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Combined effects of nanoplastics and copper on the freshwater alga Raphidocelis subcapitata
Bellingeri, A. ; Bergami, E. ; Grassi, G. ; Faleri, C. ; Redondo Hasselerharm, P.E. ; Koelmans, A.A. ; Corsi, I. - \ 2019
Aquatic Toxicology 210 (2019). - ISSN 0166-445X - p. 179 - 187.
Nanoplastics are recognized as able to interact with other pollutants including heavy metals, and with natural organic matter, with implications for the potential risks to biota. We investigated the interaction of carboxylated polystyrene nanoparticles (PS–COOH NPs) with copper (Cu) and algal exudates (EPS) and how such interaction could affect Cu toxicity towards the freshwater microalga Raphidocelis subcapitata. PS–COOH NPs behavior in the presence of Cu and EPS was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), while PS–COOH NPs surface interaction with Cu ions and EPS was investigated by fluorimetric analysis. ICP-MS was used to test Cu ion adsorption to PS–COOH NPs in the presence and absence of algae. The interaction between PS–COOH NPs and the algal cell wall was assessed by fluorescence microscopy. Short- and long-term toxicity tests were carried out in parallel to assess the impact of PS–COOH NPs on algal growth. Results showed altered nanoparticle surface charge and hydrodynamic diameter following algal EPS exposure, supporting the hypothesis of a protein corona formation. In contrast, no absorption of Cu ions was observed on PS–COOH NPs, either in the presence or absence of algae. No differences on algal growth inhibition were observed between exposure to Cu only, and to Cu in combination with PS–COOH NPs, in short-term as well as long-term tests. However, after 72 h of exposure, the adsorption of PS-COOH NPs to algal cell walls appeared to correspond to morphological alterations, revealing potential disturbances in the mitotic cycle. Our findings confirm the ability of PS–COOH NPs to interact with EPS as shown for other nanomaterials. Environmentally realistic exposure scenarios are thus needed for evaluating nanoplastic toxicity, as nanoparticles will not maintain their pristine nature once released into natural media. Prolonged exposure and use of different end-points such as cell morphological changes and EPS production seem more reliable for the investigation of nanoplastic/algal cell interactions which can drive food chain transfer of nanoplastics and ultimately toxicity.
Food beyond the city - Analysing foodsheds and self-sufficiency for different food system scenarios in European metropolitan regions
Zasada, Ingo ; Schmutz, Ulrich ; Wascher, Dirk ; Kneafsey, Moya ; Corsi, Stefano ; Mazzocchi, Chiara ; Monaco, Federica ; Boyce, Peter ; Doernberg, Alexandra ; Sali, Guido ; Piorr, Annette - \ 2019
City, Culture and Society 16 (2019). - ISSN 1877-9166 - p. 25 - 35.
The debate on urban resilience and metabolism has directed increasing attention to the ecological footprint of food consumption, self-sufficiency as a means of food security, and regionalisation of food systems for shortening supply chains. Recently, metropolitan regions have proposed food policies that aim to foster local food systems connected to their cities. Our research thus focused on the relationship between urban food demand and metropolitan land use.We have developed the Metropolitan Foodshed and Self-sufficiency Scenario (MFSS) model, which combines regional food consumption and agricultural production parameters in a data-driven approach to assess the spatial extent of foodsheds as well as the theoretical self-sufficiency of the communities they serve. The model differentiates between food groups, food production systems, levels of food loss and waste as well as food origin. With regard to future urban growth, we applied the model to current and future population projections.Results show substantial variations in the spatial extent of metropolitan foodsheds and self-sufficiency levels between the case study regions London, Berlin, Milan and Rotterdam, depending on population density and distribution, geographical factors and proximity to neighbouring urban agglomerations. The application of the model as a food planning tool offers a new perspective on the potential role of metropolitan regions for strengthening urban self-sufficiency. It also enables the ex-ante assessment of spatial consequences of changes within metropolitan food systems, on both demand and supply sides. In particular, we discuss possible dietary and consumption changes, but also production and supply chain alternatives.
Food production and consumption : City regions between localism, agricultural land displacement, and economic competitiveness
Monaco, Federica ; Zasada, Ingo ; Wascher, Dirk ; Glavan, Matjaž ; Pintar, Marina ; Schmutz, Ulrich ; Mazzocchi, Chiara ; Corsi, Stefano ; Sali, Guido - \ 2017
Sustainability 9 (2017)1. - ISSN 2071-1050
Economic model - Land displacement - Localism - Metropolitan areas - Urban agro-food systems
In the wider debate on urban resilience and metabolism, food-related aspects have gained increasing importance. At the same time, urban agro-food systems in city regions are facing major challenges with regard to often limited domestic supplies, resource-intensive producer-consumer relationships, and the competition for low-price products via global food chains. In this sense, novel methods for coupling local and global processes are required to better understand the underlying mechanisms between the above factors. Exploring the relationship between food supply and demand, this study presents a set of suitable fact-finding tools that are introduced and applied in a comparative study of five European city regions. The methodological framework, by introducing and combining economic-based indexes, aims at overcoming limits and gaps identified by means of a literature review. The model will explicitly address the main features of the regional agro-food systems by managing information on the capacities and opportunities of local agriculture to adequately respond to food demand, as well as by providing insights on the interconnections among localism, global competitiveness of agricultural sectors, and land use change.
