Improving access to research outcomes for innovation in agriculture and forestry: the VALERIE project
Bechini, Luca ; Koenderink, N.J.J.P. ; Berge, H.F.M. ten; Corre, W.J. ; Evert, F.K. van; Ruijter, F.J. de; Willems, D.J.M. ; Zandstra, Anneke ; Top, J.L. - \ 2017
Italian Journal of Agronomy 12 (2017)2. - ISSN 1125-4718 - p. 85 - 95.
Ontology - Virtual assistant
Many excellent results are obtained in agricultural and forestry research projects, but their practical adoption is often limited. The aim of the European project VALERIE is to increase the transfer and application of innovations produced by research in agriculture and forestry, by facilitating their integration into management practices. The project is still ongoing and the results illustrated in this paper are still temporary and subject to being improved. Here we present the methodology used in VALERIE to extract and summarise knowledge for innovation from research documents with the aim of making it available to final users through ask-Valerie.eu; we also report on current progress. The tasks associated with extracting and summarising knowledge are centred on: i) ontology; ii) a document base; and iii) a system (ask-Valerie.eu) that allows users to effectively search the document base. Ontology defines a set of concepts and the relations between them. The VALERIE ontology is built by experts in the agricultural and forestry domain and contains 6169 concepts (21st October 2016). The document base is the collection of documents in which the system searches. The VALERIE document base includes scientific and practical documents derived from various sources, written in any of a number of languages. All documents contained in the document base are annotated using the ontology: each term (a word or a short phrase) in the document that matches a concept in the VALERIE-ontology is linked to that concept. Annotation is an automated process that takes place whenever a document is added to the document base. The document base contains 4278 documents (October 2016). Among them, there are 201 mini-factsheets written by members of the VALERIE project, each describing an innovation with: a short description of the innovation, a list of correlated projects, and some links to scientific and practical documents. ask-Valerie.eu searches documents and fragments of text from the document base that address the user’s query. ask-Valerie.eu mimics the dialogue between a practitioner and an expert and achieves this functionality by: i) supporting the practitioner in articulating the question (it completes terms that the user starts to type and suggests other possibly relevant terms); ii) expanding the query using synonyms; iii) extracting and ranking text fragments from the documents.
|Sustainable protein production with microalgae : A chain approach
Sijtsma, L. ; Kootstra, A.M.J. ; Dijk, W. ; Blanco, A. ; Kamermans, P. ; Corre, W.J. ; Mulder, W.J. ; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Rijk, P.J. - \ 2016
Spatial analysis of sustainable biogas production from agricultural residues in selected countries : Deliverable nº: 6.2.3
Conijn, J.G. ; Corre, W.J. ; Rutgers, B. - \ 2016
HYSOL project - 59 p.
Non-renewable energy use and GHG emissions of biogas production and utilisation : Deliverable nº: 6.2.2
Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2016
HYSOL project - 33 p.
Biogas production and digestate utilisation from agricultural residues : deliverable nº: 6.2.1
Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2016
HYSOL project - 39
renewable energy - anaerobic digestion - biogas - crop residues - agricultural wastes - sustainable energy - electricity supplies - innovations - biobased economy - fermentation - digestate - hernieuwbare energie - anaërobe afbraak - biogas - oogstresten - agrarische afvalstoffen - duurzame energie - elektriciteitsvoorzieningen - innovaties - biobased economy - fermentatie - digestaat
The HYSOL project aims at hybridisation of concentrated solar power with a gas turbine in order to guarantee a stable and reliable electricity supply, based on renewable energy. The production of fully renewable electricity in a Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) plant includes the use of renewable gas. In task 6.2 of the HYSOL project research into the possibilities of sustainable biogas production from agricultural residues by anaerobic digestion has been performed. In this report results are described of part of this research focussing on potential biogas production and digestate production and utilisation from animal manure and crop residues.
