Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Networking for smart agriculture and sustainability of bioresources
    Brouwer, Herman - \ 2019
    Risks to human and animal health related to the presence of moniliformin in food and feed
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Naegeli, Hanspeter ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Eskola, Mari ; Manen, Mathijs van; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)3. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Moniliformin (MON) is a mycotoxin with low molecular weight primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. Following a request of the European Commission, the CONTAM Panel assessed the risk of MON to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. The limited information available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals indicated haematotoxicity and cardiotoxicity as major adverse health effects of MON. MON causes chromosome aberrations in vitro but no in vivo genotoxicity data and no carcinogenicity data were identified. Due to the limitations in the available toxicity data, human acute or chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) could not be established. The margin of exposure (MOE) between the no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 6.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) for cardiotoxicity from a subacute study in rats and the acute upper bound (UB) dietary exposure estimates ranged between 4,000 and 73,000. The MOE between the lowest benchmark dose lower confidence limit (for a 5% response ‐ BMDL05) of 0.20 mg MON/kg bw per day for haematological hazards from a 28‐day study in pigs and the chronic dietary human exposure estimates ranged between 370 and 5,000,000 for chronic dietary exposures. These MOEs indicate a low risk for human health but were associated with high uncertainty. The toxicity data available for poultry, pigs, and mink indicated a low or even negligible risk for these animals from exposure to MON in feed at the estimated exposure levels under current feeding practices. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity as for pigs, the CONTAM Panel considered a low or even negligible risk for the other animal species for which no toxicity data suitable for hazard characterisation were identified. Additional toxicity studies are needed and depending on their outcome, the collection of more occurrence data on MON in food and feed is recommended to enable a comprehensive human risk assessment.
    Risk to human and animal health related to the presence of 4,15‐diacetoxyscirpenol in food and feed
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hogstrand, Christer ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Saeger, Sarah De; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl ; Farmer, Peter ; Fremy, Jean-Marc ; Gong, Yun Yun ; Meyer, Karsten ; Parent‐Massin, Dominique ; Egmond, Hans van; Altieri, Andrea ; Colombo, Paolo ; Horváth, Zsuzsanna ; Levorato, Sara ; Edler, Lutz - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)8. - ISSN 1831-4732
    4,15‐Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) is a mycotoxin primarily produced by Fusarium fungi and occurring predominantly in cereal grains. As requested by the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) assessed the risk of DAS to human and animal health related to its presence in food and feed. Very limited information was available on toxicity and on toxicokinetics in experimental and farm animals. Due to the limitations in the available data set, human acute and chronic health‐based guidance values (HBGV) were established based on data obtained in clinical trials of DAS as an anticancer agent (anguidine) after intravenous administration to cancer patients. The CONTAM Panel considered these data as informative for the hazard characterisation of DAS after oral exposure. The main adverse effects after acute and repeated exposure were emesis, with a no‐observed‐adverse‐effect level (NOAEL) of 32 μg DAS/kg body weight (bw), and haematotoxicity, with a NOAEL of 65 μg DAS/kg bw, respectively. An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 3.2 μg DAS/kg bw and a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.65 μg DAS/kg bw were established. Based on over 15,000 occurrence data, the highest acute and chronic dietary exposures were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.49 μg DAS/kg bw per day, respectively, and were not of health concern for humans. The limited information for poultry, pigs and dogs indicated a low risk for these animals at the estimated DAS exposure levels under current feeding practices, with the possible exception of fattening chicken. Assuming similar or lower sensitivity than for poultry, the risk was considered overall low for other farm and companion animal species for which no toxicity data were available. In consideration of the similarities of several trichothecenes and the likelihood of co‐exposure via food and feed, it could be appropriate to perform a cumulative risk assessment for this group of substances.
    Assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and PCBs from fish meal by replacement of fish oil
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process of fish meal. It consisted of extraction of the fish oil, filtration and adsorption with activated carbon, and replacement with decontaminated fish oil in order to reduce the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)), and dioxin‐like (DL‐) and non‐dioxin‐like (NDL‐) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. Data provided by the feed business operator were assessed for efficacy of the process and to demonstrate that the process did not adversely affect the characteristics and the nature of the product. The process was effective in removing PCDD/Fs (97%) and DL‐ and NDL‐PCBs (93%). The fish meal produced complied with EU regulations for these contaminants. The Panel considered that the reference to information available in published literature was a pragmatic approach to demonstrate that the replacement of fish oil and the use of activated carbon to adsorb these contaminants does not lead to any detrimental changes in the nature of the fish meal. However, it was noted that the process could deplete some beneficial constituents (e.g. oil‐soluble vitamins). Information was provided to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs from the fish meal by oil extraction followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil, was compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
    Assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and PCBs from fish meal by hexane extraction and replacement of fish oil
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, Laurentius ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2018