Metropolitan Foodsheds as Spatial References for a Landscape-Based Assessment of Regional Food Supply
Wascher, D.M. ; Eupen, M. van; Corsi, S. ; Sali, G. ; Zasada, I. - \ 2016
In: Agriculture in an Urbanizing Society Volume One:. - Newcastle upon Tyne : Cambridge Scholars Publicing - ISBN 9781443894746 - p. 31 - 58.
The Food Planning and Innovation for Sustainable Metropolitan Regions (FOODMETRES) project strives to assess the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of food chains, with regard to the spatial, logistical, and resource dimensions of growing food as well as the questions of food safety and quality as key assets for food planning and governance. Recognizing that food production and consumption are not only linked via food chains in a physical–logistic way, but above all via value chains of social acceptance, FoodMetres is designed to combine quantitative and evidence-based research principles with qualitative and discursive methods, in order to address the wider dimensions of food chains in the context of metropolitan agro-systems. One of the research assets is to assess the location and amount of agriculturally productive land within reach of urban centers, to supply metropolitan populations with regionally grown food. For this purpose, we have developed an accessibility approach that is specifically designed to examine the potential of Metropolitan Agro-Food Systems (MAS) to feed urban populations. Taking into account data on transport infrastructure and land cover as well as the protection status of land, this paper highlights the results for the test cases of Ljubljana, Berlin, London, Milano, and Rotterdam.
Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation, and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century
Unsworth, John B. ; Corsi, Camilla ; Emon, Jeanette M. Van; Farenhorst, Annemieke ; Hamilton, Denis J. ; Howard, Cody J. ; Hunter, Robert ; Jenkins, Jeffrey J. ; Kleter, Gijs A. ; Kookana, Rai S. ; Lalah, Joseph O. ; Leggett, Michael ; Miglioranza, Karina S.B. ; Miyagawa, Hisashi ; Peranginangin, Natalia ; Rubin, Baruch ; Saha, Bipul ; Shakil, Najam A. - \ 2016
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64 (2016)1. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 52 - 60.
communications - crop protection - developing regions - GM crops - nanopesticides - smart systems - stewardship - sustainable agriculture - training leaders - universities - women in agriculture
To provide sufficient food and fiber to the increasing global population, the technologies associated with crop protection are growing ever more sophisticated but, at the same time, societal expectations for the safe use of crop protection chemistry tools are also increasing. The goal of this perspective is to highlight the key issues that face future leaders in crop protection, based on presentations made during a symposium titled "Developing Global Leaders for Research, Regulation and Stewardship of Crop Protection Chemistry in the 21st Century", held in conjunction with the IUPAC 13th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry in San Francisco, CA, USA, during August 2014. The presentations highlighted the fact that leaders in crop protection must have a good basic scientific training and understand new and evolving technologies, are aware of the needs of both developed and developing countries, and have good communication skills. Concern is expressed over the apparent lack of resources to meet these needs, and ideas are put forward to remedy these deficiencies.
L'analyse des systèmes alimentaires locaux des grandes métropoles. Proposition méthodologique à partir des cas de Milan et de Paris
Corsi, Stefano ; Mazzocchi, Chiara ; Sali, Guido ; Monaco, Federica ; Wascher, Dirk - \ 2015
Cahiers Agricultures 24 (2015)1. - ISSN 1166-7699 - p. 28 - 36.
Demand - Farming system - Filière alimentaire - Rural urban relations - Supply
Feeding the city is an issue of increasing importance because of the inadequate production capabilities of urban and peri-urban agri-food systems. In fact, urban areas are becoming more densely populated, and their impact in environmental, economic and social terms is becoming increasingly important, particularly in metropolitan contexts. For this reason, even in terms of food security, the analysis of alternative food systems that support or, in some cases, replace traditional systems is interesting. The spatial definition of a metropolitan food system and the quantification of its food supply and demand, are important for the territorial and the agricultural development of the metropolitan area. This paper proposes a tool to assess Metropolitan Agri-food Systems (MAS) and to analyse food demand and supply in the defined zone. In particular the methodology has been applied to two metropoles: Milan and Paris.