NUTGRANJA 2.0 : a simple mass balance model to explore the effects of different management strategies on nitrogen and greenhouse gases losses and soil phosphorus changes in dairy farms
Prado, A. del; Corré, W.J. ; Gallejones, P. ; Pardo, G. ; Pinto, M. ; Hierro, O. del; Oenema, O. - \ 2016
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 21 (2016)7. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 1145 - 1164.
Ammonia volatilisation - CH - Dairy farm - GHG - Grasslands - Leaching - Model - NO - Nitrogen - Phosphorus
Farm nutrient management has been identified as one of the most important factors determining the economic and environmental performance of dairy cattle (Bos taurus) farming systems. Given the environmental problems associated with dairy farms, such as emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and the complex interaction between farm management, environment and genetics, there is a need to develop robust tools which enable scientists and policy makers to study all these interactions. This paper describes the development of a simple model called NUTGRANJA 2.0 to evaluate GHG emissions and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from dairy farms. NUTGRANJA 2.0 is an empirical mass-balance model developed in order to simulate the main transfers and flows of N and P through the different stages of the dairy farm management. A model sensitivity test was carried out to explore some of the sensitivities of the model in relation to the simulation of GHG and N emissions. This test indicated that both management (e.g. milk yield per cow, annual fertiliser N rate) and site-specific factors (e.g. % clover (Trifolium) in the sward, soil type, and % land slope) had a large effect on most of the model state variables studied (e.g. GHG and N losses).
Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power
Corré, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2016
In: Procedia Computer Science. - Elsevier - p. 1126 - 1133.
agricultural residues - biogas - biomethane - GHG emission - HCSP - non-renewable energy use - soil organic matter
This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to biomethane and injection into the gas grid for transport and storage. Using biogas from agricultural residues results in efficient reduction of non-renewable energy use and especially GHG emission, due to the avoidance of methane emission from manure storage. The net biomethane production from agricultural residues in EU-27 can potentially reach approximately 29,000 Mm3, sufficient to supply 320 CSP plants with a capacity of 100 MWe with HYSOL technology, producing 55% of the electricity from gas. The uncertainties concerning the production potential are large.
Comparing biobased products from oil crops versus sugar crops with regard to non-renewable energy use, GHG emissions and land use
Bos, Harriëtte L. ; Meesters, Koen P.H. ; Conijn, Sjaak G. ; Corré, Wim J. ; Patel, Martin K. - \ 2016
Industrial Crops and Products 84 (2016). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 366 - 374.
Agricultural co- products - Bio-products - Land use - LCA - Oil crops
Non-renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use of two biobased products and biofuel from oil crops is investigated and compared with products from sugar crops. In a bio-based economy chemicals, materials and energy carriers will be produced from biomass. Next to side streams, also vegetable oils and sugars are expected to become important resources for these products. Application of these resources calls for effective resource use, with minimal environmental impacts. In this paper we study a number of available options and their trade-offs. Use of vegetable oils in a chemical and a resin results in a higher reduction of non- renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than their use as biodiesel. Furthermore, similar savings in environmental impact per unit of land can be reached by products from either oil or sugar crops as transportation fuel, but the sugar crops, applied in chemicals or bioplastics outcompete the oil crops.
Accounting for co-products in energy use, greenhouse gas emission savings and land use of biodiesel production from vegetable oils
Corré, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2016
Industrial Crops and Products 80 (2016). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 220 - 227.