    EFSA Journal 16 (2018)2. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for fish meal. This process entails solvent (hexane) extraction of fish oil from fish meal to remove dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo‐p‐dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) as well as dioxin‐like (DL‐) and non‐dioxin‐like (NDL‐) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil. All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data provided by the feed business operator were assessed with respect to the efficacy of the process, absence of solvent residues, and on information demonstrating that the process does not adversely affect the nature and characteristics of the product. According to data provided, the process was effective in removing PCDD/Fs and DL‐PCBs by approximately 70% and NDL‐PCBs by about 60%. The data showed that it is possible to meet the current EU requirements with respect to these contaminants, provided that the level of contamination of untreated fish meal is within the range of the tested batches. It is unlikely that hazardous substances (i.e. hexane) remain in the final product. The Panel considered that there is no evidence that fish oil extraction followed by replacement with decontaminated fish oil leads to detrimental changes in the nutritional composition of the fish meal, although some beneficial constituents (e.g. lipophilic vitamins) might be depleted. The feed business operator submitted information to demonstrate safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs from fish meal by means of solvent extraction and fish oil replacement was assessed to be compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
    Scientific opinion: Assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and dioxin‐like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, A.K. ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)7. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process consisting in the adsorption with activated carbon and physical filtration of fish oil in order to reduce the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data provided by the feed business operator were assessed with respect to the efficacy of the process and on information demonstrating that the process does not adversely affect the characteristics and the nature of the product. As described in scientific literature, the process was effective in removing PCDD/Fs (84%) and DL-PCBs (55%), and therefore, it is possible to meet the current EU requirements with respect to these contaminants, assuming that the level of contamination of untreated fish oil was within the range of the tested batches. The Panel considered that the reference to information available in published literature was a pragmatic approach to demonstrate that the use of activated carbon adsorption does not lead to any detrimental changes in the nature of the fish oil; however, it was noted that the process could deplete some beneficial constituents (e.g. vitamins). Information was provided to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs from the fish oil by means of physical filtration with activated carbon, was compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
    Scientific opinion: Assessment of decontamination processes for dioxins and dioxin‐like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl‐Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, A.K. ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)12. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain(CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of decontamination processes involving theadsorption with activated carbon and physicalfiltration offish oil in order to reduce the amount ofdioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) anddioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply withthe acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. Two feed businessoperators provided data on their respective decontamination processes, which were assessed in terms ofthe efficacy of the process and the absence of adverse effects in the nature and characteristics of theproduct after decontamination. The processes proved to be able to remove PCDD/Fs (82–95%) andDL-PCBs (26–45%) from thefish oil, depending on the process used by the business operator. Given thatthe level of contamination is within the range of the tested untreatedfish oil, it is possible to meet EUrequirements for these contaminants after decontamination. The CONTAM Panel considered both theevidence provided by one of the business operators and information in the available literature toconclude that the proposed processes do not lead to any detrimental changes in the nature of thefishoil. However, the process can deplete some beneficial constituents (e.g. vitamins). Information wasprovided to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that, onthe basis of the information submitted by the feed business operators, the proposed decontaminationprocesses to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs from thefish oil by means of activated carbon andphysicalfiltration were compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation(EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
    Scientific opinion: Assessment of a decontamination process for hydrocyanic acid in linseed intended for use in animal feed
    Knutsen, Helle Katrine ; Alexander, Jan ; Barregård, Lars ; Bignami, Margherita ; Brüschweiler, Beat ; Ceccatelli, Sandra ; Cottrill, Bruce ; Dinovi, Michael ; Edler, Lutz ; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Nebbia, Carlo Stefano ; Oswald, Isabelle P. ; Petersen, Annette ; Rose, Martin ; Roudot, Alain-Claude ; Schwerdtle, Tanja ; Vleminckx, Christiane ; Vollmer, Günter ; Wallace, Heather ; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine ; Metzler, Manfred ; Colombo, Paolo ; Hogstrand, Christer - \ 2017
    EFSA Journal 15 (2017)10. - ISSN 1831-4732
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) provided a scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for the enzymatic treatment and subsequent heating of linseed, in order to reduce the amount of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) present as cyanogenic glycosides. Specifically, it is required that the feed decontamination process is compliant with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015. With this aim, the CONTAM Panel assessed the data provided by the feed business operator with respect to the efficacy of the process to remove the contaminant from the linseed batches and on information demonstrating that the process does not adversely affect the characteristics and the nature of the product. The data enabled the Panel to conclude that in agreement with the literature the process was able to remove HCN by about 90%, and that it is possible to meet the current EU requirements for quality of linseed with respect to HCN, provided the level of contamination of untreated linseed would be within the range of the tested batches. The Panel noted that the amounts of other products formed during the enzymatic process and remaining in the treated material are not of toxicological concern. The experimental data provided by the feed business operator showed that the characteristics of linseed were not adversely affected by the decontamination process. The CONTAM Panel concluded that, on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator, the proposed decontamination process to remove HCN from linseed by means of enzymatic release and subsequent evaporation was compliant with the acceptability criteria provided for in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786 of 19 May 2015.
    ‘Even fish have an ethnicity’: livelihoods and identities of men and women in war-affected coastal Trincomalee, Sri Lanka
    Lokuge, Gayathri Hiroshani Hallinne - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): M. de Alwis; G. Frerks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436182 - 237
    livelihoods - livelihood strategies - fishing communities - fishing - women - gender - conflict - war - sri lanka - south asia - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - vissersgemeenschappen - vis vangen - vrouwen - geslacht (gender) - conflict - oorlog - sri lanka - zuid-azië