FOODMETRES – Metropolitan food planning connecting the local with the global
Wascher, D.M. ; Piorr, A. ; Pintar, M. ; Kneafsey, M. ; Sali, G. ; Corsi, S.L. ; Mbatia, T. ; Jeurissen, L.J.J. ; Arciniegas, G. ; Glavan, M. ; Doernberg, A. ; Zasada, I. ; Groot, J. ; Schmutz, U. ; Bos, E. ; Venn, L. ; Monaco, F. ; Simiyu, R. ; Owour, S. ; Asselt, E.D. van; Fels, H.J. van der; Eupen, M. van - \ 2015
Urban Agriculture Magazine (2015)29. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 41 - 44.
|FoodMetres Conceptual Framework and Innovation Targets
Wascher, D. ; Kruit, J. ; Corsi, S. ; Groot, J. ; Bartels, P.V. ; Asselt, E.D. van; Priorr, A. ; Zasada, I. ; Dörneberg, A. ; Kneafsey, M. ; Venn, L. ; Pintar, M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Food MetRes, Alterra Wageningen UR (D1.1 ) - 53 p.
LAI and chlorophyll estimation for a heterogeneous grassland using hyperspectral measurements
Darvishzadeh, R. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Schlerf, M. ; Atzberger, C. ; Corsi, F. ; Cho, M.A. - \ 2008
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 63 (2008)4. - ISSN 0924-2716 - p. 409 - 426.
leaf-area index - radiative-transfer models - multiple linear-regression - resolution satellite data - band vegetation indexes - remote-sensing data - red edge position - nitrogen status - reflectance data - canopy reflectance
The study shows that leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) can be mapped in a heterogeneous Mediterranean grassland from canopy spectral reflectance measurements. Canopy spectral measurements were made in the field using a GER 3700 spectroradiometer, along with concomitant in situ measurements of LAI and LCC. We tested the utility of univariate techniques involving narrow band vegetation indices and the red edge inflection point, as well as multivariate calibration techniques, including stepwise multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression. Among the various investigated models, CCC was estimated with the highest accuracy (Rcv2 = 0.74, nRMSEcv = 0.35). All methods failed to estimate LCC (Rcv2 ¿ 0.40), while LAI was estimated with intermediate accuracy (Rcv2 values ranged from 0.49 to 0.69). Compared with narrow band indices and red edge inflection point, stepwise multiple linear regression generally improved the estimation of LAI. The estimations were further improved when partial least squares regression was used. When a subset of wavelengths was analyzed, it was found that partial least squares regression had reduced the error in the retrieved parameters. The results of the study highlight the significance of multivariate techniques, such as partial least squares regression, rather than univariate methods such as vegetation indices in estimating heterogeneous grass canopy characteristics
|Mapping shrub and tree species richness from hyperspectral imagery using a matched filtering unmixing technique
Sobhan, I. ; Cho, M.A. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Corsi, F. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2007
In: Species discrimination from hyperspectral perspective / Sobhan, I., Enschede : International Institute for Geo-information Science & Earth Observation (ITC) (ITC Dissertation 150) - ISBN 9789085048091 - p. 103 - 123.
Estimation of green grass/herb biomass from airborne hyperspectral imagery using spectral indices and partial least squares regression
Cho, M.A. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Corsi, F. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Sobhan, I. - \ 2007
International Journal of applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 9 (2007)4. - ISSN 0303-2434 - p. 414 - 424.
vegetation indexes - area index - red edge - biophysical relationships - imaging spectrometry - aboveground biomass - canopy reflectance - nitrogen status - leaves - contamination
The main objective was to determine whether partial least squares (PLS) regression improves grass/herb biomass estimation when compared with hyperspectral indices, that is normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red-edge position (REP). To achieve this objective, fresh green grass/herb biomass and airborne images (HyMap) were collected in the Majella National Park, Italy in the summer of 2005. The predictive performances of hyperspectral indices and PLS regression models were then determined and compared using calibration (n = 30) and test (n = 12) data sets. The regression model derived from NDVI computed from bands at 740 and 771 nm produced a lower standard error of prediction (SEP = 264 g m¿2) on the test data compared with the standard NDVI involving bands at 665 and 801 nm (SEP = 331 g m¿2), but comparable results with REPs determined by various methods (SEP = 261 to 295 g m¿2). PLS regression models based on original, derivative and continuum-removed spectra produced lower prediction errors (SEP = 149 to 256 g m¿2) compared with NDVI and REP models. The lowest prediction error (SEP = 149 g m¿2, 19% of mean) was obtained with PLS regression involving continuum-removed bands. In conclusion, PLS regression based on airborne hyperspectral imagery provides a better alternative to univariate regression involving hyperspectral indices for grass/herb biomass estimation in the Majella National Park.