Biodiesel - Energy use - GHG emission - Land use - LCA - Oil crops
Accounting for co-products of vegetable oil production is essential in reviewing the sustainability of biodiesel production, especially since oil crops produce valuable protein-rich co-products in different quantities and qualities. Two accounting methods, allocation on the basis of energy content and system expansion, are compared. Significant differences in results exist between the methods where system expansion is to be preferred because it can take actual use of co-products into account. Results are very sensitive to the choices made in system expansion. Differences can be large, especially between a system expansion where primarily the use of co-products of the oil crops is taken into account and an expansion that also includes direct oil exchange of the vegetable oil used for biodiesel for the marginal oil in the market.
|Duurzame eiwitproductie met micro-algen: Een ketenbenadering
Sijtsma, L. ; Dijk, Willem van; Kamermans, P. ; Corre, W.J. ; Mulder, W.J. ; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E. ; Janssens, S.R.M. ; Rijk, P.J. - \ 2015
In the search for alternative protein sources microalgae may play an important role. The productivity of algae is high and they do not compete for expensive land with the production of food or feed. Furthermore, algae in general contain up to 50% proteins which, upon relevant processing, can be a potential source for food, feed and non-food applications. However, research in this field is not extensive and specific protein applications are not known. Our current research objectives include:
1.Overview of the market and business opportunities
2.Development of a sustainable algae protein production chain: Relation between natural algae harvest technology and nutrient or biomass conversion yields
Erosion and sedimentation effects on soil : organic carbon redistribution in a complex landscape of western Ecuador
Corre, M.D. ; Schoorl, J.M. ; Koning, F. de; López-Ulloa, M. ; Veldkamp, E. - \ 2015
In: Land-use change impacts on soil processes : Tropical and savannah ecosystems / Brearley, F.O., Thomas, A.D., Oxfordshire, UK : CAB International - ISBN 9781780642109 - p. 108 - 121.
This study was conducted to evaluate how land-use changes affect the distribution of SOC within a complex tropical landscape through the processes of erosion and sedimentation. The objectives were: (i) to estimate the present SOC storage at a landscape scale using predictors such as slope, elevation, texture, land-use type and landscape position; (ii) to estimate soil redistribution under the present land-use conditions and under different land-use change scenarios using an erosion-sedimentation model; and (iii) to estimate the redistribution of SOC caused by erosion-sedimentation processes and its effect on landscape-scale SOC stocks. Implications for land-use policy options for the study area are also discussed. The study was conducted in the southern part of Manabi province in western Ecuador where 12 sites were selected in each of the three land-use systems (36 sites in total) to represent the two major physiographic soil units. The main agricultural land uses are coffee-agroforestry systems, pastures and upland rice fields. Using a general linear model with backward stepwise elimination, a model was developed for predicting SOC stocks (as the dependent variable) using the following regulatory factors (independent variables): elevation, slope, texture (as continuous variables), land-use type and soil-landform class (as categorical variables). Results showed that the significant variables that explained SOC stocks at the landscape scale were: elevation (P<0.01), texture (sand) (P<0.05), land-use type (LU1 = coffee-agroforestry; LU2 = pasture) (P<0.05), and soil-landform class (SL1 = lowland soils) (P<0.01), as reflected in the regression model. The highest SOC stocks (in the south-east corner of the area) were found in lowland soils on river valleys, river terraces and lower hills, whereas lower values were found in upland soils on higher landscape positions (north-west corner of the area). SOC stocks in the top 25 cm depth ranged from 30-87 Mg C ha-1 and the area-weighted mean was 63.6 Mg C ha-1. The SOC map illustrates that the actual SOC stocks were strongly related to topography and topography-related soil textural classes, suggesting that topography-driven water erosion and sedimentation processes play an important role in this landscape. Soil erosion losses and sedimentation gains showed stark contrasts among the four land-use change scenarios. SOC redistribution in the landscape, caused by land-use change effects on erosion and sedimentation, showed the highest impact in clay soil zones on depositional lower landscape positions and in lowland soils on river terraces, whereas the lowest impact was found in sand and loam soils on upper landscape positions.