    Located within the nexus between identity and livelihoods, this thesis explores how the economic activities of fisher livelihoods are shaped by socio-cultural, political and identity dynamics, and how fisher livelihoods, in turn, shape and reproduce these dynamics in post-war Sri Lanka’s coastal district of Trincomalee. The analysis focuses on the economic sociology of fisheries, the inequalities and marginalities in livelihood spaces that are created through intersecting identities such as gender and ethnicity, and the way fisheries are governed—both formally and informally—in politically volatile contexts. This thesis argues that ethnic identity is mediated by other social identity categories, such as gender, location and type of livelihood activity, in the creation of unequal access to livelihood spaces. However, men and women often attempt to subvert structural discriminatory patterns, with differing degrees of success.

    Since the country became independent in 1948, Sri Lanka’s history has been dominated by conflict centred on competing ethno-political interests, particularly in terms of access to state power. The perceived privileging of the ethnic minority Tamils by the British colonial powers led to a series of political moves by successive governments in post-independence Sri Lanka. This included making Sinhalese the official language of the country and awarding special status to Buddhism in the constitution. Subsequently, unfavourable perceptions about the privileging of the majority ethnic group and their cultural, social and political symbols led to the formation of Tamil militant groups including the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).

    Most discourses on conflict in Sri Lanka have strong ethnic dimensions. However, arguably, ethnic lines are used mainly for mobilising the masses for conflict. The killing of 13 Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) Army soldiers in 1983 in an ambush by the LTTE resulted in widespread anti-Tamil riots in the capital city of Colombo. This event is commonly identified as the trigger point for the protracted war between the Tamil militants and the GoSL. The war continued for three decades, with fluctuating degrees of intensity, until the LTTE faced a military defeat at the hands of the GoSL in 2009. However, the ending of the war does not translate linearly into a post-war condition in Sri Lanka, given the continued presence of the military in the directly war-affected North and East and the social and economic inequalities and tensions that create divisions within the country, undermining meaningful and sustained rebuilding efforts in Sri Lanka.