Vulnerability of African mammals to anthropogenic climate change under conservative land transformation assumptions
Thuiller, W. ; Broennimann, O. ; Hughes, G. ; Alkemade, J.R.M. ; Midgley, G.F. ; Corsi, F. - \ 2006
Global Change Biology 12 (2006)3. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 424 - 440.
global environmental-change - bioclimate envelope models - european higher-plants - species distributions - community dynamics - migration rates - habitat models - south-africa - diversity - responses
Recent observations show that human-induced climate change (CC) and land transformation (LT) are threatening wildlife globally. Thus, there is a need to assess the sensitivity of wildlife on large spatial scales and evaluate whether national parks (NPs), a key conservation tools used to protect species, will meet their mandate under future CC and LT conditions. Here, we assess the sensitivity of 277 mammals at African scale to CC at 10¿ resolution, using static LT assumptions in a 'first-cut' estimate, in the absence of credible future LT trends. We examine the relationship between species' current distribution and macroclimatic variables using generalized additive models, and include LT indirectly as a filter. Future projections are derived using two CC scenarios (for 2050 and 2080) to estimate the spatial patterns of loss and gain in species richness that might ultimately result. We then apply the IUCN Red List criteria A3(c) of potential range loss to evaluate species sensitivity. We finally estimate the sensitivity of 141 NPs in terms of both species richness and turnover. Assuming no spread of species, 10-15% of the species are projected to fall within the critically endangered or extinct categories by 2050 and between 25% and 40% by 2080. Assuming unlimited species spread, less extreme results show proportions dropping to approximately 10-20% by 2080. Spatial patterns of richness loss and gain show contrasting latitudinal patterns with a westward range shift of species around the species-rich equatorial zone in central Africa, and an eastward shift in southern Africa, mainly because of latitudinal aridity gradients across these ecological transition zones. Xeric shrubland NPs may face significant richness losses not compensated by species influxes. Other NPs might expect substantial losses and influxes of species. On balance, the NPs might ultimately realize a substantial shift in the mammalian species composition of a magnitude unprecedented in recent geological time. To conclude, the effects of global CC and LT on wildlife communities may be most noticeable not as a loss of species from their current ranges, but instead as a fundamental change in community composition
Possible effects of climate change on the distribution of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study
Sinibaldi, I. ; Brouwer, J. ; Corsi, F. - \ 2004
Wageningen / Enschede : Wageningen UR - 51 p.
Dependence of large mammals in sub-Saharan Africa on water and water management : a literature review : report to the WWF
Sinibaldi, I. ; Schmidt, K.S. ; Scholte, P. ; Duren, I.C. van; Corsi, F. ; Brouwer, J. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2004
Wageningen / Enschede : Wageningen UR - 73 p.
Applications of existing biodiversity information: capacity to support decision making
Corsi, F. - \ 2004
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): J. de Leeuw. - [S.I.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085040906 - 180
biodiversiteit - natuurbescherming - informatiesystemen - geografische informatiesystemen - geografische verdeling - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - ecologische hoofdstructuur - biodiversity - nature conservation - information systems - geographical information systems - geographical distribution - decision support systems - ecological network
Estimating temporal independence of radio-telemetry data on animal activity
Salvatori, V. ; Skidmore, A.K. ; Corsi, F. ; Meer, F. van der - \ 1999
Journal of Theoretical Biology 198 (1999)4. - ISSN 0022-5193 - p. 567 - 574.
activity patterns - behavior - rhythms
Radio-telemetry is an excellent tool for gathering data on the biology of animals and their interactions with the environment they inhabit. Many methods have been developed for analyses of spatial information, on home range size and utilization density. Activity patterns are often described using radio-tracking data, but no generally accepted method is currently available specifically for determining the temporal independence of this type of data for statistical inference. Activity rhythms have generally been analysed by ecologists with the assumption that data are temporally independent, or by subjectively fixing an independence interval, based on attributes of their ranging behaviour. Although some good approximations of activity patterns can be obtained in these ways, we underline the need for a functionally correct method of estimating independence interval. Here we use semi-variograms to estimate the minimum interval required for the readings to be sequentially independent. This geostatistical tool is applied to the analysis of data on activity of Chilean foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus) and Chacoan peccaries (Catagonus wagneri). Data were collected in the field by radio-tracking over 24-hr periods, with readings on activity state taken every 15 min. The spatial dimension in which the theory of geostatistics lies has been transferred into the time dimension, so that the correlation interval is expressed in time units (min). Time of independence as estimated by the variogram was 110 min for foxes, while data on peccaries indicated that they have long periods of activity, more suitable for time-series analysis