Nitrate leaching and apparent recovery of urine-N in grassland on sandy soils in the Netherlands
Corré, W.J. ; Beek, C.L. van; Groenigen, J.W. van - \ 2014
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 70-71 (2014). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 25 - 32.
nitrogen - groundwater - lysimeter - dynamics - ammonia - losses - system - input
Urine patches are an important nitrogen input source in managed pasture systems. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of artificial urine application at different dates on nitrate leaching in a well drained sandy soil. In three subsequent years, we measured nitrate leaching and apparent urine-nitrogen recovery (ANR) in a field experiment and in two lysimeter experiments over a period of 1 year post urine application. Artificial urine patches with 400 kg ha-1of urine-N were applied at different times of the grazing seasons. For the field experiment, we compared nitrate leaching measurements with NURP model calculations. In the field experiment, greatest ANR was measured for spring and summer applications (averaging 31% of applied urine-N), and significantly declined to 0% for October applications. Nitrate leaching increased under urine patches, with a significant effect of application date. This effect was not, however, consistent over the three years. Total recovery of N in grass and of mineral N in leachate and soil was generally less than the amount of urine-N applied, with a balance deficit of 60-80% (field) or 10-70% (lysimeters). For the field experiment, the total increase in nitrate leaching corresponded reasonably well with NURP model calculations. However, the effect of application date on nitrate leaching was much smaller in the field experiment. Our results suggest that restrictions to grazing in autumn probably will be effective in decreasing the annual amount of nitrate leached, although this decrease remains hard toquantify.
Evaluation of the Effect of Agricultural Management on Energy Yield and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction of Bioenergy Production Chains
Conijn, S. ; Corre, W.J. ; Langeveld, H. ; Davies, J.A.R. - \ 2014
Natural Resources 5 (2014). - ISSN 2158-7086 - p. 322 - 335.
The role of energy crops in reducing fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is much debated. To improve decision making on the use of crops for producing bioenergy, a tool (Energy Crop Simulation Model or E-CROP) has been developed to calculate 1) sustainable crop dry matter yield levels as function of agricultural inputs, and 2) gross and net energy yield and greenhouse gas emission reduction, covering the entire bioenergy production chain from sowing to distribution of bioenergy. E-CROP can be applied to a wide range of crops, soils, climatic conditions, management choices, and conversion technologies. This paper describes E-CROP and focuses on its application on four arable crops, as cultivated on two contrasting sites in the Netherlands (potato and sugar beet for bioethanol, winter oilseed rape for biodiesel and silage maize for bioelectricity) and on the effect of crop management (viz. irrigation and nitrogen fertilisation). In all situations, gross energy output exceeded total energy input. Calculated for an average situation, net energy yield ranged from 45 to 140 GJ·ha-1. Lowering irrigation and/or fertilisation input levels generally resulted in a reduction of net energy yields. The net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the average situation ranged from 0.60 to 6.5 t CO2-eq·ha-1. In general, N2O emission from nitrogen fertiliser caused large variations in the net reduction of greenhouse gas emission, which even became negative in some situations. Lowering nitrogen fertilisation to levels that are suboptimal for net energy yields enhanced the net reduction in greenhouse gas emission, implicating that both goals cannot be optimised simultaneously. Agricultural knowledge is important for optimising the outputs of bioenergy production chains.
Trend monitoring of the areal extent of habitats in a subsiding coastal area by spatial probability sampling
Brus, D.J. ; Slim, P.A. ; Heidema, A.H. ; Dobben, H.F. van - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 45 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 313 - 319.
design - diversity - soil - resources - space - time
The European Habitats Directive requires a regular reporting of areal changes of the Habitat types definedunder this Directive. To monitor changes in Habitat types in a dune and salt meadow area in the easternpart of the back-barrier island of Ameland (The Netherlands) a sampling scheme was designed suitablefor both unbiased estimation of such changes and for mapping the Habitat types. As a space–time designa supplemented panel was chosen, with a proportion of permanent plots of 0.5. Sampling plots wereselected by probability sampling, with sampling designs that spread the plots evenly over the study area.These design decisions are motivated in the paper. Eight vegetation types were distinguished, corre-sponding to six Habitat types. The areal extent of the ‘grey dunes’ type significantly decreased over theobservation period, whereas the extents of two ‘salt meadow’ types significantly increased. This has tobe considered as a loss of habitat quality. It is doubtful whether for the Natura 2000 area in its entirety,wherein we expect smaller rates of change compared to our study area, it will be possible to detect arealchanges in Habitat types at acceptable costs and within the requested six-year periods. The supplementedpanel design performed nearly equal to a pure panel design (all plots permanent) in terms of precisionof estimated linear trends, but was by far superior to an independent synchronous design with all plotschanging.