    The thesis begins with an introductory first chapter that presents the aims of the study, locates the research within the context of post-war Sri Lanka, describes the study areas and presents an overview of the methodological approach and theoretical frameworks used. Located in fish landing sites, markets and religious places, Chapter 2 focuses mostly on the livelihoods aspect of the thesis. It analyses how economic activities, such as fishing livelihoods, are deeply and intricately embedded in the cultural and social fabric of the daily lives of individuals, families, communities and institutions. This chapter provides a detailed analysis of how fishing livelihoods are more than an income-generating activity for men and women, considering the different inter- and intra-group value systems that apply to fisher-folk in their day-to-day practices. At the individual level, given the high risk involved in braving the seas every day, religion takes a central place in a fisher’s life, irrespective of their specific faith. This phenomenon is heightened by war-related insecurities and threats. However, individual and communal struggles over contradictory economic and religious values are an ever-present aspect of the fishermen’s religiosity. We found this process to be marked by rationalising and meaning making, embodied through the daily experiences of these fishermen and women.

    The findings show that people take advantage of the malleable nature of religious doctrine to mix, match and choose from different religions to suit the current need and the occasion. Religious beliefs and ideologies also create and sustain socio-political differences, which are further constructed by macro-level political discourses. At the community level, although there are complex, historical tensions between all of the religious groups in Trincomalee, with heightened tension and violence during the war years, Hindus and Buddhists share considerable religious complementarity. Muslims are increasingly marked as separate—in spaces of religious ritual, such as the Hindu temples, and also in terms of types of fishing livelihoods. Most Muslims also see themselves as separate. Through an analysis of how discourses on religious identity play out in everyday life, Chapter 2 argues that economic rivalries over fishing resources may spill over into—or be reinforced by—religious and ethnic tensions in the post-war context.

    Chapter 3 focuses more on the identity aspect of the thesis, with research based in the lagoons and shallow seas of Trincomalee. Using intersectionality theory, this chapter examines how the intersection of the social categories of gender, race, ethnicity and location creates structural inequality. Drawing upon narratives of Muslim, Tamil, Sinhalese and indigenous/Veder women catching and marketing fish in coastal Trincomalee, this chapter analyses how historical factors, such as population movements and war, have shaped the current realities and positions of women. Further, the chapter illustrates that, although a clear case can be made that certain groups of women are particularly disadvantaged at the intersection of ethnicity, caste and livelihood location, similarities in cultural gender norms across ethnic lines mean that the inequalities facing women may overshadow other identities.

    Although multiple inequalities affect these women’s daily lives and participation in activities, they are not passive victims; they use their own agency to negotiate for access to livelihoods. Nevertheless, the women engaged in various fishing-related activities who participated in this study appear to be completely invisible to the government fisheries management bodies. The resulting lack of institutional representation disadvantages these women in negotiations for space to engage in their livelihood activities. Registration of these women in coastal livelihoods would provide them with a first measure of recognition and empowerment, strengthening their chances of negotiating access to livelihood resources.

    With the ending of the three-decade-long civil war, changes have taken place in the main wholesale fish market in the conflict-affected coastal district of Trincomalee. These changes are reflected in the market structure and governance, as well as in the number and kinds of people inside the market. A marketplace that was formerly multi-ethnic and mixed gender has become dominated by male traders from the Sinhalese Buddhist ethnic majority group, excluding women and ethnic minority men. By focusing on the multiple masculinities of male wholesale dealers and their interactions with fishermen suppliers, Chapter 4 a) provides a nuanced analysis of the historical and contextual factors that shaped the political and economic hegemonising processes of the wholesale fish market; b) attempts to understand how, within this hegemonising process, the dealers embody and negotiate between overlapping ethno-nationalist, enterprising and patron–provider masculinities; and c) analyses how these diverse masculinities ultimately may contribute to the collapse of the gendered ethnic dominance at the market. This chapter adds nuance to the ethnicised discourse on war and livelihoods in Sri Lanka and globally. Further, the chapter also brings a masculinities approach to the study of contemporary maritime anthropology.

    Chapter 4 thus continues the focus on identities and attempts to understand ethnicity as socially constructed and as mediated by other forms of identity, such as gender, or, more specifically, through masculinities. Focusing on masculinities and the different subject positionalities of men at the wholesale market—a dimension that has been largely missing in Sri Lankan discourses on post-war livelihoods and identity—this chapter provides a nuanced analysis of how a unidimensional focus on ethnicity or gender is insufficient to explain the post-war power dynamics. It analyses how the embodiment and practice of masculinities, such as risk-taking entrepreneurs and dare-devil border guards, show both complicity with and resistance to political and economic domination or hegemony at a given point, and how this changes over time.

