 years or older, low nutrient intake, loss of ability to eat independently, swallowing and chewing difficulties, becoming bed-ridden, pressure ulcers, history of hip fracture, dementia, depressive symptoms and suffering from two or more chronic illnesses. Nutritional evaluation is an essential part of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). This evaluation ranges from methods such as BMI to several validated tools such as Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA). After diagnosis, the management of undernutrition in LTCF requires a multidisciplinary approach which may involve dietary and environmental improvements and managing multiple co-morbidities, while avoiding polypharmacy as far as possible. Finally, the need for supplementation or artificial (tube) feeding may be considered taking into account the CGA and individual needs. This document presents a succinct review and recommendations of evaluation and treatment of undernutrition.