Duurzaamheid van biobased producten uit plantaardige olie: energiegebruik en broeikasgasemissie
Bos, H.L. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Patel, M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - ISBN 9789461737045 - 52
chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biodiesel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levenscyclusanalyse - plantaardige oliën - energiegebruik - broeikasgassen - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - biodiesel - sustainability - life cycle assessment - plant oils - energy consumption - greenhouse gases
Dit boek gaat in op een vergelijking van producten uit natuurlijke olie. Drie oliegewassen zijn in de studie vergeleken: oliepalm, koolzaad en soja. Uit deze gewassen kan een veelheid van biobased producten gemaakt worden: biodiesel, polyol voor polyurethaan en harsen zijn in de studie als eindproduct omschreven. Voor alle onderzochte producten geldt, dat vervanging van een fossiel product door een vergelijkbaar biobased product leidt tot een verlaging van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en van het gebruik van fossiele energie.
Sustainability aspects of biobased products : comparison of different crops and products from the vegetable oil platform
Meesters, K.P.H. ; Corré, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Patel, M.K. ; Bos, H.L. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1441) - ISBN 9789461739827 - 68
oil plants - plant oils - palm oils - soyabean oil - rapeseed oil - sustainability - sustainability indicators - renewable energy - greenhouse gases - land use - biobased economy - biofuels - biopolymers - olieleverende planten - plantaardige oliën - palmoliën - sojaolie - raapzaadolie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsindicatoren - hernieuwbare energie - broeikasgassen - landgebruik - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - biopolymeren
This study focusses on the production of vegetable oil based products. A limited number of aspacts of the sustainability of the full chain (from agriculture to product at the factory gate) was evaluated. Three different vegetable oils were taken into account: palm oil, soy oil and rapeseed oil. Also three different products made from vegetable oil were evaluated: biodiesel, polyol (a raw material for production of PU foams) and resin. In the present study, sustainability of these products was evaluated through the following parameters: Non-Renewable Energy Usage (NREU) (GJ per ton of product); Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions (ton CO2-equivalent per ton of product); Land use (ha/ton vegetable oil) and NREU and GHG emission avoided (GJ or ton CO2-equivalent per hectare of land).
Accounting for the constrained availability of land: a comparison of bio-based ethanol, polyethylene, and PLA with regard to non-renewable energy use and land use
Bos, H.L. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Corre, W.J. ; Pate, E. - \ 2012
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 6 (2012)2. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 146 - 158.
In a bio-based economy, chemicals, materials, biofuels, and other forms of energy will be produced from biomass. Pressure on agricultural land will thus increase, calling for highly efficient solutions in terms of land use, with minimal environmental impacts. In order to gain better insight into the available options and their trade-offs, this perspective studies the production of polylactic acid (PLA), bioethanol, and bio-based polyethylene (PE) from wheat, maize, sugarbeet, sugarcane, and Miscanthus. While in current agricultural practice some plants are harvested and used as whole crop (e.g. Miscanthus), for others only part of the plant is used, with the remainder being returned to the field (e.g. wheat straw). In order to obtain an understanding of the unused potential we assume as default case that all agricultural residues and processing co-products are used for energy purposes, thereby replacing non-renewable energy. We conclude that this agricultural practice would allow to substantially reduce non-renewable energy use (NREU). We also find a clear difference in ranking depending on whether we study (i) NREU per (metric) tonne of product or (ii) Avoided NREU per hectare of land. The latter seems a suitable choice in a world where land availability is limited. In this case, we identify PLA as the preferred choice, irrespective of the type of crop. The production of ethanol for the replacement of fuels scores as the worst option for all crops. For each of the products studied, sugarcane offers the highest savings per hectare followed by sugarbeet
The need for and the requirements of EuroSL, an electronic taxonomic reference list for all European plants
Dengler, J. ; Berendsohn, W.G. ; Bergmeier, E. ; Schaminee, J.H.J. - \ 2012
Biodiversity & Ecology 4 (2012). - ISSN 1613-9801 - p. 15 - 24.