    The findings indicate that hierarchies of social and political power are dynamic. More specifically, the understanding of masculinity as plural, dynamic and negotiated, combined with the display of agentive power by subordinated or marginalised groups, results in hegemonies or structures of dominance that are continually shaped and reshaped at the everyday level. There are masculinities, rather than one way of doing masculinity. These different ways of doing masculinity challenge the dominant power structures and hierarchies.

    Chapter 5 focuses on a particular illegal fishing practice (disco net fishing) and examines how governance processes mitigate or exacerbate social tensions. The chapter centres on the interaction between formal and informal fisheries stakeholders and fishers, arguing that perceptions about the legitimacy of formal state actors in regulating fisheries strongly influence compliance behaviour. This chapter demonstrates that the perceived lack of legitimacy of the state in fisheries regulation was profoundly influenced by context and timing. The active interest taken by the state, aided by the military, in tightening fisheries regulation and enforcement measures after the end of the war violence was seen by the disco net fishermen as a strongly negative factor in their daily lives and livelihoods. When shared war-related violence forms the backdrop for state, non-state and citizen interactions and normative frameworks, negotiations regarding access to resources and regulatory efforts become not just a livelihood and resource management effort, but a broader and more sensitive political issue.

    Faced with the perceived failure of the state as a legitimate actor to regulate fisheries, Chapter 5 found that the disco net fishermen turn towards other forms of everyday politics, power dynamics and local legitimacies. However, these local legitimacies vary in how they manifest and draw power. Therefore, the contestations reported in this chapter are not simply about forum shopping between the formal state and informal community institutions and norms; rather, they are also about navigating within the formal and the informal rules of the game. The case of illegal fishing in this chapter clearly illustrates the need to understand fisheries governance issues as a manifestation of a larger problem at the level of state–society interaction, specifically regarding the legitimacy of the actors involved in governing fisheries in Trincomalee. Therefore, this chapter concludes that there is a need to understand and address fisheries governance issues as ‘wicked problems’ and as processes that need to go beyond conventional planning approaches.

    The concluding chapter of the thesis highlights five specific conclusions based on the findings presented in the previous chapters. First, the embedded nature of economic activities, such as those in fisheries, means that they are dynamic, time- and space-bound, and mediated by how men and women chose to embody and disembody morality, religiosity and competing or complementary value systems. These dynamisms in morality contribute to the social re/construction of fisheries as work. Second, in contexts such as Sri Lanka, where society is violently divided along different identity lines, especially that of ethnicity, inclusive and sustainable post-war rebuilding and meaningful community cohesion will require understanding that a) ethnic identity is socially constructed and mediated by the enactment of other identity categories; b) men and women use agentive power in accessing livelihoods, shaping and reshaping identity discourses through their livelihood activities; and c) hierarchies of power are dynamic in nature. Third, local-level legitimacies are as important as the electorally won, constitutionally accorded legitimacy of the state in resource governance. Consequently, discourses on state-building in post-war contexts need to pay careful attention to these legitimising processes, to how local-level legitimacies are shaped and reshaped, and to the influence of local-level legitimacies in strengthening or weakening state legitimacy. Fourth, continued legacies of war shape the lives of men and women. Fifth, the findings of this thesis add a granularity to the ongoing debate within post-war Sri Lanka on the different ways that social identities of men and women are (re)shaped through their access to livelihood opportunities and resources. Expanding the argument that economic institutions reshape gender at the individual, interactional and institutional levels, this thesis shows that economic institutions and activities shape the intersecting identities of men and women in complex ways, both in terms of how they see themselves and in the way they organise their social and political lives in the wider society.

    Challenges to city region research : A multi-disciplinary theoretical and empirical exploration
    Schaap, L. ; Colombo, C. ; Groenleer, M. ; Vries, J.R. de - \ 2016
    Tilburg University
    The A0 blood group genotype modifies the jejunal glycomic binding pattern profile of piglets early associated with a simple or complex microbiota
    Priori, D. ; Colombo, M. ; Koopmans, S.J. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Meulen, J. van der; Trevisi, P. ; Bosi, P. - \ 2016
    Journal of Animal Science 94 (2016)2. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 592 - 601.
    Blood groups - Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli - Glycosylation - Intestinal epithelium glycocalyx - Lactobacillus amylovorus - Pig

    The intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif is an important determinant of the bacterial-host interaction and may be affected in pigs by gut microbiota and by blood group genotype. The aim was to study the effect of intestinal association with different microbiota and A0 blood group genotypes on the expressed glycomic pattern in the small intestine. Twelve caesarean-derived pigs previously associated with a simple association (SA) or complex association (CA) microbiota were selected at 26 to 37 d of age. In each subject, different jejunal loops were perfused for 8 h with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC), ETEC fimbriae (F4), Lactobacillus amylovorus (LAM), or a saline control. The piglets were genotyped for A0 blood group and the glycomic profile was evaluated by microscopic screening of lectin binding: peanut agglutinin (PNA), which is galactose specific; Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA), which is fucose specific; Maackia amurensis lectin II (MALii), which is sialic acid specific; concavalin A, which is mannose specific; soybean agglutinin (SBA), which is N-acetyl-galactosamine specific; and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), which is N-acetyl-glucosamine specific. A0 pigs had fewer UEA-positive cells, MALii-positive cells (P <0.001), and SBA-positive cells (P <0.10) than 00 pigs. Simple association pigs had more SBA positive cells (P <0.01) than CA pigs. Enterotoxigenic E. coli K88-perfused intestinal loops had fewer UEA-positive cells (P <0.01) and WGA positive cells (P <0.001) cells and more PNA positive cells (only in SA pigs, P <0.01). No effects of introduction of F4 and LAM in the intestinal lumen were observed. The porcine A0 blood group genotype and the luminal presence of ETEC strongly affected the jejunal mucosa glycomic pattern profile whereas an early oral simple or complex microbial association had limited effects. Pig genetic background has relevance on the cross talk between intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif and ETEC and, ultimately, on the gut microbial colonization in later life.