Biodiversity informatics has experienced tremendous developments in the last 15 years. There are now comprehensive online checklists for plant taxa as well as many large plant-taxon related databases, including the vegetation-plot databases registered in the Global Index of Vegetation-Plot Databases (GIVD; http://www.givd.info). However, efficient maintenance, analysis, and inte-gration of these databases are still much impeded by the failure of presently available electronic taxonomic reference lists of plants to fully meet the requirements of such applications. Here we outline the principal specifications of an electronic taxonomic reference list for Europe (“EuroSL” = European standard list of plant taxa) and identify features not met in current practice. EuroSL should cover all macroscopic taxa of vascular plants, bryophytes, lichens, and algae that occur in European vegetation in a uniform database, irrespec-tive of their floristic status (e.g. native, archaeophyte, neophyte, casual). The adoption of informal aggregates is essential to cover de-viating species concepts and to capture legacy data. EuroSL should not only assign names but also match taxonomic concepts. This task cannot be fully automated, as the same correctly applied taxon name can have different meanings depending on the taxonomic concept applied. In order to be a useful tool, EuroSL would need to be better documented than most existing electronic checklists and be released in fixed versions. Every subsequent version should contain an unambiguous connection linking each taxon to the corre-sponding unit in the previous version. We identify possible components of EuroSL, of which Euro+Med PlantBase, the recent Euro-pean checklists of bryophytes, and the taxonomic crosswalks between various national Turboveg checklists collected for SynBioSys Europe, are the major ones. Concepts developed for GermanSL might be adopted for EuroSL, but implemented in a software frame-work that is yet to be developed from existing tools. Such a framework would allow documented editing of the content by specialists distributed across Europe. To become successful, EuroSL would require intensive collaboration between taxonomists, ecologists and biodiversity informaticians, as well as appropriate funding. Establishing EuroSL would dramatically enhance the usability and reliabil-ity of plant-taxon related databases in Europe for the purposes of pure and applied research and conservation legislation. Its develop-ment should therefore be of highest priority
Economic and environmental performance of oilseed cropping systems for biodiesel production : existing cultivation practices in the European Union
Conijn, J.G. ; Corre, W.J. ; Ruijter, F.J. de - \ 2011
Wageningen : Plant Research International Wageningen UR, Business Unit Agrosystems (Report / Plant Research International 418) - 61
biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - broeikasgassen - emissie - olieleverende planten - teelt - akkerbouw - europese unie - biodiesel - energiegebruik - biofuels - biobased economy - greenhouse gases - emission - oil plants - cultivation - arable farming - european union - biodiesel - energy consumption
The Ecodiesel project aims at a drastic improvement of the GHG emission of current biodiesel production in the EU. If the biodiesel is produced from crops, the way the crop is cultivated at the farm is very important because calculations have shown that the emission from crop cultivation have a large effect on the total chein performance. This reports aims at a description of the baseline of oilcrop cultivation, i.e. the existing practices in the EU27 and the associated economic and environmental performance, notably energy use and GHG emission.
|Bioethanol: sugar beet, sugar cane or second generation?
Corré, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. - \ 2011
In: Proceedings First European Society of Sugar Technology Conference. - Berlin : Bartens Verlag - p. 79 - 89.