    Current challenges in city-regional governance, understanding how innovative governance practices deal with basic questions of legitimacy, legality and policy learning
    Vries, J.R. de; Colombo, C. ; Karsten, N. ; Schaap, L. ; Ranchordas, S. - \ 2015
    Experimentation and hybridization are pervasive in city-regional governance. Administrations cope with the evolving necessities of their territories by adapting existing governance instruments, and by creating alternative ones. City-regional governance arrangements are also characterized by a high degree of interaction between different actors and elements, and are faced with questions of institutional, political and cultural integration, in cross-border contexts. Discussions on policy innovation addressing these challenges are well established in literature, but remain largely descriptive. Consequently, what is less understood is the co-evolution of city-regional governance and its basic legal, institutional and socio-political contexts. We argue that it is impossible to understand these evolutions of city-regional governance without having a good grasp of the underpinning notions, their utterances and corresponding roles. Within this broad context, we identify a set of basic challenges faced in governance practices. A first central question is how (democratic) legitimacy is interpreted in the policy-making processes through which new governance arrangements are being developed, and how it interacts with legality. A second question is how policy-makers, citizens, and experts foster institutional reforms within their overall legal and governance framework. Guided by these two tentative questions, the overall aim of our paper is to provide a theoretical exploration of the foundational mechanisms of city-regional law and governance. For this purpose, a critical review of the current literature on city-regional governance will be accompanied with illustrative examples taken from the most relevant experiences of city-regional governance in Western Europe.
    The (r)evolution of gene regulatory networks controlling Arabidopsis plant reproduction; a two decades history
    Pajoro, A. ; Biewers, S. ; Dougali, E. ; Valentim, F.L. ; Mendes, M.A. ; Porri, A. ; Coupland, G. ; Peer, Y. Van de; Dijk, A.D.J. van; Colombo, L. ; Davies, B. ; Angenent, G.C. - \ 2014
    Journal of Experimental Botany 65 (2014)17. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 4731 - 4745.
    floral organ identity - flowering-locus-t - mads-box genes - chromatin immunoprecipitation chip - domain transcription factors - cell-fate determination - short-vegetative-phase - homeotic gene - circadian clock - target genes
    Successful plant reproduction relies on the perfect orchestration of singular processes that culminate in the product of reproduction: the seed. The floral transition, floral organ development, and fertilization are well-studied processes and the genetic regulation of the various steps is being increasingly unveiled. Initially, based predominantly on genetic studies, the regulatory pathways were considered to be linear, but recent genome-wide analyses, using high-throughput technologies, have begun to reveal a different scenario. Complex gene regulatory networks underlie these processes, including transcription factors, microRNAs, movable factors, hormones, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Here we review recent progress in understanding the networks that control the major steps in plant reproduction, showing how new advances in experimental and computational technologies have been instrumental. As these recent discoveries were obtained using the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, we will restrict this review to regulatory networks in this important model species. However, more fragmentary information obtained from other species reveals that both the developmental processes and the underlying regulatory networks are largely conserved, making this review also of interest to those studying other plant species.
    Effects of a simple or a complex starter microbiota on the gastric transcriptome profile of caesarean derived piglets
    Priori, D. ; Colombo, M. ; Koopmans, S.J. ; Jansman, A.J.M. ; Schiavo, G. ; Trevisi, P. ; Bosi, P. - \ 2013
    In: Energy and protein metabolism and nutrition in sustainable animal production / Oltjein, J.W., Kebreab, E., Lapierre, H., Wageningen, The Netherlands : Wageningen Academic Publisher (134 ) - ISBN 9789086862276 - p. 295 - 296.
    Recent research suggests that early exposure of piglets to a diverse microbiota can shape the skills of gut-associated lymphoid tissue to respond to exogenous molecules (Lewis et al., 2012). In pig, a short encounter with a complex microbiota in the early life can be sufficient to influence the intestinal microbiota in the following weeks (Jansman et al., 2012). The priming effect of the complexity of the microbiota that enter the digestive tract, is not fully characterized. The gastric barrier of newborn piglets is not fully active and early contact with microbes can affect functional maturation of the stomach. Thus we aimed at evaluating the effect of complexity of starter microbiota on the gastric transcriptome profile of young pigs.
    An integrative model of the control of ovule primordia formation
    Galbiati, F. ; Sihna Roy, D. ; Simonini, S. ; Cucinotta, M. ; Ceccato, L. ; Cuesta, C. ; Simaskova, M. ; Benkova, E. ; Kamiuchi, Y. ; Aida, M. ; Weijers, D. ; Simon, R. ; Masiero, S. ; Colombo, L. - \ 2013
    The Plant Journal 76 (2013)3. - ISSN 0960-7412 - p. 446 - 455.
    dependent auxin gradients - arabidopsis-thaliana - transcription factor - pattern-formation - early sporogenesis - direct target - gene - cytokinin - gynoecium - aintegumenta
    Upon hormonal signaling, ovules develop as lateral organs from the placenta. Ovule numbers ultimately determine the number of seeds that develop, and thereby contribute to the final seed yield in crop plants. We demonstrate here that CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 (CUC1), CUC2 and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) have additive effects on ovule primordia formation. We show that expression of the CUC1 and CUC2 genes is required to redundantly regulate expression of PINFORMED1 (PIN1), which in turn is required for ovule primordia formation. Furthermore, our results suggest that the auxin response factor MONOPTEROS (MP/ARF5) may directly bind ANT, CUC1 and CUC2 and promote their transcription. Based on our findings, we propose an integrative model to describe the molecular mechanisms of the early stages of ovule development.
    An ecosystem services approach to water and food security
    Boelee, E. ; Chiramba, T. ; Khaka, E. ; Andreini, M. ; Atapattu, S. ; Barchiesi, S. ; Baron, J. ; Beveridge, M. ; Bindraban, P. - \ 2011
    Colombo : UNEP (Job number: DEP/1371/NA ) - ISBN 9789280731521 - 66
    ecosysteemdiensten - voedselzekerheid - waterzekerheid - ecosystem services - food security - water security
    Ecosystems for water and food security
    Boelee, E. ; Atapattu, S. ; Barron, J. ; Bindraban, P. ; Bunting, S.W. ; Coates, D. ; Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Eriyagama, N. ; Finlayson, M. ; Gordon, L. - \ 2011
    Colombo : UNEP (Job Number: DEPI/1392/NA ) - ISBN 9789280731705 - 194
    ecosysteemdiensten - voedselzekerheid - waterzekerheid - ecosystem services - food security - water security
    Semiempirical modeling of abiotic and biotic factors controlling ecosystem respiration across eddy covariance sites
    Migliavacca, M. ; Reichstein, M. ; Richardson, A.D. ; Colombo, R. ; Sutton, M.A. ; Lasslop, G. ; Tomelleri, E. ; Wohlfahrt, G. ; Carvalhais, N. ; Molen, M.K. van der - \ 2011
    Global Change Biology 17 (2011)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 390 - 409.
    forest soil respiration - carbon-dioxide exchange - water-vapor exchange - deciduous forest - european forests - heterotrophic components - rhizosphere respiration - terrestrial ecosystems - litter decomposition - nitrogen deposition
    In this study we examined ecosystem respiration (RECO) data from 104 sites belonging to FLUXNET, the global network of eddy covariance flux measurements. The goal was to identify the main factors involved in the variability of RECO: temporally and between sites as affected by climate, vegetation structure and plant functional type (PFT) (evergreen needleleaf, grasslands, etc.). We demonstrated that a model using only climate drivers as predictors of RECO failed to describe part of the temporal variability in the data and that the dependency on gross primary production (GPP) needed to be included as an additional driver of RECO. The maximum seasonal leaf area index (LAIMAX) had an additional effect that explained the spatial variability of reference respiration (the respiration at reference temperature Tref515 1C, without stimulation introduced by photosynthetic activity and without water limitations), with a statistically significant linear relationship (r250.52, Po0.001, n5104) even within each PFT. Besides LAIMAX, we found that reference respiration may be explained partially by total soil carbon content (SoilC). For undisturbed temperate and boreal forests a negative control of total nitrogen deposition (Ndepo) on reference respiration was also identified. We developed a new semiempirical model incorporating abiotic factors (climate), recent productivity (daily GPP), general site productivity and canopy structure (LAIMAX) which performed well in predicting the spatio-temporal variability of RECO, explaining 470% of the variance for most vegetation types. Exceptions include tropical and Mediterranean broadleaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests. Part of the variability in respiration that could not be described by our model may be attributed to a series of factors, including phenology in deciduous broadleaf forests and management practices in grasslands and croplands
    Subsididal discharge division at a shallow tidal junction connecting delta distributary channnels
    Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Buschman, F.A. ; Vegt, M. van der; Hoekstra, P. - \ 2010
    Ocean-shelf exchange through the Berau barrier reef, Indonesia
    Tarya, A. ; Hoitink, A.J.F. ; Vegt, M. van der - \ 2010
    In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Biennial Physics of Estuaries and Coastal Seas conference : Coastal and estuarine observations and modelling. - Colombo, Sri Lanka : PECS - p. 230 - 234.
    The present study aims to investigate the ocean-shelf exchange through a barrier reef at the shelf edge of the Berau Continental Shelf, Indonesia. Moored and shipboard measurements on currents and turbulence were taken as part of the multidisciplinary East Kalimantan Research Program. These measurements, and collected data on sea levels, meteorology and bathymetry, were used to setup and calibrate a threedimensional hydrodynamic model in the ECOMSED environment, which is derived from the Princeton Ocean Model. The data and model results were first used to study the tidal propagation and mean circulation patterns on the entire Berau Shelf. The diurnal and semidiurnal tides propagate across the isobaths towards the coast, where amplitudes increase. Tide-induced mean currents dominate over monsoon-driven currents, and feature a southward transport pattern close to the coast and a northward transport patterns at 10 to 20 meters depth. Next, the river plume behaviour is studied. Key factors controlling the river plume behavior include advection of stratified waters by the subtidal motion and mixing, which inhibits the stratified region to extend beyond the reef region. The tides drive freshwater in northeastern direction, towards the reef area. The model is subsequently refined and used to study the exchange of water via the reef gaps and over the reef flats in detail. Moored ADCP data reveal extremely large roughness heights in the reef passages and reef flats. These limit the exchange of tidal energy to some degree, acting as a control on sea level gradients over the reefs. Shipboard ADCP measurements across the reef passages show that the spatial structure of velocity data exhibits features of a classical plane jet generated by strong tidal flows. There is a persistent asymmetry between the ebb and flood flow structures. The flow in the center of the reef passage is often opposed to the flow near the reef boundaries. Both data and model results averaged over a tidal period suggest a net flow from ocean to shelf at the shallow reef flats and from shelf to ocean through a deep reef gap
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